Library of Congress Manuscripts: An Illustrated Guide
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Many of the country's earliest leaders recognized the historical significance of their papers, none more so than Thomas Jefferson, who in 1823 wrote that it was "the duty of every good citizen to use all the opportunities, which occur to him, for preserving documents relating to the history of our country." [1] Jefferson meticulously cared for his own papers and actively collected documents relating to the early history of Virginia and the United States. In fact, when Congress purchased Jefferson's library in 1815 to replace the earlier library burned by British troops during the War of 1812, important manuscript records were included among the books and maps. These earliest manuscripts acquired by the Library of Congress concerned the Virginia Company of London, the commercial body that founded--and for a short time governed--the oldest English-speaking colony in North America, Jefferson's beloved commonwealth of Virginia.

After Jefferson's death, the Library purchased at auction in 1829 the president's remaining collection of Virginia Company records. In the 164 years since the second Jefferson acquisition, the Library has amassed an unparalleled collection of manuscripts. Some of these are housed in the Library's music, rare book, and area studies divisions, but most are in the custody of the Manuscript Division, one of the original departments established in 1897, when the Library moved across the street from its cramped quarters in the United States Capitol to its own magnificent new structure, later appropriately named the Thomas Jefferson Building.

Thumbnail image of original Rough draft of the Declaration of 
Independence One of the Library's rarest treasures is the "original Rough draft" of the Declaration of Independence [Page 1] [Page 2] [Page 3] [Page 4] in Thomas Jefferson's own hand. On 11 June 1776, Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert L. Livingston were appointed to a committee of the Continental Congress "to prepare the declaration." The four-page manuscript in Jefferson's handwriting may have been a clean copy of earlier creative drafts prepared by him, which no longer exist. Jefferson's draft was submitted to the committee members, and it bears the emendations made first by Adams and Franklin and later by the whole Congress before its final adoption on 4 July 1776. (Thomas Jefferson Papers)

The first chief of the Manuscript Division estimated that the size of his collections was twenty-five thousand items. Today, nearly a century later, the division holds ten thousand collections containing more than fifty million items. These collections document all aspects of American history and culture and include some of the nation's greatest manuscript treasures. Among these are Jefferson's rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, James Madison's notes on the Constitutional Convention, the paper tape of the first telegraphic message, Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Alexander Graham Bell's first drawing of the telephone, and similar items recording dramatic events in the nation's history. Represented are the papers of most of the presidents of the United States, their Cabinet ministers, many of their colleagues and adversaries in the Senate and House of Representatives, members of the Supreme Court and federal judiciary, military officers and diplomats, artists and writers, scientists and inventors, and other prominent Americans whose lives reflect our country's evolution.

The overwhelming majority of the division's collections comprise the personal papers of individuals and families. They differ from the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration, which maintains the official records of the United States government. The most interesting of the Manuscript Division collections relate not only to individuals' professional or political careers but reflect their private lives, suggesting how their origins, family relationships, personal experiences, motivations, prejudices, and humor affected their public behavior and activities. As a record of the whole person, these collections contain many different types of manuscripts. Included are diaries, correspondence (both incoming and copies of outgoing letters), notebooks, accounts, logs, scrapbooks, press clippings, subject files, photographs, and other documents in every conceivable form-- handwritten and typewritten, originals, carbons, letterpress copies, microfilm, and computer diskettes. When the poet Carl Sandburg wrote about the private Lincoln collection of Oliver Barrett, he could just as easily have been describing the papers in the Manuscript Division:

Many kinds of paper here--heavy parchment and vellum engrossed--legal cap--letter and note paper--scrap--newsprint of the later era now beginning to disintegrate--rag paper of the previous generation, tough and fibrous and good for centuries to come with its register of handwriting or printing--quiet paper that whispers its tender message, or groaning, roaring paper that for those of imagination carries its own grief or elation of a vanished hour and day. Paper, if you please, sir or madam, as soundless as hushed footfalls on silent snow. [2]

Thumbnail image of Civil War letter from Charles Wellington Reed 
     (1841-1926) to his mother Although most of the Manuscript Division's collections comprise the papers of nationally prominent individuals, ordinary men and women are also represented, especially among our military collections, many of which include correspondence between family members separated by war. Shown here is a Civil War letter from Charles Wellington Reed (1841-1926) to his mother. Reed, a private in the Ninth Massachusetts Light Artillery, frequently decorated his letters home with pencil sketches of army life. His artistic talent gained him a position in the Topographic Engineers, Army of the Potomac. (Charles W. Reed Papers)

Although interesting as artifacts, the real worth of the manuscripts in the Library of Congress lies in their evidentiary value. They are the primary sources upon which the writing of history is based. They permit scholars to reconstruct and understand the past, interpret the national character, and set the record straight about events and personalities often shrouded in mystery and steeped in controversy. The historical value of the Library's manuscripts is enhanced by their scope, size, and concentration in one place. A scholar planning initially to consult one collection will be drawn to a complementary collection containing documents which clarify, enhance, and contradict the first set of manuscripts. It is rare for patrons to leave the Manuscript Division without finding something relevant to their research. Moreover, the Library's manuscripts are housed in immediate proximity to the institution's unsurpassed collections of books, pamphlets, magazines, newspapers, maps, motion pictures, charts, prints, sound recordings, and photographs that can supplement the scholar's manuscript research.

Manuscripts are normally acquired by the Library of Congress in one of three ways: purchase, gift, or copyright deposit. Many of the earliest acquisitions were purchased by the Library directly or transferred from other government agencies. For example, in 1867 Congress appropriated $100,000 to purchase the Peter Force Papers, one of the nation's first great privately assembled manuscript collections. A year earlier, Dolley Madison's papers had been transferred from the Smithsonian Institution, and in 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order directing the transfer to the Manuscript Division of the State Department's historical archives. Roosevelt's action, one of the most significant in the division's history, brought to the Library the major corpus of the papers of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe, as well as large bodies of the papers of Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton. Funds established by private benefactors also permitted the Library to purchase manuscripts unobtainable within the budget appropriated by Congress, including the papers of poet Walt Whitman, artist James A. McNeill Whistler, and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, as well as copies of records in foreign repositories relating to American history.

Thumbnail image of letter to western writer Owen Wister by Frederic Remington In this second page of an undated letter to western writer Owen Wister, Frederic Remington--sculptor, illustrator, and painter--muses about the permanence of his bronze sculptures and the instability of his oil paintings and water colors. The ink sketch of Remington's famous Bronco Buster, on which he had just begin work (ca. 1894), documents the artist's ambition to record the vanishing West during his extensive travels. (Owen Wister Papers)

Notwithstanding these notable purchases, most of the Manuscript Division's acquisitions in the twentieth century have been donated or, in the case of microfilm, acquired through copyright deposit. Many prominent Americans have accepted the division's invitation to donate their papers to the national library during their lifetimes. Other collections have been bequeathed or received as gifts from heirs. Only through the generosity of countless donors has the Manuscript Division amassed one of the world's finest collections of historical manuscripts. As such, our holdings are a testament to the patriotism of the American people.

Once acquired, an expert processing staff sorts, arranges, and describes incoming collections--occasionally discovering in the process locks of hair, articles of clothing, revolvers, jewelry, pressed flowers, pieces of wedding cakes, badges, pins, and other oddities accidently donated with the manuscripts. The organized collections are stored in acid-free folders within similarly treated containers to retard deterioration. The containers are then shelved in secure, fireproof stacks with temperature and humidity controls. Damaged items are repaired and restored by talented and knowledgeable specialists in the Library's state-of- the-art conservation facilities.

The ease with which a collection is organized depends upon the condition and order of the manuscripts upon receipt. Many present- day archivists can appreciate former President Madison's despair that the "tedious" arrangement of his papers was absorbing more of his time than anticipated, interfering, he added, with the enjoyment of his retirement. [3] During the third winter that her husband devoted to his manuscripts, Dolley Madison restlessly noted that "the business seems to accumulate as he proceeds, so that it might outlast my patience, and yet I cannot press him to forsake a duty so important, or find it in my heart to leave him during its fulfillment."[4] Careful arrangement and accurate description are indeed time-consuming and important tasks. Both contribute to a collection's preservation, security, and accessibility for research use.

Once collections are processed, they are made available within established guidelines to interested scholars in the Manuscript Division Reading Room. Professional librarians and subject specialists are available to advise patrons about new avenues of research, direct them to relevant source materials, and answer reference queries about the division's holdings.

Thumbnail image of Maud Wood Park, first 
president of 
the National League of Women Voters Maud Wood Park (right), first president of the National League of Women Voters (LWV), displays the planks the organization urged on the Democratic Platform Committee in the 1920 presidential election, the first in which women could vote. The LWV evolved from the National American Woman Suffrage Association, and the Library holds the papers of both groups and of many of their leaders. Maud Wood Park Papers

Mining the treasures of the Manuscript Division is a lifelong pursuit for researchers and staff alike. Longtime employees are constantly amazed by both the documented riches and the unexpected finds. The thrill of discovering the unknown, the excitement of handling famous documents, and the feeling of connectedness with people and events of the past are among the most satisfying aspects of archival work. Through the Library's diverse collection of manuscripts, history comes alive, attaining an immediacy that is both unique and rewarding for anyone who ventures into the Manuscript Division's holdings. Letters and diaries--from both the recent and the distant past--speak of a nation's hopes, disappointments, and accomplishments. The style and modes of expression differ markedly, but whether eloquent or crude, these manuscripts transport the reader to a time and place that may be radically different from the present or, conversely, seem either frighteningly or comfortingly familiar. By collecting, preserving, and making available for research use documents of the American past, the Manuscript Division promotes the pursuit of knowledge that is central to all great civilizations. We are proud to serve as custodians of the nation's historical legacy and invite you to learn more about the division's holdings in the following pages.

James H Hutson,
Chief, Manuscript Division


1. Thomas Jefferson to Hugh P. Taylor, 4 October 1823, Thomas Jefferson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Return to text

2. Carl Sandburg, Lincoln Collector: The Story of Oliver R. Barrett's Great Private Collection (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1949), 4. Return to text

3. James Madison to John G. Jackson, 27 December 1821, James Madison Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Return to text

4. Dolley Madison to Mrs. Andrew Stevenson, 1826, as quoted in Allen C. Clark, Life and Letters of Dolly Madison (Washington: W. F. Roberts Co., 1914), 223. Return to text

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