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Head-and-shoulders portrait of Uncle Sam, Census 1940.

Census Reference Publications

Censuses of Population: 1790 - 1920

Early Census History

      Census Data       Census History      

Census Data

Historical Census Browser 1790-1960
http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu/ External Link

This browse-only web site allows you to examine state and county level topics for individual census years from 1790 to 1960. You can look at multiple topics, create specific tables and generate maps.
BERA - Business & Economics Research Advisor - A Quarterly Guide to Business & Economics Topics

Spring 2013

Census Connections

A Guide To Locating Selected U.S. Decennial And Economic Census Publications In The Library Of Congress

Table of Contents

Overview
Introduction
Census Reference Publications
      Censuses of Population
            Census Data
            History
            Catalogs/Guides/Indexes
            Specific Censuses
            State Censuses
      Economic Censuses
Census Search Strategies
Current Business Reports
Special Censuses
LC Catalog Searches


Image (left):
Promotional Poster "It's your America! Help the ten-year roll call,"
Head-and-shoulders portrait of Uncle Sam, Census 1940.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census
Library of Congress
Prints and Photographs Division

Census of Population and Housing Publications
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

This page contains links to all of the historical census reports from 1790 to 2010, including Census of Housing reports). Note: Not all titles are available within these online individual census reports series. Those titles indicated as not available can be searched using the Library of Congress Online Catalog to determine LC holdings: Direct links to the catalog records pertaining each decennial Census are included below.

Specific Years

1790             1800            1810            1820             1830            1840            1850            
1860             1870            1880             1900            1910            1920

 

1790 Census (United States. Census Office. 1st Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1790" to download full text zipped files by state.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1790

1800 Census (United States. Census Office. 2d Census)
LC print holdings are sparse for this Census, and consist of the following:

United States. Census Office. 2d Census, 1800. Return of the whole number of persons within the several districts of the United States: according to "An act providing for the enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States," passed February the 28th, one thousand eight hundred. Washington City, Printed at the Apollo Press, by W. Duane & Son, 1802.
Available Online [PDF format: 53.7 MB/ 72 pp.]
LC Call Number: HA201 1800 B
LC Catalog Record: 08020289

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1800


1810 Census (United States. Census Office. 3rd Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1810" to download download volume 2 [Zip 32.3 MB] of this publication, A statement of the arts and manufactures of the United States of America, for the year 1810 Also available is A series of tables [ZIP 24 MB] of Several Branches of American Manufacturers of Every County in the Union so far as they are returned in the reports of the Marshals, and of the secretaries and of their respective assistants, in the autumn of the year 1810: Together with returns of certain doubtful Goods, Productions of the Soil and agricultural stock, so far as they have been received. Volume 1, Aggregate amount of each description of persons within the United States of America, and the Territories thereof... , is not available online as of March 2013.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census Office--1810

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1820 Census (United States. Census Office. 4th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1820" to download this census [ZIP 35.5], which includes a " Digest of accounts of manufacturing establishments in the United States, and of their manufactures."

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census Office-1820



1830 Census (United States. Census Office. 5th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1830" for additional information about this census, which was a count of individuals only and did not include information about manufacturing establishments. Only the abstract [PDF format: 4.9 MB] of this census is available online, as of March 2013. See the entry immediately following for information on the print copy held by the Library of Congress.

United States. Census office. 5th census, 1830.
Fifth census; or, Enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States. 1830. To which is prefixed, a schedule of the whole number of persons within the several districts of the United States, taken according to the acts of 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820. Pub. by authority of an act of Congress.
Washington, Printed by D. Green, 1832. 2 v.
Catalog Record: 04020566
Call Number: HA201 1830 .C45 1832 FT MEADE (Stored offsite.) Must be requested a day in advance. Please contact a reference librarian for additional information.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census Office--1830

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1840 Census (United States. Census Office. 6th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1840" for additional information about this census. As of August 2013, only volume 3 [ZIP file format: 223.5 MB] Compendium of the Enumeration of the inhabitants and statistics of the United States as obtained at the Department of State...) and volume 4 [Zip file format: 28.7 MB] (A census of pensioners for revolutionary or military services; with their names, ages, and places of residence) are online.

Volume 1 (... enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States, as corrected at the Department of state, in 1840) and volume 2 Statistics of the United States of America, as collected and returned by the marshals of the several judicial districts... are not available online. See the entry immediately following for information on print copies held by the Library of Congress.

United States. Census office. 6th census, 1840.
Sixth census or enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States, as corrected at the Department of state, in 1840. Published, by authority of an Act of Congress, under the direction of the secretary of state.
Washington : Blair and Rives, 1841. 476p.
Catalog Record: 04011779
Call Number: HA201 1840 .B1 FT MEADE (Stored offsite.) Must be requested a day in advance. Please contact a reference librarian for additional information.

United States. Census office. 6th census, 1840.
Statistics of the United States of America : as collected and returned by the marshals of the several judicial districts, under the ... act for taking the sixth census ; corrected at the Department of State. June 1, 1840. / published by authority of an act of Congress, under the direction of the Secretary of State.
Washington : Printed by Blair and Rives, 1841.
Catalog Record: 06046445
Call Number: HA201 1840 .B2 FT MEADE (Stored offsite.) Must be requested a day in advance. Please contact a reference librarian for additional information.

United States. Census office. 6th census, 1840.
Statistics of the United States of America, as collected and returned by the marshals of the several judicial districts, under the thirteenth section of the Act for taking the sixth census; corrected at the Department of State, June 1, 1840. Washington, Printed by Blair and Rives, 1841.
Reprinted: [Elmsford, N.Y., Maxwell Reprint Co., 1971]
Catalog Record: 73164439
Call Number: HC105 .A66 vol. 4 FT MEADE (Stored offsite.) Must be requested a day in advance. Please contact a reference librarian for additional information.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1840

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1850 Census (United States. Census Office. 7th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1850" for additional information about this census and links to the online census files.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1850



1860 Census (United States. Census Office. 8th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1860" for additional information about this census and links to the online census files.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1860



1870 Census (United States. Census Office. 9th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1870" for additional information about this census and links to the online census files. Note that Volume 3 [ZIP Format: 83.6 MB] includes The statistics of the wealth and industry of the United States, embracing the tables of wealth, taxation and public indebtedness...

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1870

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1880 Census (United States. Census Office. 10th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1880" for additional information about this census and links to the online census files. Note that this census includes data on the condition and operation of railroad corporations, incorporated express companies, and telegraph companies, and life, fire, and marine insurance companies, as well as data on number of employees, the number of hours in the ordinary work day, the average daily wages paid to skilled mechanics and laborers, months of full-and part-time operation, and machinery used for numerous industries, including iron and steel manufacture; cotton, woolen, and worsted goods; silk and silk goods; chemical products and salt; coke and glass; shipbuilding; fisheries and mining, and the production of coal and petroleum.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1880



1890 Census (United States. Census Office. 11th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1890" for additional information about this census and links to the online census files. Reports on manufacturing (States and Industries [ZIP File Format: 127.5 MB] and Selected Industries [ZIP File Format: 52.5 MB]) are included in volume 6, agriculture [ZIP Format: 165.2 MB] in volume 5, and mineral industries in volume 7 [ZIP File Format: 105.7 MB].

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1890



1900 Census (United States. Census Office. 12th Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1900" for additional information about this census and links to the online census files. Data on agriculture is found in Volumes 5 and 6, manufacturing in volumes 7-10. As of August 2013, there are a number of bulletins and special reports accompanying this census which are not available online from the Census Bureau. These include:

Bulletin 1 - Geographical distribution of population, 1903
Bulletin 26 - Illiteracy in the United States 1905.
Bulletin 68 - Child labor in the District of Columbia - 1906.
Bulletin 69 - Child labor in the United States - . 1907.
[Special] Census Bulletin nods. 1-3. March 1901-November 1901.
   Manufactures, City of York Pennsylvania
   Manufactures, District of Columbia
   Distribution of Chinese and Japanese population ...: 1880 to 1990
Special Reports   Mineral industries of Puerto Rico 1904. 18p. (Bulletin 6.)
See below for information on print copies available at the Library of Congress.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census. 1900.

Geographical distribution of population.
Washington, Govt. print. off., 1903. Bulletin 1
LC Catalog Record: 09005904
LC Call Number: HA201 1900 .A12 no. 1
Also available online from the Ebook and Texts ArchiveExternal Link

Illiteracy in the United States
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1905. 54p. [Bulletin 26]
LC Catalog Record: 09005925
LC Call Number: HA201 1900 .A12 no. 26

Child labor in the District of Columbia
Washington, Govt. print. off., 1906. 21p. [Bulletin 68]
LC Catalog Record: 09005966
LC Call Number: HA201 1900 .A12 no. 68

Child labor in the United States,...
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1907. 200p. [Bulletin 69]
LC Catalog Record: 09005967
LC Call Number: HA201 1900 .A12 no. 69

Mineral industries of Puerto Rico.
Washington, Govt. print. off., 1904, 18p.
LC Catalog Record: 09005908
LC Call Number: TN32.P7 U5 or HA201 1900 .A12 no. 6

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1900

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1910 Census (United States. Bureau of the Census. Thirteenth Census)
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1910" for additional information about this census and links to the online census files.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1910



1920 Census (United States. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census )
http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html

Select "Census of Population and Housing, 1920" for additional information about this census and links to the online census files. As of August 2013, the following documents from this census are not available online from the Census Bureau. For information on other sources please see below.

Volume 6, Part 2, Agriculture: The Southern states.
Volume 6, Part 3, Agriculture: The Western states and outlying possessions
Statistical Atlas of the United States
Census of manufactures: 1919 Key to Classifications
Classified index to occupations.
Centers of population, agriculture, and manufactures.
Farm census of United States, 1910 and 1920
Farm population of selected counties. Composition, characteristics, and occupations in detail for eight counties,...
Fourteenth census publications. Plan of Arrangements.
The woman home-maker in the city: A study of statistics relating to married women in the City of Rochester, N.Y. at the Census of 1920.
Ratio of children to women, 1920.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census. 1920.
Fourteenth census of the United States taken in the year 1920 ... [Reports]
Washington, Govt. print. off., 1921-23. 13 volumes
LC Catalog Record: 22026160
LC Call Number: HA201 1920 .A15 FT MEADE (Stored offsite. Must be requested a day in advance. Please consult a reference librarian for additional information.)

Includes Volume 6, part 2, The Southern states. 746 pp. and part 3, The Western states and outlying possessions. 423 pp. Part 3 is also available online via the HathiTrust External Link

Statistical Atlas of the United States
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1925. 476p.
LC Call Number: G1201.G1 U53 1925 (Request in the Geography and Map Reading Room)
LC Catalog Record: 26026123
Also available online via the HathiTrust.External Link

Census of manufactures: 1919 Key to Classifications
Washington, Govt. print. off., 1920. 104p.
LC Catalog Record: 20026662
LC Call Number: HA37.U6 M22 1919 Key

Classified index to occupations.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1921.173p.
LC Catalog Record: 21026051
LC Call Number: HA201 1921 .Z4

Centers of population, agriculture, and manufactures.
Washington, Govt. print. off., 1923. 1p.
LC Catalog Record: 23026655
LC Call NUmber: HA269 .A5 1920b. Also available on microfilm (Microfilm 44777 HA).

Farm population of selected counties. Composition, characteristics, and occupations in detail for eight counties, comprising Otsego County, N. Y., Dane County, Wis., New Madrid and Scott counties, Mo., Cass County, N. Dak., Wake County, N. C., Ellis County, Tex., and King County, Wash., by C. J. Galpin and Veda B. Larson.
Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1924. 238p.
LC Catalog Record: 24026811
LC Call Number: HB2385 .A5
Also available online via the HathiTrust.External Link

Fourteenth census publications. Plan of Arrangements
[Washington, Govt. print. off., 1920] 2p.
LC Catalog Record: 20026911
LC Call Number: HA209 .A5 1920

The woman home-maker in the city: a study of statistics relating to married women in the city of Rochester, N.Y., at the census of 1920
LC Catalog Record: 23026671
LC Call Number: HD6096.R6 A4 1920

Ratio of children to women, 1920. A study in the differential rate of natural increase in the United States,
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1931.
LC Catalog Record: 31026930
LC Call Number: HA201 1920 .A2 no. XI
Also available onlineExternal Link via the HathiTrust. A second copy stored offsite under HB915 .T5 LANDOVR. Must be requested a day in advance. For additional information, please consult a reference librarian.

Selected Print Resources in the collections of the Library of Congress related to the
United States--Census--1920

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Census History

Decennial Census History
http://www.census.gov/history/www/programs/demographic/

See the Overview Section for links to additional information about each decennial census, including reports and statistics from each census.

History and Growth of the United States Census: 1790-1890 by Carroll D. Wright and William C. Hunt. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Census. 56 Cong. 1st sess. 1900. S. Doc. 194. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1900. 967 p.
LC Call Number: HA37 .U5 1900
LC Catalog Record: 01019767
Online: http://www.census.gov/history/pdf/wright-hunt.pdf [PDF Format: 117 MB/ 969pp.]

Measuring America : the decennial censuses from 1790 to 2000. Washington, DC : U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau. : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., [2002]
Online: http://www.census.gov/history/pdf/measuringamerica.pdf [PDF Format: 16.45 MB/ 149pp.]
LC Call Number: HA37.U55M376 2002
LC Catalog Record: 2002485403

Provides for each decennial census: the questionnaires and instructions, individual histories of the U.S. decennial censuses, census cost, sampling, publicity, availability of population schedules, and more.

Twenty censuses: population and housing questions 1790-1980
LC Call Number: HA37.U55U54 1979a
LC Catalog Record: 79600181

200 Years of U.S. Census Taking: Population and Housing Questions, 1790-1990
LC Call Number: HA37.U55B63 1989
LC Catalog Record: 90600122

The above two publications give the actual questions appearing on the census questionnaires for each of the decennial censuses and provide additional background information.

Catalogs, Guides, Indexes

Dubester, Henry J. Catalog of U.S. Census Publications, 1790-1945.
Online: http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/catalogues/CensusCatalog1790-1972.pdf [PDF Format: 176 MB/ 929 pp. ]
LC Call Number: Z7554.U5U62 1968
LC Catalog Record: 68055126

Developed by the Census Library Project under the sponsorship of the Bureau of the Census and the Library of Congress, this publication represents the second compilation of Bureau of the Census reports. It contains LC call numbers for all LC-owned census reports from 1790-1945. Dubester is also online [PDF Format: 176 MB/ 929 pp.] or go to U.S. Census Bureau Catalog and Guide web page at http://www.census.gov/prod/www/catalogs.html; click on link "Catalog of United States Census Publications, 1790-1972."

Circular of information concerning census publications, 1790-1916
LC Call Number: Z1223.C4 1916
LC Catalog Record: 17026188

This circular presents the descriptive and chronological lists of census publications produced for the 1790 to the 1910 Censuses, listing the publications primarily according to subject, with the times under each subject heading being presented in the order of the dates to which they were issued. It also includes a brief summary of the contents of each publication and on page 111 lists the intercensal publications published between 1910 and 1916. The Appendix contains the Heads of Census Office, 1840-1916 as well as the officials of the Bureau of the Census. It also has a subject index. There are also earlier editions:
1912 - LC Call Number: Z7554.U5U5 1912; LC Catalog Record: 12029017
1914 - LC Call Number: Z7554.U5U5 1914; LC Catalog Record: 14030834

Cook, Kevin L. Dubester's U.S. Census Bibliography with SuDocs Class Numbers and Indexes.
LC Call Number: Z7553.C3C66 1996
LC Catalog Record: 95043247

Designed to 'complement' Dubester's Catalog of U.S. Census Publications, 1790-1945 by providing SuDoc classification numbers as well as title and series indexes.

Schulze, Suzanne Population information in the Nineteenth Century: 1790-1890.
LC Call Number: Z7164.D3544 1983
LC Catalog Record: 83017380

Schulze, Suzanne Population information in the Twentieth Century: 1900-1940.
LC Call Number: Z7164.D3545 1985
LC Catalog Record: 85011412

This publication, along with the companion volume by Schulze cited above, provide subject access to the decennial censuses covering from 1790 to 1940. They include LC Call Numbers and LC Catalog Record Numbers and provide subject access to tables in the census reports.

Topical index of population census reports, 1900-1930
LC Call Number: HA201 1930.Z2
LC Catalog Record: 34026321

Covers the volumes of the regular Census Reports on Population for 1900 - 1930 together with the 1920 and 1930 Abstracts, the 1930 Report on Unemployment, and the 1900 Special Report on Occupations. The tables cover each subject area, giving geographic breakdown from national to metropolitan areas, listing the report volume and page number where data can be found.

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Census Tracts : Earliest Times to 1920

U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. Census Tract Manual.
LC Call Number: HA37.U52 1966
LC Catalog Record: a66007119

Gives a history of census tracts including their conception by Dr. Walter Laidlaw, a clergyman, and their gain in popularity due to Mr. Howard Whipple Green, a statistician.

Turner, Marshall L. Jr. and Frederick G. Bohme. "The National Census: The Parts Are Greater Than The Whole. " Paper prepared for presentation at the Social Science History Association Annual Meeting, November 5-8, 1992, at Palmer House in Chicago, Illinois.In Of Significance. Volume 3, Number 2, 2001. pp. 14-15
Online: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.196.1984&rep=rep1&type=pdf External Link
PDF File Format 517 KB/ 42 pages. (See pages 17-29 of the PDF file.)

Printed Reports in the Library of Congress

Dubester, Henry J. Catalog of U.S. Census Publications, 1790-1945.
Online: http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/catalogues/CensusCatalog1790-1972.pdf [PDF Format: 176 MB/ 929 pp.]
LC Call Number: Z7554.U5U62 1968
LC Catalog Record: 68055126

Developed by the Census Library Project under the sponsorship of the Bureau of the Census and the Library of Congress, this publication represents the second compilation of Bureau of the Census reports. It contains LC call numbers for all LC-owned census reports from 1790-1945. Dubester is also online [PDF Format: 176 MB/ 929 pp.]

Maps for 1790-1920

Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920. prepared by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide
LC Call Number: G1201.F7T5
(Request in the Local and History Genealogy Reading Room or the Geography and Map Reading Room)

LC Catalog Record: 87080143

Last Updated: 11/05/2015

To view PDFs Acrobat Reader

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