U.S. DEFENSE BUDGETS AND MILITARY SPENDING
Information, Documents, and Publications. Reference aid. Preliminary
By George Caldwell,
Senior Specialist in U.S. Government Documents
Serial & Government Publications Division
Library of Congress
FIRST STOP: GENERAL STATISTICS
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Annual.
U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Budget of the United States Government.
American Statistics Index. Congressional Information Service, Inc.
subject terms: "Defense budgets and appropriations." "Defense expenditures."
DETAILED STATISTICS; SOME PRIMARY SOURCES
1. Budget of the United States Government. Appendix (formerly a separate
2. Appropriations hearings for the Defense Department, especially ones by the
House Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense. More information below.
3. Appropriations Committee reports and Conference reports on defense
appropriations bills (p.2)
4. Public Laws resulting from the defense appropriation bills.
5. Defense Department documents C-1, P-1, and R-1. More information below
6. Program Acquisition Costs by Weapons Systems. See below (page 4)
7. Requirements for Recurring Reports to the Congress; a directory issued by
the Comptroller General. U.S. General Accounting Office. No longer
published, nor are tapes available to the public. Might prove useful at
times for older information (and maybe current, too).
8. DIOR reports. Def. Dept.'s Directorate for Information Operations &
Reports. See page 3.
9. FORECAST INTERNATIONAL/DMS. Formerly, DMS Market Intelligence Reports. See
"DMS" page 4.
10. Other commercial publications. Examples: The Defense Budget; a
comprehensive reference by Technology Trends Corp. U.S. Weapons Systems
Costs by Data Search Associates. See below.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBJECT HEADINGS: "Department of Defense --Appropriations
and expenditures." "United States--Armed Forces--Appropriations and
(See also the subdivision "Appropriations and expenditures" under branches of
the armed services).
SCORPIO DATABASES: "Defense Budgets--U.S." "U.S. Department of Defense--
Appropriations." "U.S. Department of Defense--Authorization."
Research Guide to Current Military and Strategic Affairs. William Arkin.
Washington, D.C. Institute for Policy Studies. 1981.
The Defense Budget; a comprehensive reference. 1986. Technology Trends
Corporation, Arlington, VA
The Defense Budget Process in the Washington Community. Patricia D. Woods. 1985.
AIR FORCE BUDGET. (United States. Air Force. Office of Comptroller.) UG 633.U48
(8th edition was 1976. Sold by Supt. of Documents, GPO.) 76-375999
ANNUAL REPORT. 1) U.S. Dept of Defense. Report. 1st- 1948-. UA 23.2.A32.
2)___. Report, including the reports of the secretary of defense...Secretary
of the Army..Navy..Air Force. UA 23.2.A33. 3) Report of the Secretary of
Defense to the Congress. 1975-78. ISSN 0098-3888. 4) Annual Report--Dept.
of Defense. 1978/79. ISSN 0082-9854. 5) U.S. Dept. of Defense. Report of
the Secretary of Defense to the Congress on budget, authorizing requests,
and defense programs. 1979/80-. UA23.2.D476. D1.:[yr]. GPO S/N 008-000-00545-1
APPROPRIATION. In effect, it gives an agency the money to spend. Technically,
a form of budget authority given by Congress to an agency or program, which
permits the spending of funds for purposes specifically set forth by
Congress. Appropriated for a given amount of time. Not necessarily spent in
APPROPRIATIONS HEARINGS. Example: Department of Defense Appropriations for
1992. Hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations,
House of Representatives. 102d Congress, 1st session. Y4.Ap6/1:D36/5/992/pts.
1-8. Partial contents: Pt. 1: Report of the Secretary of Defense to the
President and Congress. Jan.1991. 134p. 1991 Joint Military Net Assessment.
120p. The United States Army Force Report to the 102d Congress..Fiscal Year
1992/93. 41p. + Appendix, 6p. (Appendix gives detailed figures on
appropriations for B-2A, C-17, F-16, Maverick, Titan, etc. The Secretary of
the Navy's Posture Statement. 24p.
Annual report to Congress..by...Commandant of the Marine Corps. 29p. PART 2
(2d vol. of hearings): Includes "B-2 Program, Fiscal Year 1991." PART 3:
Includes "Fiscal Year 1991 Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm Supplemental."
PART 5: Includes Total Force Policy Report to the Congress. 71p.
(+ Supplemental, 197p.)
PART 7: Includes Statement to the Congress FY 92 Army RDT&E and Procurement
AUTHORIZATION ACT. Establishes or maintains a government program or agency.
May set specific limits on amount Congress can appropriate for a program.
Gives permission to an agency to spend funds. Example: H.R. 5167 and PL 98-525
for FY 1985. (Related documents: National Defense Authorization Act Fiscal
Year...; Report to accompany [H.R. 4264, etc.] [100th Congress,, 2d session,
etc. H.Rp. 100-563, etc.] Other samples: National Defense Authorization Act
for Fiscal Year...; Report to accompany S.2335, 100th Congress, 2d session,
Sen.Rp. 100-326. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1989;
Conference Report to accompany H.R. 4481, 100th Congress, 2d session, H.Rp.
BLACK BUDGET. A popular term for that part of the military budget which is
classified. Some call it the "super-secret" part, classified even higher than
"Top secret." Projects thus funded have been called "black programs." The
official name is Special Access Required Projects, or Special Access Programs.
Only a few members of Congress have access to this information. Controversy
has arisen over whether too much military information is hidden from Congress
and the public. GAO has identified about 185 programs. Black Programs have
been said to include the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, or "Star Wars;")
"stealth" planes and missiles; etc. The House Armed Services Committee said
a major part of the funding was for two programs, the Stealth Bomber and the
Advanced Cruise Missile, and that the "black" programs increased eightfold
in 1981-1986. There is no authoritative total, but recent estimates for secret
military spending are $30 to $35 billion per year. Programs may appear in the
DoD budget only as code names such as "Grass Blade," "Chalk Eagle," "Dark
Eyes," "Guardian Bear," and "Sea Nymph." A recent book on the subject is
Blank Check; the Pentagon's Black Budget, by Tim Weiner (UA25.5.W45 1990)
BUDGET AND FISCAL CODING MANUAL OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE.
PB 89-100788. Buy from NTIS, or examine at Library of Congress Technical
BUDGET GUIDANCE MANUAL. DoD Directive 7110.1-1M. Internal document. Shows what
forms to use in budget process, etc. Usually not found in libraries. Revised
every year. To obtain, apply to Freedom of Information Office in the Defense
BUDGET PRESS RELEASES. Sample: "Amended FY 1990/FY 1991 Dept. of Defense
BUDGET REVISION, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FISCAL YEARS 1990 & 1991. PB 89-186878.
(NTIS & LC).
BUDGET OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, FISCAL YEAR... U.S. Office of Management
and Budget. One portion summarizes the President's proposed defense budget. An
Appendix volume, formerly published, contained detailed information on
appropriations and funds.
C-1. CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMS (C-1); Department of Defense Budget for Fiscal
Years... For sale by NTIS, or available for examination in LC's Technical
Reports Section. Examples: PB 86-153012 (FY 1987). PB 87-138921 (1988 & 1989).
PB 88-165428 (FY 1988 & 1989, Amended FY 1988/1989 Biennial Budget). PB 89-
134902 (FY 1990 and 1991). PB 90-150004 (FY 1991).
CONFERENCE REPORT. Report issued after House and Senate conferees resolve
differences between bills passed in House and Senate. Sample: Defense
Appropriation, Fiscal Year 1979;...Conference Report. H.Rp. 95-1764. Serial Set
vol. 13201-15. Includes appropriation amounts for eight CH-47C Chinook
helicopters ($33 million); F-18 (fighter) Hornet ($429.5 million).
CONGRESSIONAL DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES. Budget document. Lists program elements by
Congressional districts. For official use only. Limited distribution. FY87 DTIC:
Part 1, ADB 09949-0. Part 2, ADB 09949-1.
CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS. Community Services Administration published data on
distribution of federal funds by Congressional districts until it was abolished
in 1981. Census Bureau provided only state figures for fiscal 1981 and fiscal
1982. Congress passed a resolution requiring Census Bureau to report spending
patterns for Congressional districts in FY 1983. Employment Research Associates,
a small consulting company in Lansing, Michigan, has published figures on
military expenditures by Congressional districts.
DEFENSE GUIDANCE. Various names and descriptions used, some by newspapers:
Secret annual compilation of U.S military objectives as authorized within the
Pentagon. Secret annual long-range directive to the top military leaders. Annual
memorandum by Secretary of Defense with criteria, limitations. and factors for
budget submittals. In response, each DoD component submits a Program Objectives
Memorandum (POM). Provides direction for POMs. Basic document used by the
military in devising their long-range programs and budget plans. Other terms:
"The Guidance" and the "Consolidated Defense Guidance." (IN 1986, excerpts were
published in the Armed Forces Journal).
DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY. In depository collections, see D1.81:[yr]. However, in a
document such as the Descriptive Summary of the Research, Development, Test,
and Evaluation Army Appropriations Fiscal Year...(3 volumes) the information is
for official use only, so not available at Library of Congress. DTIC: ADB 110257
(Vol.1). ADB 110258 (Vol.2).
DIOR REPORTS. These form a series of annual publications produced by the Defense
Department's Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. Sample titles:
100 Companies Receiving the Largest Dollar Volume of Prime Contract Awards
(approx. 12p.); 500 Contractors Receiving the Largest Dollar Volume of Prime
Contract Awards for RDT&E--P 02 (approx. 40p.); Dollar Summary of Prime Contract
Awards by Contractor, State or Country, and Place--ST 19 (approx 2100p.). In
recent years, GPO has sent the small P series publications to depository
libraries, but not the large ST series (Standard Tabulations). Current P series
sold by GPO. P series for prior fiscal years and all standard tabulations are
available for sale at NTIS. For information on NTIS stock, consult Government
Reports Annual Index volumes, or call NTIS Identification Unit. Some of the P
series reports are contained in American Statistics Index microfiche set. For
listing and description of all the DIOR series, with order information, see the
catalog of DIOR Reports published annually by the Directorate for Information
Operations and Reports, Washington Headquarters Services, Office of the
Secretary of Defense.
(DMS) -- FORECAST INTERNATIONAL/DMS. Formerly published by Defense Marketing
Services, a division of Jane's Publishing. An extensive series of large volumes
with detailed information on numerous weapons systems and the companies which
have the contracts to produce them. Sample volumes: U.S. Carriers (HE
9803.A4d44); Electronic Systems (HD 9696.A3U5364); Military Laser...; Missiles,
Spacecraft; etc. (Sample contents: The 1985 O&M:Companies volume shows the
company, General Dynamics, as having received in FY 1984 an estimated $40.5
million for support services on F-16 fighter aircraft; $29.5 million for
maintenance and repair services on the Tomahawk missile; $55 million for
modification and engineering of the Trident submarines; etc.) The LC Main
Reading Room reference collection has a number of DMS volumes. DMS information
is available online: Dialog File 589 is for DMS Market Intelligence Reports, and
File 588 is for DMS contractors records.
FORECAST INTERNATIONAL/DMS. See "(DMS)" above.
FINANCIAL SUMMARY TABLES. Comptroller, Office of the Secretary of Defense.
Annual. (Library of Congress information: UA 23.2.D47e. 88-659059. Serial Record
main entry: "United States. Financial..." Holdings: only 1988/89, 1 vol., as of
3/27/92). Not listed in the Monthly Catalog of U.S. Government Publications,
FIVE-YEAR DEFENSE PROGRAM (FYDP). Long-range budget for weapons to be purchased
5 years into the future. Secretary of Defense's current plan. updated 3 times
a year, with line item, program, and account funding for next five years. Fat
books organized by broad themes. E.G., one volume on nuclear weapons, one volume
on conventional weapons, etc. Senator Weicker contended some years ago in the
NY Times that the Defense Department had two different sets of books-- one 5-
year plan for Congress, and a different set for the Pentagon only (6/22/88).
JUSTIFICATION BOOKS. Also known as Congressional Justification Books, or
Justification Estimates. Defense Department sends them to Congress. Samples:
1) Department of the Air Force Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years
1988/1989 submitted to Congress January 1987; Operation and Maintenance, Air
Force. Vol. 1 (PB 87-181889), Vol. 2 (PB 87-174595). Air National Guard FY 1988
and 1989 (PB 87-174587). 2) Department of the Army Justification of Estimates
for Fiscal Year...Submitted to Congress: Procurement Programs. Separate volumes
on "Missiles," "Weapons and Tracked Combat Vehicles," etc. 3) Department of
Navy Justification of Estimates FY83: Operation and Maintenance. (See
"OPERATIONS..." below). 4) Justification of Estimates for FY...Submitted to
Congress...Operation and Maintenance, Army. Annual. (LC info.: 90-640434. Serial
Record main entry: "United States. Justification..." Holdings: 1990-1991, Parts
1-3 [as of 3/27/92]). Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year...Submitted to
Congress...Reserve Personnel, Army. (LC info.: 87-855802. Serial Record main
entry: "United States. Justification..." Holdings: only 1987, as of 3-27-92.)
LINE ITEMS. Budgets are approved at the line item level. Line item numbers are
sequential within appropriations. The President requests and the Congress
approves (or disapproves) budget authority for each line. A line item can
represent an entire program. But usually a program has several line items, for:
RDT&E, procurement, spares, modifications, etc. (See also "PROGRAM ELEMENTS" and
PEN numbers, below).
MILITARY POSTURE. United States Military Posture for FY... Prepared by the
Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. ("Primary purpose..supplemental
testimony by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and members of the
Organization of JCS at Congressional hearings in support of Fiscal Year Defense
Budget.") D 5.19:[yr] (Earlier, D 5.2:P84/[yr]).
MILITARY POSTURE HEARINGS. Example: House Armed Services Committee hearings on
Military Posture...Feb. 3-...May 5, 1981. H.A.S.C. No. 97-6.
NATIONAL DEFENSE BUDGET ESTIMATES. Office of the Assistant Secretary
(Comptroller). Annual. LC no. sn91-19532. OCLC #9841699. Not in the Library of
Congress' general collection or depository collection. Not in Monthly Catalog
of U.S. Government Publications, 1976-1991.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE OVERVIEW. Office of the Secretary of Defense.
Separate volumes for Army, Air Force, and Navy. "Program activities" section at
back shows things like military recruiting--numbers 7, 8, and 9. Not in LC's
general or depository collections. Not in Monthly Catalog. A caller had 1987
edition obtained through Freedom of Information.
P-1. PROCUREMENT PROGRAM (P-1); Department of Defense Budget for Fiscal Year....
Office of Asst. Secr. of Def. (Comptroller). DoD budget submittal document
listing all procurement line items, thus providing line item information.
Unclassified version issued since early 1970s. Sent annually to DoD oversight
committees of Congress at the same time the President sends the Budget of the
U.S. Government. It is derived from the DoD Five Year Defense Program Annex
database. Separate sections for Army, Navy, Air Force, and Defense agencies. The
unclassified version is provided to the DoD's Public Affairs office. The P-1
document has a supporting document called Justification of Estimates, which
presents background and rationale for each line item or group of line items. For
sale by NTIS. Examples: PB 86-153038 (FY 1987). PB 87-138947 (FY 1988 & 1989).
PB 88-165428 (FY 1988 & 1989, Amended FY 1988/1989 Biennial Budget). PB 89-
134894 (FY 1990 & 1991). PB 90-149998 (FY 1991). PB reports can be examined
(microfiche) in LC's Technical Reports Section. P-1's are contained in the
American Statistics Index microfiche set (3544-32).
PROGRAM ACQUISITION COSTS BY WEAPON SYSTEMS: Department of Defense Budget for
Fiscal Year... Annual. (LC info.: UA23.2.D47f. 89-644102. Gen. collection: 1
vol., 1988-89, as of 3/27/92. LC Tech. Reports Sec. has PB editions on
microfiche). Not in Monthly Catalog of U.S. Govt. Pubns., 1976-91. NTIS sample:
PB 90-150012 (FY 1991). Center for Defense Information library reported having
1974+, as did Pentagon Library.
PROGRAM ELEMENTS. Program Elements are the building blocks of the budget. Each
line item in defense budget has a Program Element Number (PEN). A program
element is an activity which combines men, equipment, and facilities. It can be
a project, a grouping of forces, or manpower. (Example: budget for B-52
squadrons was broken down into a number of program elements such as PEN 2601,
Strategic radar update; PEN 2632, Offensive avionics systems; etc. The DoD
documents C-1, P-1, and R-1 list program elements as line items in numerical
order by proj.el.numbers. Program Element Descriptive Summaries (PEDS) are
justification docs. that accompany another document, R-1, with budget requests
presented by program elements.
R-1. RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, TEST & EVALUATION (RDT&E) PROGRAMS (R-1); Department
of Defense Fiscal Year... Office of Asst. Secr. of Def. (Comptroller). DoD
budget submittal document listing all RDT&E line items in numerical order by
program element numbers. Provided annually to DoD oversight committees of
Congress when President sends Budget. Unclassified version goes to DoD Public
Affairs. For sale by NTIS; examples: PB 86-153020 (FY 1987). PB 87-138939 (FY
1988 & 1989). PB 88-165451 (Amended FY 1988/89 Biennial Budget). PB 89-134928
(FY 1990 & 1991). PB 150020 (FY 1991). PB editions in microfiche are available
for examination in LC's Tech. Reports Section. Amer. Statis. Index microfiche
set: # 3544-33.
SELECTED ACQUISITIONS REPORTS (SARs). Definitive Pentagon documents on costs of
weapons systems. Quarterly. Not available to the public. Defense Secretary
submits to Congress each fiscal quarter this report on status of current major
defense acquisition programs. SARs have been said to be about 1200 pages long.
Only tiny summaries (1-2 pages each) are made public. Aerospace Daily has
published summaries as they came out.
SUPPORTING DATA; BUDGET ESTIMATES SUBMITTED TO CONGRESS DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES.
Annual. Two thick volumes. Classified, thus not in LC. Check with Armed Serv.
and Appropriations committees.
VOLUMES BY TED NICHOLAS AND DATA SEARCH ASSOCIATES. Detailed info: U.S.
Historical Military Aircraft & Missile Data Book. U.S. Military Defense. U.S.
Weapon Systems Costs.