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Western Survey Photographs: A Checklist of the Stereographs from the Clarence King and George M. Wheeler Explorations, 1867-1874


Checklist 5

Stereographs from Lieutenant George M. Wheeler's Western Survey, 1871 through 1873, Published 1874-1875

Apache Braves, ready for the trail (front) Apache Braves, ready for the trail (back)
Timothy H. O'Sullivan. Apache Braves, ready for the trail, Arizona, 1873. LC-DIG-stereo-1s01780

A set of one hundred stereographs was published in 1874-1875 on official War Department mounts. The list below includes Timothy H. O'Sullivan's views from 1871 and 1873 and William Bell's stereographs from 1872. Titles are transcribed here exactly as printed on the mounts. The stereographs are albumen silver prints on four-by-seven-inch mounts. Unless noted, all of the stereographs listed are from the collection of the National Archives and Records Administration.

1871, Timothy O'Sullivan, photographer

Stereo #CaptionIdentification #
No. 1.The Start from Camp Mojave, Arizona, September 15, 1871. Boat expedition under Lieutenant Wheeler, the first and only one to ascend the Colorado through the Grand Cañon to mouth of Diamond Creek. Distance traveled 260 miles in 31 days, the boats often having to be portaged around rapids and drawn over rocks. (F.111.)
No. 2. Nee-chi-qua-ra, a good specimen of the Mohave type. (F.132.)
No. 3. Camp in Painted Cañon, Colorado River. Here a halt was made to repair boats, &c., and prepare for the further ascent through the Black and Grand Cañons. (F.114.)
No. 4. First halt within the Black Cañon. Walls 1,500 feet. (F.116.)
No. 5. Snug Harbor, Black Cañon. Halt for the night. (F. 117.)
No. 6. Light and Shadow, Black Cañon; walls about 1,700 feet in height. At water-line the sky was hardly visible, except near middle of the stream. Width of river not more than 300 feet. The river seldom wider than 400 feet. (F.119.)
No. 7. Middle of Black Cañon, looking down stream. Walls from 800 to 1,200 feet. At this point silence reigns supreme. No ripple of the water, no sound of bird or breeze, and naught to disturb the solemnity and impressiveness of the scene. (F. 120.)
No. 8. View across Black Cañon. The grand walls in perspective. (F. 123.)
No. 9. View down Black Cañon from Mirror Bar. The walls repeated by reflection. (F. 126.)
No. 10. Mojave Indians caught napping. The first opportunity to get pictures of them, owing to a superstitious fear of the camera. The weather was quite warm, as may be inferred from the lack of covering. (The geologist in the background pondering whether the specimens before him are pliocene or eocene, but concludes that they are "carboniferous.") (F.127.)
No. 11. Melon Cactus, (Cereus ctenoides,) 3 feet in height and 16 inches in diameter. Found quite numerous in this locality, in company with the (Echino-cactus lecontei.) The thorns of the latter are hook-shaped, and woe betide the man that comes in contact with it. It seems to thrive best among volcanic rocks. (F. 135.)
No. 12. Camp at the crossing of the Colorado, just below the mouth of the Grand Cañon. At this point two divisions of the expedition, operating in the country north of the river, met the boat party, and were transferred by it to the opposite shore. (F.130.)
No. 13. Triangulation station, near the mouth of the Grand Cañon, Colorado River. (F.134.)
No. 14. Grotto Spring, Grand Cañon, Colorado River. The water flows from the rocks above, and the umbrella-shaped rock about it is tufa, that has been formed by deposition from the mineral constituents of the water. The light spot seen through and beyond is the sand-beach of the river. Looking through this grotto is seen in the distance the walls of the Grand Cañon, 3,500 feet in height on either side. (F. 136.)
No. 15. View in the Grand Cañon of the Colorado. Characteristic walls 5,000 feet in height. (F.145.)
No. 16. Maiman, a Mohave Indian, guide and interpreter during a portion of the season in the Colorado country. He afterward assisted in tracing out the Indian band, some of whose members were engaged in the Wickenburg stage massacre, where young Loring was killed. (F.131.)
No. 17. Baptismal Font, about 6 miles above mouth of the Grand Cañon. (F.139.)
No. 18. View across Grand Cañon, from Grotto Spring. (F. 138.)
No. 19. Grand Cañon, junction of Diamond and Colorado Rivers. From the mouth of the Grand Cañon to this point, 63 miles. This is the first practicable crossing from the Grand Cañon. Walls about 5,000 feet; width of river about 400 feet. (F. 142.)
No. 20. View of Grand Cañon walls near mouth of Diamond River. From water-line to first shelf, 1,500 feet; from shelf to top of table, 3,500 feet. Distance from point of view to top of walls, 3 miles. (F. 143.)
No. 21. Types of Mohave Indians. This tribe inhabits the region of the lower Colorado, or Western Arizona. Physically they are the finest specimens in all the West, many of the males attaining the height of 6 feet. (F. 144.)
No. 22. Fred. W. Loring, in his campaign costume, with his mule "Evil Merodach." Taken about 48 hours before he was brutally murdered by Apache Mohaves, while en-route from Prescott, A. T., to San Bernardino, Cal., by stage. Loring had been with the expedition as general assistant and correspondent, and was returning to the East with a mind stored with rare adventure and scenic wonders. It has been said of him that he gave promise of becoming one of the most facile of American literary writers. (F.153.)
No. 23. View across the crater of San Francisco Mountain. This mountain is the grand center of the volcanic flow that may be traced for hundreds of miles in all directions. Altitude nearly 12,000 feet. (F.157.)

1872, William Bell, photographer

Stereo #CaptionIdentification #
No. 1. Mormon village of Mona, below the foothills of Nebo Peak, Wahsatch Range. (F. 1.)
No. 2. Small artificial lake for irrigating purposes at Mona. (F.7.)
No. 3. A gravel bed carved by the rain, Salt Creek Cañon, Utah (F. 88.)
No. 4. Sevier River Valley, to the south of Gunnison, Utah (F.14.)
No. 5. View in high country, on the headwaters of the Dirty Devil River. The rocks in the foreground are volcanic, and the trees are the Douglass spruce. (F. 21.)
No. 6. Mountain Range, near Fish Lake. Altitude 11,575 feet. (F. 22.)
No. 7. View in the high country, on the headwaters of the Dirty Devil River. The rocks in the foreground are volcanic, and the trees are the Douglass spruce. (F.19.)
No. 8. Three Lakes Cañon. Gray cliffs in the distance; near Kanab, U. T. (F.31.)
No. 9. Cave near Kanab, U. T. (F. 34.)
No. 10. Near Jacob's Pool, in northern Arizona. The cliff in the background is 1,500 feet high, the steep part being of red Triassic sandstone, and the base of soft clay, which shows in the foreground. In this spot is one of the homes of John D. Lee, whose name has been connected with the Mountain Meadow massacre. (F. 40.)
No. 11. The "Vermilion Cliff," a typical plateau edge as seen from Jacob's Pool, Arizona. From its top a plateau stretches to the right, and from its base another to the left. Their difference of level is 1,500 feet, and the step is too steep for scaling. (F. 113.)
No. 12. A perched block of sandstone, which is being gradually undermined by the action of sand and wind. (F.110.) (University of California, Bancroft Library)
No. 13. "The Bear," a mass of sandstone, fallen from the cliffs, near the mouth of the Paria. (F. 85.)
No. 14. The Cañon of Kanab Creek, near its junction with the Grand Cañon of the Colorado. In the foreground is a dripping spring, affording a shower-bath. Temperature, 69° Fahr. (F.54.)
No. 15. "The Bath," a dripping spring in Kanab Cañon. Temperature, 69° Fahr. (F.55.)
No. 16. The Cañon of Kanab Creek, near its junction with the Grand Cañon of the Colorado River. The walls are of limestone and about 2,500 feet in height. (F. 46.)
No. 17. The Cañon of Kanab Creek, near where it joins the Grand Cañon of the Colorado. The walls are of limestone and about 2,500 feet in height. (F. 44.)
No. 18. The Cañon of Kanab Creek, near where it joins the Grand Cañon of the Colorado. The walls are of limestone and about 2,000 feet in height. (F. 45.)
No. 19. The Cañon of Kanab Creek, near where it joins the Grand Cañon of the Colorado. The walls are of limestone and about 2,500 feet in height. (F.47.)
No. 20. The Cañon of Kanab Creek, near where it joins the Grand Cañon of the Colorado. The walls are of limestone and about 2,500 feet in height (F.53.)
No. 21. The cañon of Kanab Creek, near where it joins the Grand Cañon of the Colorado. The walls are of limestone and about 2,500 feet in height. (F. 118.)
No. 22. The mouth of Kanab Creek. The beds of the Colorado River and its tributary here lie in gorges cut by the running water to a depth of about 3,500 feet below the general surface of the country. The highest point seen in the picture is 2,500 feet above the water, and the walls are here too steep to be scaled. (F. 56.)
No. 23. Sand sculpture. The limestone boulders which lie in the bed of the Colorado River are carved and polished by the sand which the running water carries. (F. 108.)
No. 24. Grand Cañon, mouth of Kanab Wash. Walls 1,800 feet in height. (F.67.)
No. 25. The Grand Cañon of the Colorado, near the mouth of Kanab Creek. The river has here cut its channel about 3,500 feet below the general level of the country. (F. 64.)
No. 26. Yellow Pine, (Pinus ponderosa, Doug.,) the timber-tree of the high plateaus in Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. (F.87.)
No. 27. Colorado River, above the mouth of the Paria. Walls 2,100 feet in height. (F. 101.)
No. 28. Marble Cañon, one of the gorges of the Colorado, here 1,200 feet deep. The steep cliff is gray limestone and the slope below a brilliant red sandstone. (F. 62.)
No. 29. Marble Cañon, one of the gorges of the Colorado, here 1,200 feet deep. The steep cliff is gray limestone and the slope below a brilliant red sandstone. (F. 102.)
No. 30. Marble Cañon, one of the gorges of the Colorado, here 1,200 feet deep. The steep cliff is gray limestone and the slope below a brilliant red sandstone. (F. 103.)
No. 31. Devil's Anvil, near foot of To-ro-weap Valley. River 3,000 feet below. (F. 82.)
No. 32. The northern wall of the Grand Cañon of the Colorado, near the foot of To-ro-weap Valley. The rounded rocks in the foreground are sandstone. (F.80.)
No. 33. The northern wall of the Grand Cañon of the Colorado, near the foot of To-ro-weap Valley. The rounded rocks of the foreground are sandstone. (F. 105.)
No. 34. The Grand Cañon of the Colorado, near the foot of To-ro-weap Valley. River 3,000 feet below. (F. 106.)
No. 35. The Grand Cañon of the Colorado, near the foot of To-ro-weap Valley. A view of the south wall of the gorge, as seen from the opposite side. (F. 79.)
No. 36. The Grand Cañon of the Colorado, near the foot of To-ro-weap Valley; river 3,000 feet below. (F. 73.)
No. 37. The Grand Cañon of the Colorado, near the foot of To-ro-weap Valley. A view of the south wall of the gorge, as seen from the opposite bank. (F. 77.)
No. 38. The Grand Cañon of the Colorado, near the foot of To-ro-weap Valley. A view of the south wall of the gorge, as seen from the opposite wall. (F. 81.)
No. 39. Grand Cañon, foot of To-ro-weap Valley. (F. 68.)

1873, Timothy O'Sullivan, photographer

Stereo #CaptionIdentification #
No. 1.Zuni Indian Girl, with water olla. (F. 52.)
No. 2. Alcalde, or municipal officer of the Zuni Indians. (F.46.)
No. 3. The two "Beauties." Zuni Indian belles, 16 and 18 years of age. (F.49.)
No. 4.Lieutenant-Governor of the Zuni Indians. The turquoise necklace worn is considered of great value and ornament, and is noted as worth so many horses, squaws, or sheep. It is also believed to be an amulet and acceptable to the gods. (F.45.)
No. 5. Gardens surrounding the Indian Pueblo of Zuni, in which are raised a variety of vegetables, such as pepper, onions, garlic, &c. (F. 41.)
No. 6. Group of Zuni Indian "Braves," at their pueblo, N. M. (F. 53.)
No. 7. Group of Zuni Indians, at their pueblo or town, N. M. (F. 51.)
No. 8. War Chief of the Zuni Indians. (F. 44.)
No. 9. Old Mission Church, Pueblo of Zuni, N. M., built by Spanish missionaries in 1676, of stone and adobe. These zealous servants of the church have been driven away by the Indians long ago, and the church is now going to decay (F. 42.)
No. 10. Old Spanish Record, on north wall of Inscription Rock, N. M. The rock is of soft, gray sandstone, and upon it the Spanish invaders cut inscriptions as they passed by, to conquer in the name of their "good king and the church." (F. 82.)
No. 11. Distant view of Ancient Ruins in lower part of Cañon de Chelle, N.M. Showing their position in the walls and elevation above bed of cañon. (F.89.)
No. 12. Ruins in Cañon de Chelle, N. M., in a cavity in the wall, 60 feet above present bed of cañon. Height of walls about 700 feet. The present race of Indians know nothing of the age of these buildings or who occupied them. (For details, see forthcoming report of Lieutenant Wheeler on "Ancient Ruins.") (F.87.)
No. 13. View looking down the Cañon de Chelle, about 15 miles below the head. Walls 1,200 feet in height--"Monitor" Wall. (F. 35.)
No. 14. Circle Wall, Cañon de Chelle. Here the cañon makes a bend from an easterly direction nearly due north, the walls maintaining their perpendicular height of about 1,200 feet. (F. 34.)
No. 15. Explorer's Column, Cañon de Chelle, Arizona. This shaft is the work of nature, and is about 900 feet in height; base about 70 by 110 feet. It stands near the center of the cañon, and it is almost impossible to believe that it is not the work of human hands. (F. 14.)
No. 16. Central portion of Cañon de Chelle, New Mexico. This cañon is one of the most remarkable in the West, and is noted for its beauty. The walls are of red sandstone, nearly perpendicular, and at this point are 1,200 feet in height. (F. 12.)
No. 17. Camp Beauty, Cañon de Chelle. Walls 1,200 feet high. Width of cañon at this point about one-fourth of a mile. This view shows the peculiar effect wrought by the action of floods. The artist of the expedition, Mr. Wyant, of New York, made a study of this scenery with the intention to paint it as a characteristic cañon view. (F.13.)
No. 18. View near head of Cañon de Chelle. At this point the cañon breaks into its greatest depth from a shallow "wash" above. This cañon is the garden-home of the Navajoe Indians, where they raise corn, wheat, melons, peaches, &c., and celebrate their religious festivals. The peach trees are supposed to have been planted by the early Spanish invaders. (F. 17.)
No. 19. Cañon de Chelle. Walls from bed of cañon, 1,200 feet in height. (F. 36.)
No.20. Aboriginal life among the Navajoe Indians, Cañon de Chelle, New Mexico. Squaw weaving blankets. The native loom. The blankets made are of the best quality, and impervious to water. (F. 68.)
No. 21. Navajoe Indian squaw and child at their cañon home, in Cañon de Chelle. (F.73.)
No. 22. Navajoe squaws and child, Cañon de Chelle, N. M. (F.74.)
No. 23. Navajoe boys and squaw in front of the quarters at Old Fort Defiance, N.M., now unoccupied by troops. The agency for the Navajoes is located here. (F.76.)
No. 24. Navajoe brave and his mother. The Navajoes were formerly a warlike tribe, until subdued by U. S. troops, about 15 years ago. Many of them now have fine flocks, and herds of horses, sheep, and goats. (F. 72.)
No. 25. Domestic scene among the Navajoe Indians. The women weaving blankets, and the "Lords" looking disdainfully on. The blankets seen are made from native wool, black and white. (F. 69.)
No. 26. Navajo Indian Dance, at old Fort Defiance, N.M. (F. 80.)
No. 27. Apache Lake, summit of Sierra Blanca Mountains, about 35 miles east from Camp Apache, Arizona, and 10,500 feet above sea level. This lake is similar to many found in the western mountains. (F. 4.)
No. 28. Cooley's Ranch, 10 miles east of Camp Apache, Arizona. A characteristic mountain "park" and Apache Indian farm. Here the Apaches grow corn, wheat, and a few vegetables. (F. 9.)
No. 29. Coyotero Apache Scouts, at Apache Lake, Sierra Blanca Range, Arizona. A member of the expedition in back-ground. (F. 2.)
No. 30. Apache Indians as they appear ready for the war-path. (F. 64.)
No. 31. Apache squaw and pappoose. The child is securely lashed in the wicker-work basket or box, and slung to the back of the mother, is often "toted" all day. (F.63.)
No. 32. Apache Braves, ready for the trail, Arizona. (F.60.) (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) LC-DIG-stereo-1s01780
No. 33. Young Apache warrior and his squaw, near camp Apache, Arizona. (F. 58.)
No. 34. Pedro, Captain of one of the Coyotero Apache Bands, Arizona, in his Washington costume. (F.57.)
No. 35. Apache squaw and child. (F. 59.)
No. 36. Cañon of the Colorado River, Utah, 25 miles above the mouth of Paria Creek. This view shows the mesa or table-lands through which the Colorado River has cut to a depth of 500 feet. (F. 30.)
No. 37. The ancient Church of San Miguel, Santa Fé, N.M. Supposed to have been built by the first Spanish missionaries about 250 years ago, but now crumbling to ruins. Walls of adobe or mud-brick. (F.22.)
No. 38. Altar, Church of San Miguel, Santa Fé, N. M. Many of the adornments are ancient and elaborated in the peculiar church-style of two centuries ago. (F.23.)
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