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   Issue 5/6, Winter 2005/Spring 2006

World Natural Gas Industry Trends

Overview     North America     Western Europe     Middle East     Asia-Pacific     Africa    
Central and South America     Print Resources     Internet Resources     LC Catalog Searches

Overview

Natural gas is the fastest growing energy source according to industry experts, and the consumption of natural gas is projected to rise by almost 70 percent by 2025 from 92 trillion cubic feet to 156 trillion cubic feet.1 The electric power sector makes up almost half of the total growth in world natural gas demand over this time period. The greatest increase in demand for natural gas is expected to occur among the emerging economies.

Industrial consumption of natural gas is also projected to rise over the next 10 to 15 years from 8 trillion cubic feet in 2003 to 10.3 trillion cubic feet in 2025 according to OECD reports.2 While natural gas consumption is expected to increase for most industrial sectors, industry reports suggest that decreases are expected to occur in the iron, steel and aluminum industries. The largest increases in natural gas consumption from 2003 to 2025 are anticipated in petroleum refining, metal durables, bulk chemicals and food industries. Residential consumption is also projected to grow over this time period by nearly 1 percent.

Russia is the world's largest producer of natural gas. In addition, the largest increases in world natural gas consumption are also projected to occur in Russia, Eastern Europe, and the emerging economies of Asia. By 2025 natural gas consumption is projected to grow by 63 percent. Emerging economies in Asia are expected to almost triple its current consumption rate in 2025.3

The emerging economies are also expected to experience the fastest growth in natural gas production. In comparison, the industrialized or 'mature economies' production in natural gas is projected to decline in 2025, making up only 29 percent while accounting for nearly 45 percent of world consumption.

BERA - Business & Economics Research Advisor - A Quarterly Guide to Business & Economics Topics

Issue 5/6: Winter 2005/Spring 2006
Updated July 2013

The Oil & Gas Industry

Table of Contents

Introduction
History
Cartels & Organizations
Production
Refining
Transportation & Storage
Marketing & Distribution
Natural Gas Industry Trends
Alternative Energy Sources
Company Research
Statistical Sources
News & Analysis
Electronic Resources & Catalog Searches

Drilling Rig Near Sable Island
Image (above): Photograph of
drilling rig near Sable Island.
Courtesy of the Maritimes Region of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.

The emerging economies natural gas production is predicted to increase by 4.1 percent by 2025.4 As industrialized economies natural gas consumption grows and production rates slow down, while emerging economies production increases, the industrialized economies will increasingly be dependent upon imports of natural gas from the emerging economies.

Natural Gas Production in North America

Natural gas production in North American OECD countries reached approximately 27 trillion cubic feet in 2004.5 The U.S. is the largest natural gas producer in North American, producing 19 trillion cubic feet in 2004. Canada is the region's second largest producer and it produced 6.5 trillion cubic feet in 2004. Canada is also the only country in North America that produces more natural gas than it consumes. Reports indicate that Canada's domestic production in natural gas is expected to continue to outpace its consumption even into 2025.6

Similar to its petroleum consumption the U.S. is also the world's largest consumer of natural gas. U.S. domestic production of natural gas makes up a significant portion of world production in natural gas. The U.S. continues to meet its growing demand for natural gas through importing, primarily by pipeline in continental trade.7

U.S. natural gas production has also been affected by severe hurricanes, specifically Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The damage to production sites has decrease both domestic and world production, leading to higher prices in natural gas, with a projected 40-50 % increase in gas prices over the next several months. To compensate for the lost in the world oil and gas production supply, OPEC and Mexico are expected to increase its production in order to avoid major world energy supply problems and shortages. As a result of the recent hurricanes, U.S. gas production is expected to fall and this reduction has created uncertainty for the U.S. gas market with the fear of higher winter gas prices, along with the anticipation of a slow recovery.

Mexico's consumption of natural gas is far greater than its production. Similar to the U.S., this trend is projected to continue and grow in the next two decades. Mexico's rate of consumption is growing 3 percent annually, while production grows at 1.7 percent annually.8 EIA reports suggest that Mexican imports of natural are expected to rise from 13 in 2002 to 37 percent by 2025. Mexico's energy demand is causing the expansion in the development of additional production facilities, as well as increasing its reliance upon imported natural gas.

Natural Gas Production in Western Europe

In looking at natural gas production in Western Europe, Norway is the region's largest producer followed by the Netherlands. In 2002, Norway produced 3.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and the Netherlands produced 2.6 trillion cubic feet. Total production in natural gas for the region was 12.3 trillion cubic feet in 2002.9

Natural gas is the fastest growing fuel source in Western Europe and demand is expected to grow at an annual average rate of nearly 2 percent, from 15 trillion cubic feet in 2002 to 22.4 trillion cubic feet by 2025. More than 60 percent of gas consumption in Western Europe between 2002 and 2025 is projected be used for electric power. However, while natural gas demand grows in Western Europe its production in natural gas continues to decline in most areas in the region, with Norway being the only exception.

The growth in natural gas consumption continues to outpace its rate of production in Western Europe. In 2002 Western Europe imported approximately 5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. By 2015 industry specialists suggest that imported natural gas will grow by more than 40 percent and rise to over 50 percent by 2025.10 In order to address this trend, Western Europe has begun efforts to raise production by increasing the number of production facilities to meet its future demand for natural gas.

Production in the Middle East

Middle East countries produced 12.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in 2002. Iran and the United Arab Emirates are the region's largest producers. Iran produced 4.2 trillion cubic feet in 2002 and The United Arab Emirates, the second largest produced 2.2 trillion cubic feet in 2002. The consumption of natural gas is expected to double in the next two decades rising to more than 15 trillion cubic feet. Oil continues to be the region's primary energy source. However, natural gas is projected to grow from 39 percent of the total share of energy consumption in 2002 to 45 percent in 2025.11 The increase in consumption of natural gas is expected to result in the decline of oil in the share of total energy demand from 53 percent to 48 percent. The use of natural gas in the region's industrial sector is projected to increase by 4 percent per year accounting for an estimated 66 percent of the overall growth in total consumption from 2002 to 2025.

The oil-exporting countries in the region have made efforts to expand domestic production of natural gas. These countries are developing projects to increase their export capacity for natural gas resources. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been emphasized as the major resource for developing the region's natural gas production to address the growing world demand for natural gas.

Production in the Asian-Pacific Region

Natural gas production in the Asia-Pacific region totaled 11.6 trillion cubic feet in 2002. The largest natural gas producer in Asia-Pacific is Indonesia, which produced 3 trillion cubic feet in 2002. Malaysia is the second largest producer, producing almost 2 trillion cubic feet in 2002. Presently, Japan is the largest consumer of natural gas in the region. Japan's consumption is expected to increase by an average annual rate of 1.5 percent from 2.7 trillion cubic feet in 2002 to 3.8 trillion cubic feet in 2025.12 Japan's industrial sector is projected to grow at an average annual rate of 3.5 percent from 2002 to 2025. Electricity generation is the largest user of natural gas in Japan, but is predicted to decline overall from 71 percent in 2002 to 67 percent by 2025.

In looking at the emerging economies in Asia, China produced 1.2 trillion cubic feet in 2002. China's natural gas consumption only makes up 3 percent of total energy consumption. However, as China continues to rapidly expand its infrastructure and economic development, natural gas consumption is expected to grow at an annual rate of nearly 8 percent from 1.2 trillion cubic feet in 2002 to 6.5 trillion cubic feet in 2025. China's imports in natural gas are also expected to grow substantially over this time period. The electric power industry is the largest user of natural gas and is projected to account for two-thirds of total natural gas consumption between 2002 and 2025.

South Korea and India like China, are both relatively small consumers of natural gas in the region, however consumption in both economies is projected to rise within the next two decades. India's use of natural gas accounts for only 6.5 percent of total energy consumption, but is projected to increase approximately 5 percent per year reaching nearly 3 trillion cubic feet by 2025.13 South Korea's total natural gas consumption is projected to grow an average of 3.7 per year from 2002 to 2025. The residential sector accounts for 37 percent of South Korea's natural usage and the electric power sector a close second accounts for 34 percent. However, South Korea's industrial sector use of natural gas is projected to rise by 7 percent between 2002 and 2025.

Production in Africa

The total production in natural gas for Africa was approximately 9.5 trillion cubic feet in 2002. The largest producer of natural gas in Africa is Nigeria, which produced 1.3 trillion cubic feet in 2002. Egypt is the second largest producer in natural gas in Africa and produced 1.1 trillion cubic feet in 2002.14

Natural gas consumption in Africa is predicted to increase an average of 4 percent per year from 2002 to 2025. In comparison, oil consumption has only grown at 2.7 percent. Natural gas demand is only expected to grow incrementally and relatively even across industrial, residential and electric sectors over the next 20 years. Due to the limited infrastructure, gas production and consumption is not projected to grow significantly. However, foreign investment has been planned for development projects in Egypt, Nigeria, Libya, Algeria and areas of Western Africa.

Production in Central and South America

Central and South American countries produced approximately 6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas according to 2002 data. Uruguay is the region's largest producer of natural gas, which produced 2 trillion cubic feet in 2002. Natural gas is predicted to be the fastest growing energy source in Central and South America, with the rate of consumption rising from an annual average of 3.3 trillion cubic feet in 2002 to 7.5 trillion by 2025.15 Industry specialists indicate by 2010, natural gas is projected to surpass oil as the second most used fuel source for electricity generation in the region.

There is little investment in natural gas production in the region, however Venezuela has made efforts to attract foreign investment in developing natural gas. Venezuela has focused more attention to developing its natural gas sector rather than the oil sector. In addition, Brazil is also continuing its efforts with natural gas exploration in an attempt to establish a productive natural gas industry over time.

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Selected Print Resources

Annual Energy Outlook. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C.: Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., [distributor], 1983 - present. Annual.
LC Call Number: TJ163.25.U6 A55
LC Catalog Record: 83645822
http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/
Annual Energy Outlook Products - Archive. (1979 -)

An annual analysis of market trends in the natural gas industry, the report includes industry projections, as well as important information, key facts and data on the natural gas industry.

Cornot-Gandolph, and Dickel, Ralf. Flexibility in Natural Gas: Supply and Demand. Paris: International Energy Agency, OECD, c2002. 273 p.
LC Call Number: HD9581.E82 C67 2002
LC Catalog Record: 2003469216

This book analyses how new flexibility tools and mechanisms are developing with market liberalization and with the evolution of supply and demand trends. It highlights differences in flexibility requirements and provisions among IEA Member countries. "Flexibility in Natural Gas Supply and Demand" is the most recent publication in the IEA series on energy market reforms. Based on Publisher's description.

The Future of Natural Gas in the World Energy Market. Abu Dhabi; London: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, 2002. 151 p.
LC Call number: HD9581.A2 E54 1999
LC Catalog Record: 2004377180
Publisher Description
Table of Contents

This collection examines the global trend to replace traditional fossil fuels with clean burning natural gas. The contributors seeks to identify the factors shaping the potential and the prospects of natural gas in the context of the global energy market. Synopsis from Books In Print.

Inkpen, Andrew and Michael H. Moffett. The Global Oil & Gas Industry : Management, Strategy & Finance. Tulsa, Okla. : PennWell, c2011.
LC Call Number: HD62.4 .I515 2011
LC Catalog Record: 2011006878
Table of Contents

International Energy Outlook , Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Government Printing Office. 1986 to present.
Current edition
Archived versions since 1995. LC Call Number: HD9502.A1 I565
LC Catalog Record: 86650629

From press release: "International Energy Outlook 2011 (IEO2011) ... by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents updated projections for world energy markets through 2035. The IEO2011 Reference case projection does not incorporate prospective legislation or policies that might affect energy markets."

Kidnay, Arthur J. and William R. Parrish, Daniel G. McCartney. Fundamentals of natural gas processing. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, c2011.
LC Call Number: TP751 .K54 2011
LC Catalog Record: 2010045165

It describes the major operations involved in bringing the gas to the plant including system fundamentals to selection, operation, and integration into the overall gas plant.

Mtsiva, V.C. Oil and Natural Gas: Issues and Policies. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2003. 194 p.
LC Call Number: HD9565 .O582 2003
LC Catalog Record: 2003271756
Publisher's Link External Link
Publisher Description and Table of Contents External Link

Includes discussion of the U.S. petroleum supply and natural gas reserves along with consideration of policy options.

Natural Gas Information. International Energy Agency. Paris OECD. Annual. 1996 to the present.
LC Call Number: HD9581.A1 N373
LC Catalog Record: 98660005

A detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covering not only the OECD countries but also the rest of the world, this publication contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices. The main part of the book, however, concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed supply and demand balance for each country and for the three OECD regions: North America, Europe and Pacific, as well as a breakdown of gas consumption by end-user. Additional information on this, and other titles available from the International Energy Agency, appears online External Link on the agency web site.

Natural Gas Monthly. U.S. Dept. of Energy. Energy Information Administration. Office of Oil and Gas. Washington, DC. Monthly. 1982 to the present.
Latest issue
Archives since 1996
LC Call Number: TN880.A1 N314
LC Catalog Record: 84650685

EIA's monthly report to natural and supplemental gas production, supply, consumption, disposition, storage, imports, exports, and prices in the United States. This report is updated during the first week of each month.

Natural Gas Statistics Sourcebook. Tulsa, OK : PennWell Pub. Co., c1994 - Annual. 1994 to the present.
LC Call Number: HD9581.U5 N3458
LC Catalog Record: 94657050

A comprehensive reference book that contains monthly, quarterly and annual data for the key parameters that describe all segments of the natural gas industry in the U.S. and internationally. The publication has been developed to provide convenient access, in one source, the essential key statistics needed for analysis of the U.S. and international natural gas industry. Based on Publisher's description.

Security of Gas Supply in Open Markets: LNG and Power at a Turning Point. Paris: International Energy Agency, OECD, c2004. 494 p.
LC Call Number: HD9581.A2 S43 2004 (MRC Collection)
LC Catalog Record: 2004459642

This book analyses the most recent developments in security of gas supply and reliability in all IEA regions. Reform has led to open markets, where supply and demand are balanced by the market. In the gas sector, supply is capacity-bound and large parts of the demand side are inelastic. The study looks at how governments and other stakeholders in IEA countries respond to the need to create a framework that enables the players to deliver secure and reliable gas supply at the border and all the way down to the final customer. Based on Publisher's Description.

Tusiani, Michael D. and Gordon Shearer. LNG : A Nontechnical Guide. Tulsa, Okla. : PennWell, c2007.
LC Call Number: HD9581.2.L572 T87 2007
LC Catalog Record: 2007013934
Table of Contents

Written in non-technical form it provides real-world examples presenting LNG as a viable energy answer. Includes information on Explanations of the technology, including liquefaction, transportation and regasification as well as information on Shipping conventions and regulations.

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Selected Internet Resources

About Oil & Natural Gas. American Petroleum Institute (API).
http://www.api.org/oil-and-natural-gas-overview External Link

A very useful and informative web site produced by the American Petroleum Institute that provides general, as well as professional industry information and resources. The web page includes links to reports and multimedia resources.

Balancing Natural Gas Policy - Fueling Demand of a Growing Economy, September 2003. Washington, D.C.: National Petroleum Council, 2003. 5 volumes.
http://www.npc.org/reports/ng.html External Link

The report provides insights on energy-market dynamics, including price volatility and future fuel choice, and an outlook on the longer-term sustainability of natural gas supplies. Publisher's description. Note: Individual volumes available as PDF files:

CEDIGAZ
http://www.cedigaz.org/products_services/UGSdatabase.aspx External Link

CEDIGAZ is an international association dedicated to natural gas information, created in 1961 by a group of international gas companies and the Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP). Their subscription database includes current/historical data on: Production balances; Proved natural gas reserves; Natural gas imports and exports; Underground gas storage by country; and LNG regasification and liquefaction capacity by country. Subscription publications include those related to underground gas storage.

Center for Liquefied Natural Gas.
http://www.lngfacts.org/ External Link

The Center for Liquefied Natural Gas web site provides a number of useful resources including access to articles and reports on the natural gas industry, key issues and a variety of multimedia resources.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) - Natural Gas
http://www.ferc.gov/industries/gas.asp

FERC covers a range of energy sectors including natural gas. It is an independent agency that regulates the interstate transmission of electricity, natural gas, and oil. FERC also reviews proposals to build liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals and interstate natural gas pipelines as well as licensing hydropower projects. The natural gas information includes: Certificated Storage Projects Since 2000; other storage projects; and various Orders for transportation and storage. Page also includes gas tariff data, rate filings, environment and safety information.

Gas Facts at a Glance. Natural Gas Supply Association.
http://www.ngsa.org/issues/fact-sheets-charts/ External Link

The Natural Gas Supply Association's web page includes natural gas industry facts and information, links to industry reports, facts and studies, and an industry portal.

The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/EIA-0637 (2003). December 2003.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/global/pdf/eia_0637.pdf [PDF: 826 KD / 82 p.]

The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global LNG market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market. Publisher's description

Jensen, James T. The Development of a Global LNG Market: Is it Likely ? If So When? Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2004. 91 p.
http://www.oxfordenergy.org/2004/01/...is-it-likely-if-so-when/ External Link [PDF: 16.5 MB / 104 p.]

This study focuses on the two questions raised in the title: "The Development of a Global LNG (LNG) Market: Is it Likely? If So, When?" The publication provides an overview of the Liquefied Natural Gas industry, examines the LNG market, gas restructuring and its challenge to the traditional oil market, and discusses new market developments regarding LNG.

Liquefied natural gas : understanding the basic facts.
http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/LNG_primerupd.pdf [PDF format: 3.4 MB / 24 p.]

This report was prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC)

Monthly Natural Gas Survey. International Energy Agency. Paris: OECD. Monthly.
http://www.iea.org/stats/ External Link
Latest issue: http://www.iea.org/Textbase/stats/surveys/NATGAS.PDF External Link [PDF: 75.7 KB / 21 p.]

A monthly statistical survey of the global natural gas industry. This report provides international production and consumption data, and import and export statistics. The data is organized according to geographic region.

Natural Gas. American Petroleum Institute.
http://www.api.org/oil-and-natural-gas-overview/exploration-and-production/natural-gas.aspx External Link

Overview of the natural gas industry. Includes natural gas facts and links to industry studies and market reports, newsroom and multimedia resources.

Natural Gas Annual
http://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/annual/

Annual publication covering information and data on the natural gas sector. Archived version available since 1996.

Natural Gas Facts American Gas Association.
http://www.aga.org/Newsroom/factsheets/Pages/NaturalGasFacts.aspx External Link

A guide to natural gas industry facts and information.

Natural Gas Intelligence. Intelligence Press.com. Weekly. Note: Subscription product.
http://intelligencepress.com/features/top_ngi/last_month.emb External Link

A weekly guide to the gas industry. This online periodical, available by subscription only, includes news articles, a weekly gas price index, daily cash market prices, futures market prices, special features and reports, as well as maps and glossaries related to the gas industry. A free trial is available from the web site. The publisher also makes available without charge some selected information including the "Baker Hughes Rotary Rig Count: US Oil and Gas," and an index to the most popular news stories from the publication as well as from the company's other publications, its Daily Gas Price Index and its Power market Today. Note: The Library of Congress does not subscribe to the online publication; scattered issues from the most recent three years may be available in print from through the Newspaper and Current Periodical Room of the Library of Congress. Catalog record

Natural Gas Navigator. Energy Information Administration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Energy.
http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/ng/ng_pub_top.asp

A web portal to EIA natural gas industry publications and reports. The web page also provides links to industry summaries, prices, exploration and reserves, industry production, trade and pipelines, and storage and consumption portals.

Natural Gas Year in Review
http://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/review/

Annual publication covering developments and information on the natural gas sector. Archived version available since 2006.

Natural Gas Monthly. Energy Information Administration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/natural_gas_monthly/ngm.html

EIA's monthly report to natural and supplemental gas production, supply, consumption, disposition, storage, imports, exports, and prices in the United States. This report is updated during the first week of each month. In addition to the most recent issue, back files of some sections of the publication, dating from 2000 or 2003, are also available.

Natural Gas News. Topix.net.
http://www.topix.net/business/natural-gas External Link

An online journal providing articles and news covering the natural gas industry.

Natural Gas reports & data from the Energy Information Administration
Natural Gas: Imports/Exports & Pipelines Recurring Reports

Recurring and single reports and presentations on natural gas and natural imports/exports.

An Updated Assessment of Pipeline and Storage Infrastructure for the North American Gas Market - 2004 Update Prepared for the INGAA Foundation, Inc. Reston, VA: Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., 2004.
http://www.ingaa.org/Foundation/Studies/FoundationReports/45.aspx External Link
INGAA Foundation Reports.External Link

The objectives of this study are to examine infrastructure requirements with a focus on pipeline transmission capacity, storage capacity, and LNG terminal capacity. The study is conducted in the context of the changes in market fundamentals that have occurred since the INGAA Foundation published its studies of North American pipeline and storage infrastructure requirements in 1999 and in 2001. Publisher's description

U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports
http://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/importsexports/annual/

This special report looks at U.S. international trade of natural gas. Historical trends and the near-term outlook for imports and exports are examined. In addition, this article discusses the amount of additional LNG import capacity proposed for development during the next several years. U.S. foreign trade volumes and prices in this article are based on data from the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Tables at the end of the report present historical data on U.S. natural gas imports and exports, including volumes and prices by source country and points of entry in the U.S. Based on Publisher's description. Archived versions begin for 1993.

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Library of Congress Catalog Searches

Additional works on trends in the natural gas industry in the Library of Congress may be identified by searching the Online Catalog under appropriate Library of Congress subject headings. Choose the topics you wish to search from the following list to link directly to the Catalog and automatically execute a search for the subject selected. Please be aware that during periods of heavy use you may encounter delays in accessing the catalog. Please see the individual sections of this guide for catalog searches relating to those topics. For assistance in locating the many other subject headings which relate to this subject, please consult a reference librarian.


 1. "Natural Gas," in International Energy Outlook. U.S. Dept of Energy. Energy Information Administration. 2005. p. 37. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html [HTML file]
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/nat_gas.pdf [PDF: 103 KB/ 12 p.]

 2. Annual Energy Outlook. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Dept. of Energy. 2006, p.73.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo06/pdf/0383(2006).pdf [PDF: 3.0 MB/ 236 p.]

 3. "Natural Gas," in International Energy Outlook. U.S. Dept of Energy. Energy Information Administration. 2005. p. 37. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html [HTML file]
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/nat_gas.pdf [PDF: 103 KB/ 12 p.]

 4. Ibid.

 5. Monthly Natural Gas Survey. International Energy Agency. OECD. Table 1.1, p. 2.
http://www.iea.org/Textbase/stats/surveys/NATGAS.PDF External Link (Data was converted from cubic meters to cubic feet)

 6. "Natural Gas," in International Energy Outlook. U.S. Dept of Energy. Energy Information Administration. 2005. p. 41. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html [HTML file]
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/nat_gas.pdf [PDF: 103 KB/ 12 p.]

 7. Damien Gaul, U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports: Issues and Trends 2004. U.S. Dept of Energy. Energy Information Administration. Office of Oil and Gas. December 2005, p. 2.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/natural_gas/feature_articles/2005/ngimpexp/ngimpexp.pdf [PDF: 628 KB / 41 p.]

 8. "Natural Gas," in International Energy Outlook. U.S. Dept of Energy. Energy Information Administration. 2005. p. 41. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html [HTML file]
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/nat_gas.pdf [PDF: 103 KB/ 12 p.]

 9."World Natural Gas Production," in International Energy Annual. U.S. Dept. of Energy. Energy Information Administration. Table 41.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iea2003/table41.xls

 10. "Natural Gas," in International Energy Outlook. U.S. Dept of Energy. Energy Information Administration. 2005. p. 42. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html [HTML file]
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/nat_gas.pdf [PDF: 103 KB/ 12 p.]

 11. Ibid, p. 44.

 12. Ibid, p. 42.

 13. Ibid, p. 43.

 14. Ibid, p. 44.

 15. Ibid, p. 45.

Last Updated: 07/23/2013

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