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The INCOMKA Project

One hundred and sixty-seven scholars from 54 nations have contributed their time and knowledge to improving the accuracy of a new electronically searchable database to the archive of the Communist International. The opening in the early 1990s of the archives of the Communist International made available to scholars around the world a tremendously rich resource. The 20 million pages of Comintern records, located at the Russian State Archive of Social-Political History (RGASPI) in Moscow, provide documentation on the history of political, trade union, and left-wing cultural activities in scores of nations where the Comintern and affiliated Communist parties operated during the period from 1919 to 1943. The great size of the Communist International archive, however, slowed exploration of this valuable source of original documentation. Even the finding aids (opisi) prepared by RGASPI archivists totaled more than twenty thousand pages of description of the Comintern's records. Scholars whose principal interest was in the politics of a particular country found the Russian language of the RGASPI finding aids a barrier, and to examine the finding aids and actual documents required travelling to Moscow.

The International Committee for the Computerization of the Comintern Archive (Incomka) was set up by the International Council on Archives to facilitate access to the Comintern's archival materials. Incomka partners include the Russian State Archive of Social-Political History, the Federal Archival Service of Russia, the Archives of France, the Federal Archives of Germany, the State Archives of Italy, the National Archives of Sweden, the Federal Archives of Switzerland, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport of Spain, the Library of Congress of the USA, and the Open Society Archives of Hungary.

The Incomka project has two parts: first, to digitize as images 5% (one million pages) of the most used and historically significant documents of the Comintern and, second, to digitize the finding aids to Comintern collections at RGASPI into an electronically text-searchable database. The scanning of the documents was undertaken by RGASPI archivists, who also prepared the Russian-language database. The database is essentially an edited electronic version of the printed finding aids allowing computer searches using file descriptors, key words, and personal or organizational names. The database allows rapid location of file descriptions of the entire twenty-million pages of the Communist International archive at RGASPI, not just the one-million pages electronically scanned for the Incomka project.

However, to facilitate international use, Incomka determined that the database was to be electronically searchable in both Cyrillic-alphabet Russian and Latin-alphabet English. The U.S. Library of Congress agreed to be the lead agency for translation of the database with Dr. Ronald D. Bachman, the Library's Polish and East European area specialist, as the supervising linguist. Library of Congress linguists found translating most of the descriptors from Russian to English to be an uncomplicated translation task although accurate translation of some Comintern organizational titles and operational "jargon" required consultation with historians familiar with Comintern history. Library of Congress linguists quickly found, however, that conversion of the more than 170,000 personal names in the database from Russian Cyrillic to their standard spelling in the Latin alphabet was a far more difficult task.

These personal names occurred in descriptions of files of various Comintern secretariats and agencies. The greatest number, however, came from more than 100,000 personal files maintained by the Comintern. These files are background files for persons for whom for one reason or another the Comintern at some point set up a biographical file. Many are for Comintern personnel, students at Comintern schools, and senior members of foreign parties. However, many files were also established for persons who were prominent opponents of the Communist movement. For example, the Comintern maintained a biographical file on J. Edgar Hoover, a strong anti-Communist who headed the USA's Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Comintern established files on thousands of persons who were simply of political importance such as major political or governmental figures, journalists, diplomats, and trade union officials, as well as thousands of lower-level functionaries.

While the Library of Congress handled the initial conversion of most national personal file lists from Cyrillic to Latin, the Archives of France, the Federal Archives of Germany, and the Federal Archives of Switzerland undertook this task for their respective national lists. The Library of Congress provided these partners with only a computer transliteration from Cyrillic to Latin.

The Comintern labeled its personal files in Russian, and all names were transliterated into Russian over a period of many years by file clerks with varying levels of linguistic competence. Incomka's linguists now faced the task of converting these Russian Cyrillic spellings of personal names to their standard spellings in the Latin alphabet. The difficulty of this conversion from Cyrillic is compounded by homonyms, which have a single spelling in Russian but multiple spellings in Latin letters. A simple example is the name Рид, which can be spelled Reed, Ried, Read, Rede, or Reede. To go back into the files to verify the native language spelling of more than 100,000 names was not a practical possibility. Incomka addressed the problem by sending the lists prepared by Library of Congress linguists to scholars who know the national parties and can identify known persons.

The American personal file list illustrates the nature of the problem and the usefulness of having the Latin spellings reviewed by subject area scholars. The Comintern maintained personal files on more than 6,800 Americans. One of the files has the name, in Russian, of БРАУДЕР, ЭРЛ. The computer transliteration program produced the string BRAUDER, ERL, which a linguist enhanced to BRAUDER, EARL. Historians reviewing the USA list then corrected the spelling to BROWDER, EARL, the name of the man who headed the Communist Party, USA from the early 1930s to 1945.

The Incomka project sought out specialists throughout the world to review the personal names lists and correct spelling errors. Sometimes the specialists were also able to identify files that were labeled with a pseudonym and supply the real name. By any measure it was a highly successful example of international cooperation. Thousands of spellings of personal names have been corrected. Thanks to this international effort, researchers using the Incomka database will be spared frustration, wasted time, and missed files. For that, the international community of scholars should be truly grateful.

Persons who assisted in the Conversion of Comintern Personal/Biographical file names from Russian Cyrillic to Latin alphabet:

  1. Abinales, Patricio. Kyoto University, Japan. Review of personal names for the Philippines.
  2. Akiba, Yoko. Library of Congress, USA. Translation of Japanese serial titles.
  3. Alcindor, Christian. Rutgers University, USA. Review of personal names for Haiti.
  4. Alexander, Robert. Rutgers University, USA Review of personal names for Bolivia, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Venezuela.
  5. Alonso, Guillermo Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sport, Spain. Review of personal names for Catalonia and Spain.
  6. Avineri, Shlomo. Hebrew University, Israel. Review of personal names for Israel.
  7. Bachman, Ronald. Library of Congress, USA. Transliteration/translation coordinator and editor. Initial conversion of personal names for Afghanistan, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Cameroon, Ceylon, China, Ghana, Guadeloupe, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Laos, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malaya, Malta, Manchuria, Martinique, Mauritius, Mongolia, Philippines, Poland, Senegal, Singapore, Tannu Tuva, Trieste, Tuva, USA, Vietnam, Xinjiang. Translation of RGASPI descriptors.
  8. Baker, Christopher. Independent scholar, Thailand. Review of personal names for Thailand.
  9. Batóg, Wlodzimierz. Jan Kochanowski Pedagogical University, Poland. Review of personal names for Poland.
  10. Batsaikhan, Ookhnol. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolia. Review of personal names for Mongolia.
  11. Bayerlein, Bernhard. University of Mannheim and University of Cologne, Germany. Review of personal names for Germany and recruitment of reviewers.
  12. Becker, Marc. Truman State University, USA. Review of personal names for Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru.
  13. Beinin, Joel. Stanford University, USA. Review of personal names for Egypt and Israel.
  14. Bejarano, Margalit. Hebrew University, Israel. Review of personal names for Cuba.
  15. Benjelloun, Adbelmajid. Faculté de Droit, Morocco. Review of personal names for Morocco.
  16. Bertolissi, Sergio. Istituto Universitario Orientale, Italy. Review of personal names for Italy.
  17. Björlin, Lars. University College of Södertörn, Sweden. Review of personal names for Sweden.
  18. Bolotenko, George. National Archives of Canada. Review of personal names for Canada.
  19. Brady, Anne-Marie. University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Review of personal names for New Zealand.
  20. Cagnoli, Fedora. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personals name for Iberia and Latin America.
  21. Campbell, Alan. University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. Review of personal names for Great Britain.
  22. Case, Frederick Ivor. University of Toronto, Canada. Review of personal names for Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique.
  23. Castellano, Guillermina. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal name for Iberia and Latin America.
  24. Chambers, Kevin. Gonzaga University, USA. Review of personal names for Paraguay.
  25. Chaqueri, Cosroe. École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, France. Review of personal names for Iraq and Iran.
  26. Ching, Erik. Furman University, USA. Review of personal names for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
  27. Chomsky, Aviva. Salem State College, USA. Review of personal names for Costa Rica.
  28. Cottias, Myriam. Université des Antelles et de la Guyane, Martinique, France. Review of personal names for Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Haiti.
  29. Cumings, Bruce. University of Chicago, USA. Review of personal names for Korea.
  30. Cunha, Carlos. Dowling College, USA. Review of personal names for Portugal
  31. da Gama, Francisca. Massey University, New Zealand. Review of personal names for Peru.
  32. Day, Peter. Writer and independent scholar, Sydney, Australia. Review of personal names for Australia.
  33. Deeb, Mary Jane. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal name for Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen.
  34. Diouf, Sylviane. New York University, USA. Review of personal names for Senegal.
  35. Dobronravine, Nikolai. St. Petersburg State University, Russia. Review of personal names for Senegal.
  36. Drew, Allison University of York, United Kingdom. Review of personal names for South Africa.
  37. Duvenage, Linda. Independent researcher, South Africa. Review of personal names for South Africa.
  38. Edgar, Robert. Howard University, USA. Review of personal names for South Africa.
  39. Ehrick, Christine. University of Louisville, USA. Review of personal names for Uruguay.
  40. Fedor, Helen. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Czechoslovakia.
  41. Filatova, Irina. University of Durban, South Africa. Review of personal names for South Africa.
  42. Firsov, Fridrikh. Independent scholar, Lynn, Massachusetts, USA. Consultant on descriptors.
  43. Foucher, Vincent. University of London, United Kingdom. Review of personal names for Senegal.
  44. Fowler, Josephene. University of Minnesota, USA. Review of personal names for Japan.
  45. Gawdiak, Ihor. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for West Ukraine.
  46. Gobat, Michael. University of Iowa, USA. Review of personal names for Nicaragua.
  47. Gonzalez, Jose Manuel. Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sport, Spain. Review of personal names for Catalonia and Spain.
  48. Gotovitch, Jose. Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Review of personal names for Belgium
  49. Grahn, Gerlinde. Bundesarchiv, Germany. Conversion and review of personal names for Germany.
  50. Grossman, Richard. DePaul University, USA. Review of personal names for Nicaragua.
  51. Grunberger, Michael. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal name for Israel.
  52. Hadjianastasis, Marios. University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. Review of personal names for Cyprus.
  53. Harris, Grant. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal name for Albania and Romania.
  54. Haynes, John Earl. Library of Congress, USA. Coordinated recruitment of reviewers. Reviewed descriptors and names for Bangladesh, Cameroon, Ceylon, Ghana, Libya, Sudan, Yemen, and USA.
  55. Hewison, Kevin. City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Review of personal names for Thailand.
  56. Hitchins, Keith. University of Illinois, USA. Review of personal names for Romania.
  57. Hoffmann, Serge. Archives Nationales, Luxembourg. Review of personal names for Luxembourg.
  58. Holtsmark, Sven. Institute for Forsvansstudier, Norway. Review of personal names for Norway.
  59. Htway, Khin. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Burma.
  60. Ileri, Rasih Nuri, and the Social History Research Foundation of Turkey. Review of personal names for Turkey.
  61. Isserman, Maurice. Hamilton College, USA. Review of personal names for USA.
  62. Kaden, Helma. Bundesarchiv, Germany. Conversion and review of personal names for Germany.
  63. Katzoff, Beth. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Japan.
  64. Kaur, Amarjit. University of New England, Australia. Review of personal names for Malaya.
  65. Kecskeméti, Charles. Incomka, France. Recruitment of reviewers.
  66. Kelbetcheva, Evelina. American University in Bulgaria. Review of personal names for Bulgaria.
  67. Kiernan, Ben. Yale University, USA. Review of personal names for Laos.
  68. Klehr, Harvey. Emory University, USA. Review of personal names for USA.
  69. Krajlic, John. Independent scholar, Flushing, New York, USA. Review of personal names for Yugoslavia.
  70. Krekola, Joni. University of Helsinki, Finland. Review of personal names for Finland.
  71. Kuneralp, Sinan. Isis Press, Turkey. Review of personal names for Cyprus.
  72. Laine, Ed. Independent scholar, Ottawa, Canada. Review of personal names for Canada.
  73. Landauer, Hans. Documentation Archive of Austrian Resistance and Association of Austrian Republican Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War, Austria. Review of personal names for Austria.
  74. Larson, Everette. Library of Congress, USA. Transliteration and translation coordinator for Iberia and Latin America, i.e., Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Catalonia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
  75. Lee, Jongsoo. Harvard University, USA. Review of personal names for Korea.
  76. Lee, Sonya. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal name for Korea.
  77. Leibner, Gerardo. Tel Aviv University, Israel. Review of personal names for Uruguay.
  78. Leich, Harold. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, New Zealand, and USA. Translation of RGASPI descriptors.
  79. Leighton, Alan. Independent researcher, Bochum, Germany. Review of personal names for Tuva and Tannu Tuva.
  80. Lesnik, Avgust. Univerza v Ljubljani, Slovenia. Review of personal names for Yugoslavia.
  81. Lintner, Bertil. Writer/researcher with the Far Eastern Economic Review, Thailand. Review of personal names for Burma.
  82. Li, Minghua, Central Archives of China (PRC). Review of personal names for China.
  83. Lopez, Andre Ancona. Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil. Review of personal names for Brazil.
  84. Lu, Judy. Library of Congress, USA. Translation of Chinese serial titles
  85. Luaces, Nora. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal name for Iberia and Latin America.
  86. Malik, Habib. Lebanese American University, Lebanon. Review of personal names for Lebanon, Syria.
  87. Mark, Eduard. U.S. Air Force History Office, USA. Review of personal names for Romania.
  88. Markarian, Vania. Columbia University, USA. Review of personal names for Uruguay.
  89. Martynenko, Nataliya. Khakov State Medical University, Ukraine. Review of personal names for West Ukraine.
  90. Massad Joseph. Columbia University, USA. Review of personal names for Jordan.
  91. Mbodj, Mohamed. Manhattanville, College, USA. Review of personal names for Senegal.
  92. McIlroy, John. University of Manchester, United Kingdom. Review of personal names for Great Britain.
  93. McKnight, David. University of Technology, Australia. Review of personal names for Australia and New Zealand.
  94. McLoughlin, Barry. University of Vienna, Austria. Review of personal names for Austria, Great Britain, and Ireland.
  95. McVey, Ruth Independent scholar, Siena, Italy. Review of personal names for Indonesia.
  96. Mezzabotta, Liliana. Centrale Beni Archivistici, Italy. Recruitment of reviewers.
  97. Metzger, Laurent. University of La Rochelle, France. Review of personal names for Malaya and Singapore.
  98. Minucci, Sergio. Independent Researcher, Italy. Review of personal names for Italy.
  99. Mouradian, Georges. Centre des Archives du Monde du Travail, France. Conversion and review of personal names for France.
  100. Morgan, Kevin. University of Manchester, United Kingdom. Review of personal names for Great Britain, Ireland.
  101. Morriën, Joop. Independent scholar, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Review of personal names for Indonesia.
  102. Murphy, Christopher. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Turkey.
  103. Ndiaye, Papa Seydina. University of Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegal. Review of personal names for Senegal.
  104. Neubert, Michael. Library of Congress, USA. Development of the computer program to generate Library of Congress romanizations of Russian Cyrillic.
  105. Nguyen, Hoa. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Vietnam.
  106. Nyirady, Kenneth. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Hungary.
  107. O'Connor, Emmet. University of Ulster, United Kingdom. Review of personal names for Ireland.
  108. Olafsson, Jon. University of Iceland. Review of personal names for Iceland.
  109. Olave, Carlos. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Iberia and Latin America.
  110. Oldenhage, Klaus. Bundesarchiv, Germany. Recruitment of reviewers.
  111. Páez Cordero, Alexei, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Ecuador. Review of personal names for Ecuador.
  112. Paik, Haik Soon. Sejong Institute, Korea. Review of personal names for Korea.
  113. Pajic, Predrag. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Yugoslavia.
  114. Pakkasvirta, Jussi. Instituto Renvall, Finland. Review of personal names for Costa Rica.
  115. Pedersen, Vernon. American University in Bulgaria. Review of personal names for Bulgaria.
  116. Perez, Juan Manuel. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Iberia and Latin America.
  117. Perkins, Kenneth. University of South Carolina, USA. Review of personal names for Tunisia.
  118. Pernet, Corinne. Universität Zürich, Switzerland. Review of personal names for Chile.
  119. Petrák, Katalin. Institute of Political Science, Hungary. Review of personal names for Hungary.
  120. Phongpaichit, Pasuk. Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Review of personal names for Thailand.
  121. Pourhadi, Ibrahim. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Iran.
  122. Rahin, Abdul Rasoul, Afghanistan Cultural Association, Stockholm, Sweden. Review of personal names for Afghanistan.
  123. Ramos, Carla. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Iberia and Latin America
  124. Rentola, Kimmo. University of Helsinki, Finland. Review of personal names for Finland.
  125. Richards, Susan. Independet scholar, Albuquerque, USA. Review of personal names for Mexico.
  126. Rock, David. University of California, Santa Barbara, USA. Review of personal names for Argentina.
  127. Rony, Abdul. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Indonesia.
  128. Saarela, Tauno. University of Helsinki, Finland. Review of personal names for Finland.
  129. Said, Rifaat. Independent scholar, Cairo, Egypt. Review of personal names for Egypt.
  130. Sainton, Jean-Pierre. Université des Antelles et de la Guyane, Martinique, France. Review of personal names for Guadeloupe, Haiti.
  131. Salamon, Pavol. Open Society Archives of Central European University, Hungary. Review of personal names for Czechoslovakia.
  132. Santana, Marco Aurelio. University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Review of personal names for Brazil.
  133. Santiago, Aldo. College of the Holy Cross, USA. Review of personal names for El Salvador.
  134. Santiago-Valles, W.F. Western Michigan University, USA. Review of personal names for Ecuador and Puerto Rico.
  135. Sestan Lapo. Istituto Universitario Orientale, Italy. Review of personal names for Italy.
  136. Scalapino, Robert. University of California, Berkeley, USA. Review of personal names for Japan.
  137. Schaeffer, Sirikanya. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal name for Laos and Thailand.
  138. Schelchkov, Andrei. Institute for Universal History, Academy of Sciences, Russia. Review of personal names for Bolivia.
  139. Schick, Irvin. Harvard University, USA. Review of personal names for Turkey.
  140. Schlesinger, Stephen. New School University, USA. Review of personal names for Guatemala.
  141. Schwartz, Stephen. Independent scholar, Washington, USA. Review of personal names for Albania.
  142. Siekierski, Maciej. Hoover Institution, USA. Review of personal names for Poland.
  143. Sinani, Shaban. National Archives, Albania. Review of personal names for Albania.
  144. Sivan, Emmanuel. New Hebrew University, Israel. Review of personal names for Algeria.
  145. Solsten, Eric. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Italy, Netherlands, and South Africa.
  146. Spenser, Daniela. Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia Social, Mexico City. Review of personal names for Mexico.
  147. Spiegel, Taru. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.
  148. Studer, Brigitte. Universität Bern, Switzerland. Conversion and review of personal names for Switzerland.
  149. Swamy, Subramanian. Harvard University. Review of personal names for India.
  150. Taffin, Dominique. Archives of Martinique, Martinique, France. Review of personal names for Martinique
  151. Taylor, Kerry. Massey University, New Zealand. Review of personal names for New Zealand.
  152. Taylor, Robert. Independent scholar, United Kingdom. Review of personal names for Burma.
  153. Tejapira, Kasian. Thammasat University, Thailand. Review of personal names for Thailand.
  154. Thapa, Bahadur. Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Review of personal names for Nepal.
  155. Thing, Morten. Roskilde Universitetsbibliotek, Denmark. Review of personal names for Denmark
  156. Thrasher, Allen. Library of Congress, USA. Initial conversion of personal names for Bangladesh, Ceylon, India, and Nepal.
  157. Tuncay, Meta. Istanbul Bilgi Universitesi, Turkey. Review of personal names for Turkey.
  158. Van Oudenaren, John. Library of Congress, USA. Recruitment of reviewers.
  159. Vinh, Sinh. University of Alberta, Canada. Review of personal names for Vietnam.
  160. Vlavianos, Haris. Decree College, Greece. Review of personal names for Greece.
  161. Voermann, Gerrit. University of Groningen, Netherlands. Review of personal names for Netherlands.
  162. Weber, Devra. University of California, Riverside. USA. Review of personal names for Mexico.
  163. Winichakul, Thongchai. University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. Review of personal names for Thailand.
  164. Winn, Peter. Tufts University, USA. Review of personal names for Chile.
  165. Workman, Shaunetta. Library of Congress, USA. Formatting of files into tables, word-processing support and advice throughout the project.
  166. Zasloff, Joseph. University of Pittsburgh, USA. Review of personal names for Laos.
  167. Zhao, Cong, and colleagues of the State Archival Administration of China. Review of personal names for China

Of these 167 persons, 32 are U.S. Library of Congress staff and 134 are not, 70 are resident in the USA (including LoC staff) and 97 are resident outside the USA, with a total of 54 countries represented.

Countries of the historians, scholars, researchers, linguists, and other specialists who contributed to the INCOMKA project:

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Albania
  3. Australia
  4. Austria
  5. Belgium
  6. Brazil
  7. Bulgaria
  8. Canada
  9. China (PRC)
  10. Cyprus
  11. Czech Republic
  12. Denmark
  13. Ecuador
  14. Egypt
  15. Finland
  16. France
  17. Germany
  18. Greece
  19. Hungary
  20. Iceland
  21. India
  22. Ireland
  23. Israel
  24. Italy
  25. Japan
  26. Korea (ROK)
  27. Lebanon
  28. Luxembourg
  29. Martinique (France)
  30. Mexico
  31. Mongolia
  32. Morocco
  33. Nepal
  34. Netherlands
  35. New Zealand
  36. Norway
  37. Phillippines
  38. Poland
  39. Portugal
  40. Puerto Rico (USA)
  41. Russia
  42. Senegal
  43. Slovenia
  44. South Africa
  45. Spain
  46. Sweden
  47. Switzerland
  48. Thailand
  49. Turkey
  50. Ukraine
  51. United Kingdom (Great Britain)
  52. Uruguay
  53. USA
  54. Vietnam

Personal/biographical Files

Ronald Bachman supervised the initial conversion to Latin spelling by Library of Congress specialists. John Haynes coordinated the recruitment of reviewers and distributed the lists to specialists outside of the Library of Congress.

Afghanistan: fond 495-192, 34 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by A.R. Rahin.

Albania: fond 495-188, 230 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Stephen Schwartz and Shaban Sinani.

Algeria: fond 495-189, 140 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Emmanuel Sivan and Allison Drew.

Argentina: fond 495-190, 476 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by David Rock.

Australia: fond 495-186, 216 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by David McKnight and Peter Day.

Austria: fond 495-187, 3136 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Barry McLoughlin and Hans Landauer.

Bangladesh: fond 495-300, 24 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviwed by by John Haynes.

Belgium: fond 495-193, 704 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Jose Gotovitch.

Bolivia: fond 495-196, 101 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander, Marc Becker and Andrei Schelchkov.

Brazil: fond 495-197, 386 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Marco Aurelio Santana and Andre Ancona Lopez.

Bulgaria: fond 495-195, 2636 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Vernon Pedersen and Evelina Kelbetcheva.

Burma: fond 495-194, 127 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Bertil Lintner and Robert Taylor.

Cameroon: fond 495-298, 8 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by by John Haynes.

Canada: fond 495-222, 1315 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by George Bolotenko and Ed Laine.

Catalonia: fond 495-223, 142 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Jose Manuel Gonzalez and Guillermo Alonso Fernandez.

Ceylon: fond 495-271, 117 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviwed by John Haynes.

Chile: fond 495-273, 443 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Corinne Pernet and Peter Winn.

China: fond 495-225, 3,328 files; received from RGASPI in July 2001, initial conversion by LoC. Review by Chong Zhao, Li Minghua and colleagues of the Chinese archives.

Colombia: fond 495-227, 148 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander.

Comintern Administrative Department, fond 495-65a, 14,750 files. Largely the names of Soviet cadre of the Comintern with a few non-Soviets who had CPSU membership. Because these names are largely of Russian origin or were the names of Soviet national minorities often with Russified names in the original, this list has been computer transliterated with review by John Haynes.

Communist University of Toilers of the East: fond 532-11, 4,496 files; fond 532-12, 5, 900 files; fond 532-14, 117 files; and fond 532-15, 29 files; initial conversion by LoC. Because these names are largely of Russian origin or were the names of Soviet national minorities often with Russified names in the original, this list has been computer transliterated with review by John Haynes.

Communist University of National Minorities of the West: fond 529-5, 18 files; fond 529-6, 112 files; fond 529-7, 92 files; fond 529-8, 73 files; fond 529-9, 80 files; fond 529-10, 59 files; fond 529-11, 71 files; fond 529-12, 158 files; fond 529-13, 183 files; fond 529-14, 209 files; fond 529-15, 263 files; fond 529-16, 249 files; fond 529-17, 247 files; fond 529-18, 363 files; fond 529-19, 89 files; fond 529-20, 48 files; fond 529-29, 26 files; fond 529-30, 405 files; fond 529-31, 2,033 files; fond 529-38, 506 files; initial conversion by LoC. Because these names are largely of Russian origin or were the names of Soviet national minorities often with Russified names in the original, this list has been computer transliterated with review by John Haynes.

Costa Rica: fond 495-229, 74 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander, Jussi Pakkasvirta, Erik Ching and Avi Chomsky.

Cuba: fond 495-230, 375 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander and Margalit Bejarano.

Cyprus: fond 495-224, 52 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Marios Hadjianastasis and Sinan Kuneralp.

Czechoslovakia: fond 495-272, 8,267 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Pavol Salamon.

Denmark: fond 495-208, 466 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Morten Thing.

Dominican Republic: fond 495-209, 19 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander.

Egypt: fond 495-210, 200 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Rifaat Said and Joel Beinin.

El Salvador: fond 495-256, 62 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Erik Ching and Aldo Santiago.

Ecuador: fond 495-276, 75 files; initial LoC translation complete. Reviewed by Marc Becker, Alexei Páez, and W. F. Santiago-Valles.

Finland: fond 495-269, 1,987 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Kimmo Rentola, Tauno Saarela and Joni Krekola.

France: fond 495-270, 9,180 files; initial computer transliteration made by LoC. Translation and review by Georges Mouradian.

Germany: fond 495-205, 14,608 files; initial computer translation made by LoC. Translation and review by Gerlinde Grahn, Helma Kaden, and Bernhard Bayerlein.

Ghana: fond 495-283, 11 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes.

Great Britain: fond 495-198, 1,963 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Kevin Morgan, Barry McLoughlin, John McIlroy and Alan Campbell.

Greece: fond 495-207, 1,100 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Haris Vlavianos.

Guadeloupe: fond 495-203, 48 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander, Jean-Pierre Sainton, Frederick Ivor Case and Myriam Cottias

Guatemala: fond 495-204, 65 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Stephen Schlesinger.

Haiti: fond 495-202, 48 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Christian Alcindor, Frederick Case, Jean-Pierre Sainton, Andre Alizee, and Myriam Cottias.

Honduras: fond 495-206, 40 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Erik Ching and Robert Alexander.

Hungary: fond 495-199, 7011 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Katalin Petrák.

Iceland: fond 495-219, 134 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Jon Olafsson.

India: fond 495-213, 790 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Subramanian Swamy.

Indonesia: fond 495-214, 260 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Joop Morriën and Ruth McVey.

Iran: fond 495-217, 895 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Cosroe Chaqueri.

Iraq: fond 495-216, 255 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Cosroe Chaqueri

Ireland: fond 495-218, 77 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Kevin Morgan, Barry McLoughlin, and Emmet O'Connor.

Israel: fond 495-212, 389 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Shlomo Avineri and Joel Beinin.

Italy: fond 495-221, 3,888 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Sergio Bertolissi, Lapo Sestan, and Sergio Minucci.

Japan: fond 495-280, 661 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Scalapino and Josephene Fowler.

Jordan: fond 495-215, 37 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Joseph Massad.

Korea: fond 495-228, 1,724 files; initial LoC translation made. Reviewed by Bruce Cumings, Haik Soon Paik and Jongsoo Lee.

Laos: fond 495-231, 36 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Ben Kiernan and Joseph Zasloff.

Lebanon: fond 495-232, 127 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Habib Malik.

Lesotho: fond 495-297, 4 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes.

Libya: fond 495-234, 5 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes.

Luxembourg: fond 495-233, 50 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Serge Hoffmann.

Malaya: fond 495-235, 12 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Laurent Metzger and Amarjit Kaur.

Malta: fond 495-236, 2 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes.

Manchuria: fond 495-238, 65 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes

Martinique: fond 495-240, 36 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander, Frederick Ivor Case, Dominique Taffin, and Myriam Cottias.

Mauritius: fond 495-237, 4 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes.

Mexico: fond 495-241, 346 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Daniela Spenser, Robert Alexander, Devra Weber, and Susan Richards .

Mongolia: fond 495-242, 652 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Batsaikhan Ookhnol.

Morocco: fond 495-239, 51 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Adbelmajid Benjelloun.

Nepal: fond 495-243, 16 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Bahadur Thapa.

Netherlands: fond 495-244, 647 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Gerrit Voermann.

New Zealand: fond 495-246, 66 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by David McKnight, Kerry Taylor and Anne-Marie Brady.

Nicaragua: fond 495-245, 53 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Erik Ching, Robert Alexander, Michael Gobat, and Richard Grossman.

Norway: fond 495-247, 665 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Sven Holtsmark.

Oman: fond 495-248, 2 files; received in July 2001, initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes

Panama: fond 495-249, 74 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Erik Ching.

Paraguay: fond 495-250, 64 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Kevin Chambers.

Peru: fond 495-251, 96 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Marc Becker and Francisca da Gama.

Philippines: fond 495-268, 51 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Patricio Abinales.

Poland: fond 495-252, 11,970 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Wlodzimierz Batóg and Maciej Siekierski.

Portugal: fond 495-253, 161 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Carlos Cunha.

Puerto Rico: fond 495-254, 37 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by W. F. Santiago-Valles.

Romania: fond 495-255, 2646 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Keith Hitchins and Eduard Mark.

Saudi Arabia: fond 495-191, 3 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviwed by John Haynes.

Senegal: fond 495-284, 50 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Vincent Foucher, Mohamed Mbodj, Sylviane Diouf, Nikolai Dobronravine, and Papa Seydina Ndiaye.

Singapore: fond 495-257, 3 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Laurent Metzger.

South Africa: fond 495-279, 144 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Edgar, Allison Drew, Irina Filatova, and Linda Duvenage.

Spain: fond 495-220, 4,058 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Jose Manuel Gonzalez and Guillermo Alonso.

Sudan: fond 495-259, 21 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviwed by John Haynes.

Sweden: fond 495-275, 750 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Lars Bjorlin.

Switzerland: fond 495-274, 387 files; initial LoC computer translation; Translation and review by Brigitte Studer.

Syria: fond 495-258, 171 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Habib Malik.

Tannu Tuva: fond 495-263, 12 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Alan Leighton.

Thailand: fond 495-260, 55 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Kevin Hewison, Pasuk Phongpaichit, Chris Baker, Kasian Tejapira and Thongchai Winichakul.

Trieste: fond 495-262, 11 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by State Archive of Italy.

Turkey: fond 495-266, 322 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Irvin Schick, Meta Tuncay, Rasih Ileri and the Social History Research Foundation of Turkey.

Tunisia: fond 495-265, 52 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Kenneth Perkins.

Tuva: fond 495-264, 77 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Alan Leighton.

Ukraine, West: fond 495-281, 218 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Nataliya Martynenko.

Uruguay: fond 495-267, 268 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Christine Ehrick, Gerardo Leibner and Vania Markarian.

USA: fond 495-261, 6,846 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Maurice Isserman.

Venezuela: fond 495-200, 151 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Robert Alexander.

Vietnam: fond 495-201, 139 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by Sinh Vinh.

Xinjiang: fond 495-226, 88 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes.

Yemen: fond 495-211, 44 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Haynes.

Yugoslavia: fond 495-277, 2,527 files; initial conversion by LoC. Reviewed by John Krajlic and Avgust Lesnik.

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  September 21, 2010
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