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Defining the "generations" is not an exact science - the breakdowns are subjective and generalized. One can find disagreements over the time frames covered by the generations and the names given to the generations as well as complaints about the over-generalized "personality" of the generations. However, marketers and journalists do sometimes find these groupings useful in targeting their marketing to particular age groups. For an example of a fairly rough outline of generational breakdowns, see the website of LifeCourse Associates External Link founded by the authors of Millennials Rising.


Brown, Stephen. "Marketing to Generation(R)," Harvard Business Review, 16. no. 6 (June 2003):16.

Frey, William H. "Generational Pull," American Demographics, 24. no. 4 (May 2004): 18.

Kaylene, C. W., amd Robert, A. P. (2011). "Marketing to the generations." Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business, 3 (2011): 1-17.

Levy, Piet. "Segmentation by generation." Marketing News, 45. no. 6 (May 15, 2011): 20-23.

Valkeneers, Guido, and Tim Vanhoomissen. "Generations living their own life: The differences in lifestyle and consumer behaviour between busters and baby boomers." Journal Of Customer Behaviour, 11. no. 1 (Spring 2012): 53-68.

"Lifestage Marketing: Showing your Age," Campaign, (April 30, 2004): 23.

Adv. showing freckled, toothless boy in coon-skin cap holding glass of Sunkist lemonade

Advertisement for lemonade, 1955.
Prints and Photographs Division
(Library of Congress)
Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-75888

Market Segmentation

Table of Contents

Other Groups



American generations ; who they are and how they live / by the editors of New Strategist Publications. 7th ed. Ithaca, N.Y. : New Strategist Publications, c2010.
LC Call Number: HC110.C6 M545 2010
LC Catalog Record: 2011292811
Publisher's website External Link

Boomers, Xers, and Other Strangers : Understanding the Generational Differences that Divide Us by Rick and Kathy Hicks. Wheaton, Ill. : Tyndale House, c1999.
LC Call Number: HM681.H53 1999
LC Catalog Record: 99027725
Table of Contents:

Future Marketing : Targeting Seniors, Boomers, and Generations X and Y by Joe Marconi. Lincolnwood, Ill. : NTC Business Books : in conjunction with The American Marketing Association, c2001.
LC Call Number: HF5415.127 .M35 2001
LC Catalog Record: 00038000
Publisher's description

Generations Apart : Xers vs. Boomers vs. the Elderly edited by Richard D. Thau & Jay S. Heflin. Amherst, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1997.
LC Call Number: HN90.I58 G45 1997
LC Catalog Record: 97034296

Generations : the History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069 by William Strauss and Neil Howe. 1st ed. New York : Morrow, c1991.
LC Call Number: E179.S89 1990
LC Catalog Record: 90045679

Rocking the Ages : the Yankelovich Report on Generational Marketing by J. Walker Smith and Ann Clurman. 1st ed. New York, NY : HarperBusiness, c1997.
LC Call Number: HF5415.1 .S57 1997
LC Catalog Record: 96052509
Table of Contents

Internet Resources

American Factfinder

U.S. Census -- Age Data

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Includes labor force, employment, and unemployment statistics by age group. Includes by age for detailed industry detailed occupation. There is separate data similar to the general age breakdowns for Older workers and Youth. For Older workers, there are historical tables on labor force participation for older workers going back to 1948 as well as attention paid to their unemployment. The Youth data covers statistics for youth ages 16 to 24. Special attention paid to the issues of Summer Employment and Unemployment, College Enrollment and Work Activity of High School Graduates.

Pew Research Center - Social & Demographic trends External Link

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"Merchants of Cool: A Report on the Creators & Marketers of Popular Culture for Teenagers," Frontline / PBS. Published February 2001; updated November 2002. External Link

"ANNALS OF STYLE: The Coolhunt", New Yorker. March 17, 1997. External Link

Eleftherid Smith, Loulla-Mae. "Do you know Generation Z?." Marketing (00253650) (April 18, 2012): 12-13.

Lev Grossman, "The Quest For Cool: Predicting the Future is Hard Work. Ask Any Professional Trend Spotter: It Takes Insight, Dedication--and Secret Armies of Superhip Teenagers," Time. September 8, 2003.

"Media starts to catch up with the changing consumer." Marketing (00253650) (October 18, 2012): 4-7.

"Tracking Teen Shopping Habits: How Teens Shop" June 4, 2007. External Link

On June 4, 2007, the Washington Post did a series of stories on how teens shop. Various statistics noted - : $33.1 billion - amount spent by teens on apparel and footwear for the 12 months ending March 2007 (source: NPD Group); $1,487-average amount parents spent this spring on teen apparel, up 7% from last year (source: Piper Jaffray); Girls $1,847 and Boys $762- average amounts spent by teens this spring on apparel, shoes and accessories (source: Piper Jaffray). The series included the following articles:
  • Nui, Ylan Q. "As the Kids Go Buy; 61 Teens Descend on Tysons, and We're There to Watch," p. D.1
  • Nui, Ylan Q. "When Mom's Not Paying, Cost Is a Deal-Breaker," p. D.3
  • Nui, Ylan Q. "On a Mission to Buy, With a Plan of Attack," p. D.3
  • Nui, Ylan Q. "It's Not Just Parents Saying No Skimpy Clothes," p. D.4
  • Nui, Ylan Q. "That Denim's Looking a Little Worn," p. D.4
  • Aratani, Lori. "Drool Now, Spend Later," D.5
  • Nui, Ylan Q. "The Store They Love, or Love to Hate," p. D.4
  • "Follow that Kid and Watch Those Sales," p. D. 6-7. (graphic representation, charts)

Westlund, Richard. "Teens: One Distracted Audience. How to reach this multitasking demo." Brandweek 51, no. 38 (October 25, 2010): T1.


Make Way for Generation Z: Marketing to Today's Tweens and Teens. Euromonitor International, February 2011.
(Not available at the Library of Congress) External Link

Brand-conscious, tech-savvy, old before their years and equipped with generous incomes that are almost entirely discretionary, they are an increasingly attractive segment for marketers of all kinds of products, ranging from fashion and beauty to digital devices. This global report examines what makes Gen Zers tick and looks at their spending habits both now and in the future.

Marshall, David ed. Understanding children as consumers. Los Angeles : Sage, 2010.
LC Call Number: HF5415.332.C45 U53 2010
LC Catalog Record:

Raugust, Karen. Marketing to teens & tweens. New York : EPM Communications, c2007.
LC Call Number: HF5415.127 .R38 2007
LC Catalog Record:

The U.S. College Market by Robert Brown and Ruth Washton ; project manager, Washton Brown Associates, Inc. New York, NY : Packaged Facts, 2001.
LC Call Number: HF5415.33.U6 B773 2001
LC Catalog Record: 2003274165

The U.S. Infant, Toddler, and Preschool Market by Marigny Research Group, Inc. New York, N.Y. : Kalorama Information, c2000.
LC Call Number: HF5415.127 .U17 2000
LC Catalog Record: 2003272298

The U.S. Market for Young Adults : Generation X Grows Up by Robert Brown and Ruth Washton ; project manager, Washton Brown Associates, Inc. New York, NY : Packaged Facts, c2001.
LC Call Number: HF5415.33.U6 B774 2001
LC Catalog Record: 2003278855

Wise up to Teens : Insights into Marketing and Advertising to Teenagers by Peter Zollo. 2nd ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: New Strategist Publications, c1999.
LC Call Number: HF5415.32.Z65
LC Catalog Record: 2002511854
Publisher's Website: External Link

Youth Markets Alert. Long Island City, NY.
LC Call Number: Current issues only. Request in the Newspaper & Current Periodical Room
LC Catalog Record: sv 89071380

Marketing to Teens & Tweens by Marsha Cohen and the editors of Youth Markets Alert. New York, NY: EPM Communications, c2001.
LC Call Number: HF5415.127 .C64 2001
LC Catalog Record: 2002510946

The Teens Market. New York : Packaged Facts, 1997 - present
LC Call Number: HF5415.13 .T39 1997
LC Catalog Record: 2004208565


The state of the world’s children. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press for UNICEF, 1980-
LC Call Number: HQ792.2 .S73
LC Catalog Record:


Census -- Age Data

Census -- Children


State of the World's Children (UNICEF) External Link

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(Eco Boomers, Millenials)


"Generation Y" From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. External Link


Michael J. Weno, "To Be About To Be," American Demographics. September 2003. v. 25, no. 7; p. 28

Don O'Briant, "Millennials: The Next Generation Kids Coming of Age are Close to Their Parents, Comfortable with Authority," The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, August 11, 2003.

David Brooks, "The Organizational Kid," Atlantic Monthly, April 2001.
Online edition: Subscribers only: External Link

"Understanding the Millennial Consumer." Trends Magazine no. 113 (September 2012): 5-9.

Wells, Rebecca, Catherine E. Kleshinski, and Terence Lau. "Attitudes toward and behavioral intentions to adopt mobile marketing: comparisons of Gen Y in the United States, France and China". International Journal Of Mobile Marketing 7, no. 2


Bergh, Joeri van den. How cool brands stay hot : branding to generation Y. London ; Philadelphia : Kogan Page, c2011.
LC Call Number: HF5415.332.Y66 B47 2011
LC Catalog Record: 2010036704

Howe, Neil and Bill Strauss. Millennials Rising : the Next Great Generation. New York: Vintage Books, 2000.
LC Call Number: HQ796.H74
LC Catalog Record: 00034949
Publisher description
Publisher-supplied biographical information

Millennials : Americans born 1977 to 1994. New Strategist editors. 4th ed. Ithaca, N.Y. : New Strategist Publications, c2009.
LC Call Number: HN60 .M53 2009
LC Catalog Record: 2012357028
Publisher's website External Link

Generation Y: Marketing to the Young Ones (18-26s)
Euromonitor, January 2, 2007
(Not available at the Library of Congress.)

Generation Y are typically the children of affluent baby boomers, those born immediately following World War II. This generation is entering their student years or embarking on a professional career. Many of them are still single, very technology-driven, fashion-conscious, status-aware, keen to spend and not afraid of credit and have high expectations of themselves and others. Market focus on cosmetics and toiletries; consumer foodservice; and alcoholic drinks. A look at shifts in major markets in the countries of: China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the US. Available for sale from the publisher. The table of contents External Link may be viewed free of charge on the publisher's web site.

Wells, Tina. Chasing youth culture and getting it right : how your business can profit by tapping into today’s most powerful trendsetters and tastemakers. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, c2011.
LC Call Number: HF5415.332.Y66 W45 2011
LC Catalog Record: 2010050403

Internet Resources

Deloitte – Millennial Survey External Link

This is an annual survey of millennials that began with 2012. It covers a wide range of issues but the perspective is on what companies can do to attract and retain millennial workers.

Millennials in Adulthood Detached from Institutions, Networked with Friends Pew Research Center - March 7, 2014 External Link

This report is about he age cohort between the ages of 18 and 33. It looks at who this generation is, what they believe, and how they communicate.

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"Generation X" From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. External Link


"Farther ALONG the X Axis," American Demographics. May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 20

Christopher Reynolds, "GEN X: The Unbeholden," American Demographics. May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 8

Matthew Grimm, "A Post-Cynic's Manifesto," American Demographics. May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 42

Peter Francese, "In the Shadow of the Boom," American Demographics. May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 40

Joan Engebretson, "Odd Gen Out," American Demographics. May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 14

"OrthodoX," American Demographics, May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 32

Christopher Reynolds, "Overlooked & Under X-Ploited," American Demographics. May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 48

Andrew Zolli, "ParadoX," American Demographics. May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 26

James Morrow, "X-IT Plans," American Demographics. May 2004. v. 24, no. 4; p. 34


Generation X: Americans Born 1965 to 1976. New Strategist editors. Ithaca, N.Y. : New Strategist Publications, c2009.
LC Call Number: HN60 .G46 2009
LC Catalog Record: 2012357029
Publisher's website External Link

Henseler, Christine ed. Generation X goes global : mapping a youth culture in motion. New York : Routledge, 2012.
LC Call Number: HQ799.5 .G458 2012
LC Catalog Record: 2012010913

Internet Resources

"The ABCs of Selling to Generation X" by Karen E. Klein. Business Week, April 15, 2004 External Link

;Generation X: Lives on Hold External Link

Generation X Goes Global External Link

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This section includes Baby Boomer External Link specific information as well as marketing to older people.

Chaston, Ian. Boomer marketing : selling to a recession resistant market. London : New York : Routledge, 2009.
LC Call Number: HF5415.127 .C53 2009
LC Catalog Record: 2008051952

Marketing across the Generations : Fifty-plus. Sarah White. Dubuque, Iowa : Kendall/Hunt Publ., c2000.
LC Call Number: HG2037 .W45 2000
LC Catalog Record: 2002279758
Table of Contents

Marketing to the 50+ Population by Marsha Cohen and the editors of EPM Communications, Inc.
New York, NY : EPM Communications, Inc., 2002.
LC Call Number: HF5415.13 .C6335 2002
LC Catalog Record: 2003266903

Older Americans : a changing market. by New Strategist Publications, editors. 6th ed. Ithaca : New Strategist Pub., 2009.
LC Call Number: HC110.C6 O42 2009
LC Catalog Record: 2011277203
Publisher's website External Link

Russell, Cheryl. Baby boom : Americans born 1946 to 1964. 6th ed. Ithaca, N.Y. : New Strategist Publications, c2009.
LC Call Number: HN60 .R84 2009
LC Catalog Record: 2011292814
Publisher's website External Link

Segmentation Models for the 50+ Population. New York, NY : EPM Communications, Inc., c2002.
LC Call Number: HF5415.127 .S445 2002
LC Catalog Record: 2003266902

The Swing Generation: Marketing to the Over 65s
Euromonitor, January 2, 2007
(Not available at the Library of Congress)

Populations are aging due to the fact that people are living longer as a result of medical advances, rising disposable incomes and increased awareness of health and nutrition. The swing generation, while smaller than boomers, tend to be more set in their ways, more frugal and less hedonistic, and more likely to save than to spend freely; however like boomers, they do intend to enjoy their retirement. Geographic shift profiles in: Brazil, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the US. Available for sale from the publisher. The table of contents External Link may be viewed free of charge on the publisher's web site.

Vincent, Grayson K. The Next Four Decades The Older Population in the United States:2010 to 2050. [Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, 2010]
LC Call Number: HQ1064.U5 V497 2010
LC Catalog Record: 2011505876
Available online. [PDF format 618 KB / 16 p]

Internet Resources

Administration on Aging (Profiles of Older Americans) (federal interagency form on aging-related statistics)

Gerontological Society of America - Baby Boomers & Marketing External Link

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This is a sample of the research groups and trend trackers with a generational focus.

Brent Green & Associates External Link

Cassandra Daily External Link

Cassandra Report External Link

CEB Icon Culture External Link

Coming of Age External Link

Generational-Targeted Marketing External Link

Immersion Interactive External Link

Lambesis Agency External Link

Zandl Group External Link

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Additional works on generational marketing in the Library of Congress may be identified by searching the Online Catalog under appropriate Library of Congress subject headings. Choose the topics you wish to search from the following list of Library of Congress subject headings to link directly to the Catalog and automatically execute a search for the subject selected. Please be aware that during periods of heavy use you may encounter delays in accessing the catalog.

Aged--United States--Statistics
        Middle aged consumers--United States
Baby boom generation--United States
         Teenage consumers
Child consumers--United States
        Young adult consumers--United States
        Young adults--United States--Statistics
Generation X--United States--Statistics
        Young consumers--United States
Generation Y
         Youth--United States--Statistics

Last Updated: 01/12/2016

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