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Annual Report of the
Slavic and Central European Division, Fiscal Year 1969

Submitted by Sergius Yakobson, Chief
July 14, 1969


Substantial increases were registered in virtually all the reference and acquisitions activities of the Division, as 42,898 reference requests were handled (up 14% from FY 1968), 36,764 recommendations for the acquisition of new materials were made (up 15.5%) . Two publications were released, and Division specialists prepared or participated in the preparation of 14 special studies.

Division personnel took an active part in the extension of NPAC activities to Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia. More traditional methods of acquiring retrospective publications resulted in the addition to the collections — among other items — of three rare Polish books, several valuable lexicographical works on Czechoslovakia, and a microprint copy of the elusive Handbook of the USSR Writers' Union for 1966.

The steadily increasing demand for reference materials prompted a notable expansion of the Slavic Room reference collections and plans for even further additions when the necessary shelving is installed. Collections of unbound materials were also reorganized more functionally through the addition of new shelving.

An opportunity to review in depth the LC collections in the Division's area of responsibility was afforded by the preparation of replies to a detailed questionnaire sent to 137 institutions by the Advisory Committee on Library Needs in East Central and South European Studies established by the American Council of Learned Societies. The findings confirmed that sustained acquisitions efforts have clearly established LC as the leading library center for Slavic and East European studies in the Western hemisphere.

Surveys prepared were Poland in the Collections of the Library of Congress and an Index to Russian and Ukrainian Periodicals Available on Microfilm from the Library of Congress Photoduplication Service. Work continued apace on a bibliographic guide to Yugoslavia.

Numerous foreign visitors were received and briefed, and part was taken by Division specialists in assembling a Department of Agriculture exhibit honoring the Hungarian-born "father of modern California viticulture" and in providing materials for an LC exhibit commemorating the 50th anniversary of Czechoslovak independence.



Only a few years ago when discussing, in our annual reports, criteria, targets, and accomplishments for the development of the Library's collections for Central and Eastern Europe, we considered it quite satisfactory if some 30% of the area's combined publications output reached the Library's shelves. Fundamental changes in LC acquisitions philosophy and techniques have since rendered a selection-oriented approach quite old-fashioned and obsolescent. The ascendency and implementation of the far-reaching foreign acquisitions program pursuant to Title II of the Higher Education Act and Public Law 480 have shown a definite shift from selectivity, broadly conceived as it was, to near comprehensiveness. It goes without saying that this transformation has made a marked impress on the Division's role in the procurement process.

In the recent past Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Yugoslavia, the German-speaking parts of Europe, and to a limited extent the Soviet Union have become participants in the National Program of Acquisitions and Cataloging, and Romania can be expected to follow suit before long. Additionally, PL 480 arrangements have been operative in Yugoslavia.

The magnitude of the collecting activities within the Division's geographic assignment can be graphically demonstrated by statistical data released by UNESCO. Of the world's 20 leading book-producing nations, nine are located within the compass of the Division. Two among them, Finland and Czechoslovakia, share with the United States and Spain credit for the fastest rising book production in the decade 1955–1965, Finland by 135% and Czechoslovakia by 104%. Three other countries — the German Federal Republic, Yugoslavia, and Switzerland — augmented their book production during the same period by over 50%.

What then has been the Division's contribution toward implementing and operating these foreign procurement programs? With the advantage of familiarity with library and publishing conditions in the countries concerned and of personal acquaintance with the leading officials of participating national libraries, the Division has taken, with the encouragement of the Processing Department, an active part in formulating the basic agreements which laid the foundation for rendering these programs operative. In facing a novel and untried situation when the partners to the agreement were only vaguely aware of the specific requirement, it was of the essence to define categories of material wanted and to earmark for exclusion types of publication which are extraneous to the collecting interest of research libraries and would unnecessarily tax cataloging and space capacities. Moreover, recommendations were submitted aimed at pinpointing classes of reference material needed in multiple copies. After these agreements had gone into effect, the intake was subjected to regular screening and scrutiny so that the Processing Department could be alerted to unwanted categories of material as well as to missing publications which should have been received under the terms of the agreement. Conspicuous among the latter category were publications of various research and academic institutions issued non-commercially and only in small editions. Another mechanism for ensuring adequacy of receipts was the regular examination of bibliographic records for items not supplied, with a view to initiating follow-up action, as well as the routine review of all permanent cards prepared by the Shared Cataloging Division. These expedients enabled our recommending officers to gain an informed picture of the quality of the entire intake and to propose, in steady liaison with the Processing Department, desirable improvements. Thus, in the debriefing session held with Mr. James Bowman, Field Director for Yugoslavia, the results of his program were analyzed and the Chief and Assistant Chief suggested several measures to accelerate receipts, to broaden the coverage in some respects, and to reduce the volume of items of questionable research value.

Notwithstanding a mounting tendency toward comprehensiveness and bulk procurement, the traditional methods of selective collection, especially in the field of retrospective materials, have retained their legitimate place. By probing into suspected weak sports in the collections, the Division's recommending officers have identified — and subsequently filled — many a lacuna. For example, the Central European specialist conducted a detailed survey of German serials on Eastern Europe and the USSR to make sure that the Library's holdings of these important materials are completely represented. A survey of the Library's set of Statistik des Deutschen Reichs pointed to the need to fill, by recently published reprint editions, substantial gaps in this important statistical publication on Germany for the period 1871–1944. Similar investigations into sets of Czechoslovak and Yugoslav periodicals of basic research relevance yielded want lists of quite a few missing issues.

Despite sustained attempts to assemble in LC a coherent body of national bibliographies published in the constituent republics of the Soviet Union, these nuclear research tools are represented in LC and elsewhere in this country at best fragmentarily, largely owing to the apparently secrecy-motivated reluctance of the USSR to release these publications for use abroad. Efforts were therefore renewed to reinforced the holdings either by microfilming of whatever is available in other American and European libraries, or in the hope that a somewhat more propitious climate may favor such an endeavor, by obtaining this material directly from the Soviet Union.

Professional contacts of staff members with foreign librarians and scholars contributed significantly to bringing to the Library materials otherwise difficult to procure. Thus, a leading official of the State Historico-Architectural and Art Museum in Yaroslavl', USSR, whom Dr. Allen met during his visit to the USSR in 1967, forwarded back issues of the rare local publication Kraevedcheskie zapiski. Through a colleague of the Assistant Chief, the Library received a copy of a clandestine issue of Ceskoslovenský casopis historický, recording impassioned protests by noted Czech scholars against the Soviet invasion. From the chairman of the All-Slavic Committee at Sofia, Bulgaria, who was a visitor to the Library, the Chief received a series of shipments of valuable Bulgarian publications which were added to the Library's collection. It was largely due to personal rapport with Professor Mathew Spinka — renowned scholar and writer on the Hussite movement in Bohemia and on John Amos Comenius, famous religious leader, philosopher, and pioneer in education — that the Library was enabled last year to acquire from his outstanding private collection a number of rariora of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Recently, Professor Spinka, who because of advanced age is considering disposing of his unique collection, gave us the assurance that the Library would have first call on it and as an initial step sent us a twelve-page offering of his books which, when purchased, will establish the Library as the leading repository in this country and perhaps in the Western world for research on a crucial period of European church history.

Somewhat more munificent funds for retrospective materials allocated us this fiscal year led to several noteworthy acquisitions. Indeed our appetite proved to be so avid that our funds, already initially premortgaged by the need of levelling off a debit balance, were exhausted by May of this year. The acquisitions nets yielded some valuable catches. First there were three rare Polish books: Clades Dantiscanorum anno Domini XVII Aprilis. . . , authored by the renowned historian Jan Lasicki, is an important document on the conflict between the Polish King Stefan Batory and the rebellious citizens of Danzig, published in 1578 in Frankfurt a.M.; the two others, historical sources from the first half of the seventeenth century, are often referred to as "Danzig Elzevirs" because their printer Georg Foerster patterned them after the model of the Elzevir press. Other noteworthy editions included: the 12th volume, third edition, of Eleutheroudake epitomon enkiklopaidikon lexikon (Concise encyclopedic dictionary of Eleutheroudakes); several lexicographical works of great value for the study of Czechoslovakia's past, including Hermann Heller's Mährens Männer der Gegenwart (Brünn, 1855) and Karel Kukla's Velký lidový slovník naucný (Great encyclopedic dictionary) published in Prague in 1907; and a microprint copy of the rare Handbook of the USSR Writers' Union for 1966, which is a mine of otherwise inaccessible information.


In response to increased readers' demands for reference material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe the reference collections in the Slavic Room were tangibly expanded: in fact they have doubled within the last five years from 4,000 to 8,300 volumes even though hundreds of volumes were weeded out during this same period.

In order to keep the Slavic Room reference collection responsive to the needs of readers and representative of the mounting volume of newly published reference aids it must be a viable and growing collection, which in turn calls for an increase of the present shelving capacity of the Slavic Room. Such an expansion could be achieved inexpensively and without additional floor space by installing new shelving units on top of the present shelving in the Slavic Room alcove on the side adjoining the Thomas Jefferson Room. A proposal to this effect was submitted to the Reference Department.

Expanded acquisition programs in Eastern Europe and readers' demand for information on this area made further improvement of facilities on Deck 8 a necessity. By adding about 500 shelves to the existing unit on Deck 8 it proved possible to organize the newspaper collections in a more functional manner, i.e. by country, year, and month. This arrangement has facilitated more expeditious and efficient servicing of this material.

To ensure prompt and current microfilming of Slavic and Baltic newspapers so that readers can be supplied with files at the latest within a year after their completion, the following procedures were agreed upon between our Division and the Serial Division:

  1.  Completed sets of newspapers to be microfilmed intramurally will be collected from Deck 8 by Serial Division on or about April 1, following the end of the calendar year of their publication;
  2.  Newspapers for which microfilms are obtained from outside sources will be retained on Deck 8 for a maximum period of one full calendar year following the last December issue of the newspaper in question. Another concern of the Division is to see to it that valuable materials on Deck 8, many of which are becoming brittle, be preserved on microfilm. About 50 such titles have been selected initially and are being readied for dispatch to the Preservation Officer.


A. Surveys for Cooperative Library Projects

Challenging opportunities came our way this fiscal year for taking measure of LC collections in our areas of responsibility and viewing them in broader perspectives.

In 1966 a committee of the American Council of Learned Societies decided that the time had come to embark on a broad-gauged and thorough inquiry into the present state of studies in the United States concerning the following countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, European Turkey, Hungary, Modern Greece, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. To attend to the library aspects of this survey an Advisory Committee on Library Needs in East Central and South European Studies consisting of ten scholars and librarians (including the Chief and the Assistant Chief) was constituted in 1968 and charged with a two-pronged investigation: 1) to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Eastern European holdings in North America with an emphasis on strong general and unique specialized collections; and 2) to formulate recommendations for the improvement of Eastern European library resources and devise better means for the dissemination of information on these holdings as well as for their nationwide utilization.

A detailed twelve-page questionnaire circulated in this connection to 340 scholars and librarians at 137 institutions was also received by the Library, where the preparation of answers was undertaken chiefly by our Division, with assistance from other divisions in the Reference Department and in the Processing Department. Thus a welcome opportunity arose to review in depth the Library's massive resources in our field by countries, subjects, periods of coverage, languages, and types of material, both in quantitative and qualitative terms and on a scale never before attempted.

The findings were gratifying and revealed, not unexpectedly, that sustained collecting endeavors over the past six decades or so, and particularly intensified since the creation of the Slavic Division in 1951, have clearly established the Library of Congress as the leading library center for Slavic and Eastern European Studies in the Western hemisphere. Our stock-taking, predicated on hard figures and data, when readily ascertainable, and otherwise on informed and conservative estimation, indicates that the Library's collections for the ten countries or areas concerned total well over 350,000 monographic, nearly 12,000 periodical, and 660 newspaper titles. In attempting to assign requested ratings for the substantive strength of these materials — not by absolute standards, to be sure, but in relation to other libraries outside the geographical perimeter of Eastern Europe — the conclusion was reached that LC collections deserve to be rated as "excellent" for seven of the countries under purview and as "good" for three.

Among the rare, unique, or especially valuable collection components the following were identified: solid holdings of the publications of learned societies and academies, especially for Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia; the Plotchev collection of circa 700 books printed outside of Bulgaria in the modern Bulgarian language between 1806 and 1877; a substantial collection of rare imprints from the Czech Renaissance; rare Polish and Romanian legal books; the Glagolitic Missal of 1483; and exquisite examples of early Polish printing.

In a preliminary report summarizing and evaluating the questionnaires received, the above-mentioned Committee commended the Library of Congress together with the Hoover Institution for the very detailed information provided. Another occasion for participation in cooperative library projects presented itself when we supplied for the National Foreign Newspaper Microfilm Program a wealth of itemized data such as: bibliographies and catalogs of newspapers in the area, in print or in photocopied form; lists of newspaper titles suggested for microfilming; and business or scholarly establishments interested or engaged in microfilming and reprinting pertinent serials.

B. Reference Activities

Like a seismograph faithfully recording earthquakes and tremors, the Slavic and Central European Division felt the impact of distant human events in its work this year.

A pistol shot in a Los Angeles hotel brought to our specialists' offices for translation a host of mail prompted by the assassination of Senator Robert F. Kennedy. The letters came from correspondents in nearly all of the countries in Eastern and Central Europe as the tragic news ricocheted from continent to continent.

The rumble of Russian tanks in St. Wenceslas Square in Prague gave rise to an urgent request from the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee to update the much-praised study Aspects of Intellectual Ferment and Dissent in the Soviet Union, prepared by the Chief and Dr. Allen, and to add material relating to developments leading to the invasion of Czechoslovakia. The revised text was reprinted in a third edition as a Senate Document. Dr. Yakobson, at the request of Senator Henry M. Jackson, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Security and International Operations, participated also in the preparation of a study, Czechoslovakia and the Brezhnev Doctrine, a consideration of the ideological cloak used by the Soviet Union to justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia.

The Division had yet another opportunity to utilize its expertise during this period of international uncertainty when the Senate Subcommittee on National Security and International Operations requested assistance in preparing a report on The Soviet Approach to Negotiation: Selected Writings. Division specialists also assisted the Legislative Reference Service in the preparation of a new Senate document, Aspects of Intellectual Ferment in Czechoslovakia. The repercussions of student unrest on American campuses registered in Division assignments as Congress sought data in Soviet sources eulogizing the Pentagon demonstrators of last October, and a short bibliography on Herbert Marcuse, the University of California (San Diego) professor of politics and philosophy who is regarded as a significant contributor to the philosophy of the radical youth movement.

The election of Governor Spiro T. Agnew to the Vice Presidency and the marriage of Mrs. John F. Kennedy to Aristotle Onassis may have been reflected in the heightened demand both for reference service on Greece and for translations of Greek materials by the Head of the Slavic Room. The subjects of queries ranged from poetry to law, from the coining of Greek words to summarizing the argument of a Greek book. From Congressional offices alone came more than 100 of these requests, while others were forwarded by the Office of the Vice President, the Supreme Court, and other Government agencies.

Turning to other less publicized but significant phases of the Division's operations, the contributions of East and Central European artists and scientists of the past were recalled and interpreted to new audiences through participation in such occasions as the Congressional commemoration of the 125th anniversary of the birth of the famous Hungarian painter, Michael de Munkácsy (1844–1900), and the 100th anniversary of the death of Agoston Haraszthy (1812–1869), Hungarian-born "father of modern California viticulture." In addition to providing drafts of speeches, articles, and information for these events, the Division's Hungarian specialist helped to prepare an exhibit on Haraszthy's life and works which was displayed at the Department of Agriculture in Washington before being shown in other cities.

The unrest created by the August crisis in Czechoslovakia brought numerous inquiries and visitors to the Division, especially during the Convention of the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America, coincidentally held in August in the capital. Many of the visitors came to see the exhibit on "Czechoslovak Culture and Political History" on display in the Library of Congress, which the Division helped to organized by selecting and assembling the materials and which had been planned months earlier to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Czech independence. The exhibit was described by the Evening Star as "a moving experience."

The aftermath of the Russian occupation was reflected in requests from the U.S. Office of Education for biographical data on noted Czech refugee-scholars who had recently emigrated and who were now candidates for academic posts in this country.

Perusal of staff work diaries sharpens one's image of the Division as a center in lively touch with scholarly enterprises around the world. Cologne University sought assistance in tracking down rare German publications on the American Revolution. A scholar in Buenos Aires who does not read English requested, and was given, data in French on the Russian army and its Turkish campaign of 1877–1878. A researcher in Germany was supplied with data on psychiatry, nostalgia, and "alienation" in the Soviet Union. A scholar in Vietnam received information about mountaineering in the USSR.

Person-to-person encounters with foreign visitors provide a pleasurable aspect of the Division's day-to-day activities, frequently yielding mutual dividends in the form of otherwise elusive information. There was, for example, the visitor from the Institute of Far Eastern Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences who revealed that no current Chinese publications have been received in Moscow since 1964, not even materials of a bibliographic nature.

On the other hand, a graduate student from the University of Tokyo, the first from her country to seek an area specialist's help on a Ph.D. dissertation in Polish history, was delighted to learn of another dissertation in Polish history written by an illustrious Oriental: The War of the Polish Succession, published in 1901, was the dissertation of the Crown Prince of Siam (later King Rama VI of Thailand), the grandson of Rama IV, popularized by the novel by Margaret Landon, Anna and the King of Siam.

Between the Library of Congress and the American campus the pipelines are always filled with the raw materials of authorship going out from the Library and newly published works coming in. This mutually enriching relationship presents the Division with numerous and challenging opportunities for traditional services to this clientele.

Samples include supplying data on Soviet interest in Africa to a professor at Johns Hopkins University; providing bibliographic information on sociological developments in Eastern Europe for a University of Virginia professor; and the preparation of a survey of German literary criticism for a scholar at the University of Massachusetts.

The Division's usefulness to a broad spectrum of public and private enterprise is epitomized by the visit of Mr. Jonathan Dean for briefing on the current scene in Germany just prior to his taking charge of the political section of the U.S. Embassy in Bonn; a conference with General J. Lawton Collins, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, regarding historical sources dealing with Japanese-Russian relations; and a consultation with an editor of Science Magazine who needed biographical and bibliographical data on A.D. Sakharov, noted Soviet nuclear scientist. Some time is also spent with the press and free lance writers, whether for the compilation of statistics to provide documentation, or in a search in obscure sources. Several staff members have been helping one such author locate illustrative material for a pictorial history of East Europe.

It should be mentioned that other units of the Library also receive the Division's attention and are our faithful patrons, whenever expert help is needed. A warm letter of thanks from the Music Division for the help of the Slavic and Central European Division staff in transcribing and translating recently acquired letters of Petr I. Tschaikovsky, advice given to the Manuscript Division on preparing indexes to the vital statistics from the Alaska Russian Church Archives, and consultative services to the Director of the Hispanic Foundation in connection with his exploration of East European research activities on Latin America, typify this kind of cooperation with various parts of the Library.

Recognition was gratifyingly echoed throughout the year by correspondents from many walks of life who wrote to say "thank you" for services rendered. Thus bouquets were drawn from Resources for the Future Inc.: "We have only praise for the courteous, prompt and competent assistance we have been getting at all levels from the personnel of the Slavic and East European Division," and from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, "We would not have been able to do it without your expert aid."

C. Bibliographies

Previous experience indicates that scholars and students of our area are often unaware of relevant research aids. In the interest of increasing the awareness and stimulating the use of these materials we prepared a revised list of altogether 19 Division publications, available either in printed, or when out of print, in photocopied form . The list was mailed to over 2,000 members of professional organizations who can be regarded as potential consumers.

This fiscal year found several bibliographic projects coming to fruition and others making good headway toward conclusion. The most recent addition to the Division's publications is Poland in the Collections of the Library of Congress, a survey occasioned by the interest expressed in such a compilation by Representative Roman Pucinski in the context of the celebration of Poland's millennium in 1966. Written by Dr. Kazimierz Grzybowski of Duke University, with substantial bibliographic and editorial assistance by the Division's staff, this collection survey gives a panoramic overview of the diverse holdings in LC collections, from rare books and music scores to maps, photographs, and general publications. One can note with gratification the author's conclusion that our resources touch on all aspects of Poland and are often not inferior even to those housed in Polish libraries.

Work has been moving apace on Yugoslavia: A Bibliographic Guide, the fourth and probably the most detailed in the series of area studies prepared under the Division's guidance for publication by LC. The author, Professor Michael B. Petrovich of the University of Wisconsin, is now reviewing the substantial editorial amendments and additions made by our staff, and the manuscript is expected to go to press in the coming fiscal year with the help of a publishing subsidy obtained from the American Council of Learned Societies. Owing to the absence of an inventory of Russian and Ukrainian periodicals available on microfilm in the Library of Congress, the Photoduplication Service has encountered difficulty in meeting the demand for such material. Dr. John P. Balys remedied this deficiency by compiling a list which provides a reference and acquisitions tool to interested users.

Intramurally, we also lent support to the Serial Division by supplying a number of entries for Slavic and Baltic newspapers to be included in their publication Newspapers Currently Received and Permanently Retained in the Library of Congress.

Continuing demand for out-of-stock Division publications is evidenced by the fact that the Arno Press of New York has reprinted three of the Division's area guides for commercial distribution. The judgment of peers voiced in professional journals can perhaps be regarded as a reliable indicator of the usefulness of our bibliographic enterprises. For instance, the London Slavonic and East European Review commented on Latin America in Soviet Writings as follows: "It is impossible to lavish too much praise on this bibliography. It is excellent throughout. . . "

D. Reference Related Automatic Data Processing Activities

MARC II Keyboard Set. The keyboard set for the MARC II project, prepared by the Information Systems Office, was examined by Division staff members with a view to determining whether sufficient provision had been made for Romanization of all the languages included within the Division's area of responsibility. Several staff members proposed the inclusion of additional characters, and the Division's cumulative point of view was presented by Mr. Carlton at a meeting called by ISO with representatives of other LC departments.

National Serials Data Format. After the proposed format for the National Serials Data Program had been examined by the staff and suggestions and recommendations for amendment and additions had been made, Mr. Carlton attended two briefings on the format by ISO personnel at which he presented the various observations of staff members.

Alaska Church Archives. At the request of the Manuscript Division, Mr. Carlton proofread the computerized printout of the index of the pre-1867 portion of the vital statistics from the Alaska Russian Church Archives. It is expected that the final index, which will be of considerable utility in the Division's reference work, will be ready for use in the near future.

Area Code Working Group. Mr. Carlton attended a number of meetings in his capacity as a member of the Reference Department Area Code Working Group. After a provisional area code had been adopted by the working group, a conference with representatives of the Processing Department was held for the purpose of reconciling divergent views on applications of the code. The end result was the issuance by the Subject Cataloging Division of suggested guidelines for the application of the area code to MARC II entries.

Division Area Files. On the request of the Reference Department, an estimate of staff needs was prepared for initiating a pilot project to automate the Division's area files of periodical articles. A proposal for conversion of this unique reference tool to machine-readable form had originally been submitted in April 1967.


Relationships of older standing as well as more recently-established contacts with institutions and professional colleagues in this country and abroad have redounded to the obvious advantage of the Division's programs and activities.

The membership of the staff in representative scholarly organizations and committees devoted to the strengthening of area studies and to the improvement of research resources and facilities provided close links of communication between the Library and the scholarly community. When in 1969 the Association of Research Libraries established a Slavic Bibliographic and Documentation Center in Washington D.C., for the purpose of making available bibliographic and reference materials, rendering abstracting and indexing services, and identifying and promoting the republication of important titles, the Chief was appointed to the Advisory Committee of this new Center. The governing bodies of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council named the Assistant Chief to serve as a member of the Subcommittee on East Central and Southeast European Studies. As members of the Advisory Committee on Library Needs of the American Council of Learned Societies the Chief and Assistant Chief have been in close touch with their counterparts in research libraries and the academic world and have taken an active part in developing cooperative library programs in support of area research and studies.

Along similar lines ad hoc events or calls for service offered a welcome occasion for reinforcing channels of communication or contributing to cultural exchange programs. Thus, the Chief delivered to visiting heads and representatives of American Research Libraries a presentation on LC's operations and services in our area of specialization, and, together with Dr. Allen, took part in functions arranged in connection with the visit to the Library of members of the Executive Board of the International Federation of Library Associations. On this occasion matters of mutual interest were discussed with Mme M. I. Rudomino, Director of the All-Union Library for Foreign Literature in Moscow, who was also briefed on the Division's activities and given a tour of the Library. Likewise, a group of distinguished visitors from the Soviet Union, including members of the USSR Academy of Sciences, visited the Division and were given an orientation talk on the Library as a cultural institution. In response to a request from the Committee on International Exchange of Persons the Assistant Chief worked out a detailed listing of major educational institutions which offer courses in Yugoslav studies as well as a list of American scholars in Yugoslav affairs.

When members of foreign diplomatic representations expressed the desire to be introduced to the Division's and Library's operations they were readily obliged, information sessions and tours were organized, for instance, for parties of diplomats and their ladies from the USSR and Czechoslovak embassies, for the First Secretary of the Embassy of the German Federal Republic, and for the Yugoslav Counselor (Press and Culture). If it were practicable to append to this report a bulky exhibit, the Division's guest book would illustrate fittingly the diversity of notable foreign visitors from various walks of life, branches of learning, and stations of government who visited this Division during the reporting period.


A. Personnel Administration

The year under review was characterized by a reversion to the traditionally low personnel turnover of earlier years, due perhaps largely to the beneficial effects of last year's classification survey which resulted in the allocation of higher grades for several Division positions. An exception to this stable situation was the transfer in March to the Copyright Office of the Division's longtime and able Administrative Secretary, Mrs. Virginia Edwards. In accordance with Library personnel policy, recruiting efforts designed to fill this key position were brought to a halt pending determination of the existence of a qualified candidate among the staff members affected by the reduction in force within the Library. After it had been established that Mrs. Edna Mae Crarey was both qualified for and interested in the position, she was absorbed into the Division's staff in late June from the abolished position in ATD.

The effects of the reduction in force were manifested in other ways involving the Division. One of our binding and servicing positions (Deck 8) was threatened with abolition in the wake of the cuts made in ATD, and could be saved only by our relinquishing a currently unfilled position, that of Reference and Bibliographical Assistant. The shock waves generated by the prospect of possible drastic curtailment of the Division's vital binding, servicing, and custodial functions prompted the submission to Reference Department in mid-June of a detailed request for converting to permanent status the four Division positions remaining under the "indefinite" rubric — Finno-Ugrian Area Specialist and Processing and Reference Assistants (three positions). Data confirming the vastly increased workload in the Division were submitted to justify the request for conversion. Special emphasis was laid on the fact that all these staff members perform functions which cannot in any way be regarded as temporary or indefinite in nature, but are vital to the day-to-day operations of the Library. Stressed were the repeated past requests for conversion of these positions and the adverse effect on staff morale of the continuing indefinite status of longtime staff members who perform normal, constant, and essential library functions.

From FY 1963 through FY 1970, the Division refrained from making requests for new positions, in spite of the fact that recent years have witnessed an extraordinary increase in the demand for the Division's specialized skills and services. In addition, the impending demise of the Monthly Index of Russian Accessions and the recent establishment in Washington of the ARL Slavic Bibliographic and Documentation Center are certain to result in further increases in this demand. A careful analysis of workload statistics and a reasoned projection of mounting future requirements persuaded the Division management of the imperative need for additional manpower. A request for allocation of a new position of Bibliographer in grade GS-11 – GS-12 was therefore submitted. Also requested on the basis of similar considerations was reinstitution of the now defunct position of Reference and Bibliographical Assistant, Grade GS-5.

B. Training

Mr. Carlton and Mr. Perry attended the Supervisory Training Courses developed by the Training Office. The Chief again spoke on Division operations to LC employees attending the Professional Orientation courses. The Assistant Chief briefed the new Library recruits and, from time to time, small groups of new LC staff members. Several staff members were designated to take the courses in Computing Systems Fundamentals. Dr. Yakobson, Dr. Horecky, and Mr. Carlton attended briefings on the "Impact of ADP on Library Management." Mr. Gossett received training which enabled him to assume his duties as a member of the newly instituted Medical Alert Team.


As in previous years staff members displayed in a variety of ways a spirit of assiduous participation in the advancement of East and Central European scholarship, be it by service on professional bodies, addresses at meetings and conferences, or by writing and research. Limitations of space permit but a sketchy exemplification of these activities.

Dr. Allen continued to contribute to the American Historical Review lists of articles on Russian history, and completed the translating and editing of a Soviet bibliography of Russian critical writings about American literature, which is to be published soon.

Dr. Bako served as chairman of the Organization of the Hungarian Library Association of America and as editor of the Hungarian Library Journal of America.

Dr. Balys contributed articles to the Lithuanian Encyclopedia and delivered a paper on folklore research at the First Conference on Baltic Studies at the University of Maryland.

Mr. Carlton edited and enlarged the manuscript of The Soviet Image of Contemporary Latin America, a collection of source material to be published this year under the sponsorship of the Hispanic Foundation.

Dr. Horecky is the editor of, and contributor to, two major bibliographic guides on East Central and Southeastern Europe, respectively, scheduled for publication later this year by the University of Chicago Press under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies.

Dr. Hoskins contributed book reviews to American and European professional journals.

Mr. Perry served his third one-year term as Secretary of the Slavic and East European Subsection, ACRL, ALA.

Dr. Price continued to be section editor for the American Historical Review and published an article on German social history in the Vierteljahrsschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte.

Dr. Yakobson acted as a consultant to the National Endowment for the Humanities and as a member of the Advisory Committee on Religious Aspects in Area Studies, and was the banquet speaker at the Southern Conference on Slavic Studies held at the University of Virginia.


A. Reference Services 1. In Person: Estimated number of readers 44,567 40,560 –9.0
No. of readers given reference assistance 15,420 17,072* +10.7
2. By Telephone: a. Congressional calls 105 262 +149.5 1
b. Government calls 2,635 2,614 –0.8
c. Library of Congress calls 11,992 13,142 +9.6
d. Other calls 6,596 6,581 –0.3
e. Total 21,328 22,599* +6.0
3. By Correspondence a. Letters and memos prepared 536 645 +20.3
b. Form letters, prepared material, etc. 332 2,583 +677.7 2
c. Total 868 3,227* +271.8 2
4. Total Direct Reference Services
(add figures marked with asterisk)
37,616 42,898 +14.0
B. Circulation and Service 1. Volumes and Other Units in LC 45,118 59,311 +31.5 3
2. Volumes and Other Units on Loan 1,550 1,491 –3.8
3. Items or Containers Shelved 379,492 363,413 –4.2
C. Bibliographic and Other Publishing Operations: 1. Number of Bibliographies Completed 25 24 –4.0
2. Number of Bibliographies in Progress 31 31
3. Number of Bibliographic Entries Completed a. Annotated entries 348 –  4
b. Unannotated entries 11,243 14,832 +31.9 5
c. Total 11,591 14,832 +28.0
4. Number of Other Reference Aids Completed a. Pages of reference aids prepared
b. Number of cards and entries prepared 249
D. Number of Special Studies or Projects Completed 20 14 –30.0 6
1. Number of Pages 307 236 –23.1
E. Total Number of Hours Devoted to Reference Activities 18,617 19,389 +4.2

A. Lists and Offers Scanned 8,298 9,085 +9.4
B. Items Searched 25,012 29,892 +19.5
C. Items Recommended for Acquisition 31,844 36,764 +15.5
D. Letters of Solicitation Prepared
E. Items Accessioned
F. Items Disposed of: 1. From Collections
2. Other Items 204,362 312,270 +52.8 7
G. Total Hours Devoted to Acquisitions 3,403 3,573 +5.0

A. Items Sorted or Arranged 603,657 661,041 +9.5
B. Items Cataloged or Recataloged
C. Entries Prepared for Other Finding Aids9 1,733 2,663 +53.7 8
D. Authorities Established
E. Items or Containers Labeled, Titled, Captioned, or Lettered
F. Volumes, Items, or Issues Prepared for: 1. Binding 39,907 43,514 +9.0
2. Microfilming 600 –  9
G. Volumes, Items, or Issues Selected for: 1. Rebinding
2. Lamination
3. Microfilming
4. Repair
H. Cards Arranged and Filed11 16,618 9,503 –43.8 10
I. Total Hours Devoted to Processing Activities 4,061 5,867 +44.5 11

A. Total Hours Devoted to External Relations 118 115 –2.5
B. Total Hours Devoted to Cultural and Exhibit Activities 28 20 –28.6
C. Total Hours Devoted to Other Activities 3,489 2,321 –33.5 12


1 Congressional calls increased due to the need for frequent contact related to the various Congressional studies and documents prepared during the year, and because of Congressional interest in events in Czechoslovakia.

2 Form letters (and total correspondence) registered a large increase because a substantial number of lists of Division publications were mailed to prospective customers.

3 Circulation of materials within LC has continued the general upward trend characteristic of the last several years.

4 Unlike in FY 1968, no annotated bibliographic project has been underway this year.

5 Unannotated bibliographic entries continue to register increases due to substantial increments made to the Division's area reference files and work on the extensive bibliographic guide to Yugoslavia now under preparation.

6 While fewer special studies were completed in FY 1969, they were generally of greater scope and complexity than those of last year, as well as of greater average length.

7 The increase in items disposed of reflects the rise in the amount of duplicate materials received for processing, particularly through PL-480 channels.

8 The increase in entries prepared for other finding aids reflects chiefly rising accretions to the various files in the Slavic Room and on Deck 8.

9 FY 1968 was an exceptional year in that a number of brittle materials were selected and prepared for microfilming.

10 The decrease in the number of cards arranged and filed reflects the progress of work on the bibliographic guide to Yugoslavia from a processing to a bibliographic and editorial stage.

11 Increased time on processing activities is accounted for by the rising intake of materials from the Title II and PL-480 programs. Additionally, one processing position was vacant for a substantial portion of FY 1968.

12 During FY 1969, a larger part of staff time was spent on activities which could be categorized as purely of a reference, acquisitions, or processing nature.


Completed and Released

Poland in the Collections of the Library of Congress; an Overview (Professor Kazimierz Grzybowski).

Index of Russian and Ukrainian Periodicals on Microfilm in the Library of Congress (Dr. John Balys).

In Process

Yugoslavia; a Bibliographic Guide (Professor Michael B. Petrovich).

Index to Festschriften in the Field of Slavic Studies (Mr. Robert G. Carlton).


24 Bibliographic Card Files Organized by Area (for reference purposes).

Card File of Slavic and Baltic Serials.

Master List of Soviet Serials.

Statistical Handbooks Published in the USSR.

Western-Language Periodicals on the USSR and Eastern Europe.


Guide to Hungarian Collections in the Library of Congress.

Guide to Russian Collections in the Library of Congress.


Studies for Congress

Updating of Aspects of Intellectual Ferment and Dissent in the Soviet Union (Dr. Sergius Yakobson and Dr. Robert V. Allen).

Analysis of V. A. Zorin's "The Bases of Diplomatic Service" (Dr. Sergius Yakobson and Dr. Robert V. Allen).

Analysis of two works on contemporary Soviet diplomacy (Dr. Sergius Yakobson and Dr. Robert V. Allen).

The Soviet Approach to Negotiation (Dr. Sergius Yakobson).

Bibliography on the Comintern (Dr. Sergius Yakobson and Dr. Robert V. Allen).

Czechoslovakia and The Brezhnev Doctrine (Dr. Sergius Yakobson).

Opinion on "Fraud of the Century" (Dr. Sergius Yakobson).

Bibliography on Herbert Marcuse (Dr. Arnold H. Price).

A Selection of Works Related to the First Christian King of Hungary, Stephen I, the Saint (Dr. Elemer Bako).

Data on the life and work of Michael Munkácsy (Dr. Elemer Bako).

Miscellaneous Studies

Evaluation of an article on the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences submitted to the Quarterly Journal (Dr. Sergius Yakobson).

Adverse effects of inadequate funding on the Library's retrospective collections (Dr. Sergius Yakobson and Dr. Paul L. Horecky).

Library needs in East-Central and Southeast European studies (Dr. Sergius Yakobson and Dr. Paul L. Horecky).

Third examination of the index to 1867–1889 portion of vital statistics from Alaska Russian Church Archives (Mr. Robert G. Carlton).

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