Portfolio 4: The World at LargeSupporting the Library's role as a repository of world knowledge, the pictorial collections document the peoples, lands, and cultures of the major countries throughout the world. In assembling this record, the Library gives particular attention to the influence and interests of the United States abroad and to individuals and matters of global, regional, or international importance. Regions outside of Western Europe--in particular Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and the Far East--are especially well represented. These holdings provide valuable insights into the history of these regions, and into the ways in which these regions and their peoples have been perceived by Americans and Western Europeans--or represented to them.
Latin America, the Caribbean, and Spain
Courret Hermanos, Fotografos. Lima. The Public Square on 28 July (Independence Day). Albumen silver print, probably 1868.
Although the history of photography in South America is only
beginning to be written, it is clear that in the nineteenth
century there were relatively few practicioners of such
distinction as the Lima firm of Courret Hermanos. During
its four or so decades of operation, the firm maintained a
high standard of work and won numerous European
competitions. This view of Lima's central square, festooned
for an Independence Day celebration, is one of nearly 100
superbly printed albumen prints of Peru and Bolivia included
in a two-volume souvenir album entitled Recuerdos del Peru.
The Recuerdos contains several other views of Lima and its
gardens, public works, and elegant buildings, views of
smaller towns like Arequipa, Callao, and Arica, and
portraits of gauchos, muleteers, bullfighters, and other
people of the region. (Transfer, U.S. Department of State)
William Berryman. Woman Beating Cassava, Jamaica. Watercolor over grey ink and pencil on wove paper, circa 1808.
English artist William Berryman spent eight years on the
West Indian island while it was under the colonial rule of
Great Britain. During that time he produced over 300 pencil
and watercolor studies of the people, flora, landscape, and
buildings of the island, in preparation for an intended
series of engravings. Berryman died before carrying out
this ambitious and costly project, but his drawings were
preserved in an album that was recently discovered and
acquired by the Library. Of all his Jamaican subjects, the
artist seems to have had a particular affection for the
resident Africans and mulattoes freed when Great Britain
ended slavery in her empire. Many of the descendants of
this woman and her compatriots on the island's cotton and
sugar plantations are now residents of Louisiana, New York,
and other parts of the United States.
Eadweard Muybridge. Ruins of the Church of Santo
Domingo, Panama. Albumen silver print, circa 1875.
In 1875 San Francisco photographer Eadweard Muybridge
(later to become famous for his photographs of humans and
animals in motion) traveled to the Isthmus of Panama. At
that time Panama was part of Colombia, and Colombian
President Juan Berrios was attempting to rejuvenate the
coffee plantations by granting investment incentives to new
and established growers. Muybridge braved the tropical
climate and rainforest of much of Central America,
photographing points of interest on the route of the Panama
Railroad and the Pacific Mail Steamship Company's line. His
efforts were financed by the Pacific Mail line, which hoped
that publication of the photographs in North America would
attract new investors to the region. This view of a group
of Indian children in the shell of a seventeenth-century
Spanish church on the isthmus is from an extensive archive
of prints, photographs, and ephemera assembled by the Canal
Zone Library. (Transfer, Canal Zone Library)
Diego Rivera. Zapata. Lithograph, 19
Artists in postrevolutionary Mexico engaged in an effort to
enshrine in Mexican history the revolution and its peasant
leaders such as Emiliano Zapata. Supported by large-scale
educational programs of the national government, Mexican
artists like the European-trained Diego Rivera created an
art based on indigenous Mexican forms, and accessible to a
relatively unsophisticated people. Lithographs and
woodcuts, relatively inexpensive types of prints, played an
important role in popularizing this modern art in Mexico.
(Pennell Fund purchase)
Jack Delano. Member of a Sugar Cooperative, vicinity of San Piedras, Puerto Rico, January 1942. Kodachrome transparency.
The Office of War Information carried on the work of the earlier Depression-era Farm Security Administration photographic project in surveying American agricultural and
economic conditions and the efficacy of federal programs to
improve these conditions. On his assignment to document
Puerto Rican sugar growers, Jack Delano used the newly
developed Kodachrome color transparency film. The work is
part of the archive of over 190,000 photographic images
produced under the Farm Security Administration and Office
of War Information photographic projects. (Transfer, Office of War Information)
Suárez. Fiestas de Carnaval Montevideo 1942. Color lithograph poster.
When they arrived in Latin America, European, African, and
Asian people brought with them diverse cultures, politics,
and social mores. Festivals and Carnival became the loci
around which this diversity of cultural heritage was blended
into a rich, harmonious, and popular expression. Su rez
emphasized that each celebration is a work of art in itself,
with its own special dances, costumes, dramas, and music,
melding a variety of religions, rituals, and cultures.
(Gift of the Packer Outdoor Advertising Company)
Photographer unknown (A
.B.C. Press Service). Scene during the Siege of Teruel, Spain. April 1, 1938. Gelatin silver print.
The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from 1936 to 1939,
sparked passionate interest among the international
intellectual and political communities. The Communist
government of the Spanish Republic was besieged by
nationalist forces headed by Gen. Francisco Franco, who was
backed by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The war was
closely watched around the world, as the first major
military contest between left-wing forces and the
increasingly powerful and heavily armed Fascists. Here a
republican soldier seeks cover on the Plaza de Toros, in
Teruel, east of Madrid.
Arribas. 18 Julio 1936-1937. Color lithograph poster, 1937.
The intensity of the bitter conflict between republican and
nationalist forces in Spain is reflected in this poster by
the pseudonymous artist Arribas. The poster was produced
for the two major Spanish labor organizations, the Union
General de Trabajo and the Confederacion Nacional de
Trabajo. It marked the first anniversary of the date on
which nationalist leader Gen. Francisco Franco issued his
antirepublican manifesto and launched his devastating
military campaign against the Spanish Republic. The poster
exploited indignation among industrial workers against the
foreign-backed aggression in a rousing call to arms for
(Gift of the Packer Outdoor Advertising Company)
The Former Soviet States and Central Asia
Roger Fenton. Cavalry Camp, Church Parade. Albumen silver print, 1855.
The first war extensively recorded by the camera was the
Crimean War, which pitted England, France, and Sardinia
against Russia in the 1850s over control of the Black Sea
province. British photographer Roger Fenton recorded the
military camps, officers, and soldiers and the landscape of
the theater of operations in the Crimea. Not entirely
impartial, Fenton's undertaking was sanctioned by the
British government, which was anxious to disprove gruesome
reports of conditions in the Eastern theater issuing from
the war's opponents at home. The prints in the Library's
set of Fenton's Crimean photographs were inscribed and
titled by the photographer.
N. V. Bogaevsk
ii. A Leather Factory in Tashkent. Albumen silver print, 1871-72.
Military activity in Central Asia continued after the
Crimean War. In 1867 Russia extended its control of Central
Asia eastward across the Caspian Sea to the largely Islamic
region of Turkestan. Populated by a variety of nomadic
clans, the region had been long isolated from the rest of
the modern world. The first Russian military governor,
Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman, commissioned an
encyclopedic photographic survey of the area's peoples,
customs, culture, buildings, and monuments, designed to
acquaint Westerners with the region, and possibly to serve
as an orientation tool for new officials and the home
office. The photographs from the survey were assembled in
the four-volume Turkestanskii Al'bom, of which the Library's
copy is one of only seven known sets.
Sergei Michailovich Prokudin-Gorskii. Windmills in the Yalutorovsk. Recent color print from three-color separation negative, circa 1910.
On occasion, photography has served the interests of
governments and rulers in surveying their domains and
displaying the benefits of their regimes. On the eve of the
Russian Revolution Czar Nicholas II of Russia commissioned a
photographic survey of his empire by the educator and
chemist Sergei Michailovich Prokudin-Gorskii. The product
of the imperial charge was a comprehensive travelogue of
Russia, the Ukraine, Siberia, and the Caucasus, and a
milestone in the development of color photography.
Abdullah Freres. <
cite>Life Saving Brigade Drilling. Albumen silver print, 1893.
The monumental fifty-one-volume photographic record of the
realm of sultan Abdul Hamid II of Turkey, the last of the
Ottoman Emperors, involved more than six photographic
studios. The survey was directed by the sultan's court
photographers, the three Armenian brothers who formed the
Istanbul firm of Abdullah Freres. The work appears to have
been conceived by the sultan as a portrait of his empire for
the 1893 World Columbian Exposition, but was not exhibited
there. It dwells on the accomplishments and westernizing
improvements of the regime, such as the well drilled and
equipped military, the technologically advanced lifesaving
and fire fighting brigades, customs bureaucracy, and life at
the lavish Imperial court. A copy of the survey was
presented by Sultan Abdul-Hamid to the Library of Congress
in 1894. (Gift of H.I.M. the Sultan Abdul Hamid II)
The Far East
agawa. Picture of Americans' Love for Children. Color woodcut, 1860.
Japanese artists, working in the traditional idiom of
the color woodcut, created a fascinating record of the
encounter between their civilization and the West
following Commodore Perry's opening of Japan to foreign
trade in 1853. The Library's extensive collection of
Japanese woodcuts includes many portrayals of British,
Russian, Dutch, and American naval officers, diplomats
and their families. These reflect the novelty of
Western dress and ways, particularly the Victorian
treatment of children, to the Japanese of the period.
(Gift of Mrs. Emily Crane Chadbourne)
Photographer unknown (The Whiting View
Company). Company of Boxers, Tien-Tsin, China. Stereograph, 1901.
The Opium Wars and Boxer Rebellion were violent
products of nineteenth-century contact between China
and the West. Although British operations in China
during the period are well documented, few photographs
of the Chinese Boxer troops survive. Originating in
the mid-nineteenth century, the stereograph was an
ancestor of the newsreel, affording Americans a window
on the remote corners of the globe. The Library's
collection of over 30,000 stereographs produced by such
firms as Whiting, Underwood and Underwood, and the
Keystone View Company spans the 1850s through World War
I. (Transfer, U.S. Copyright Office)
Munetsugu Satomi. Japan. Color
lithograph poster, 1937.
One of the acknowledged masters of Japanese poster
design, Munetsugu Satomi created the vivid illusion of
speed in this advertisement for the Japanese railroad.
Born in Osaka, Japan, Satomi studied at the Ecole des
Beaux Arts in Paris. This poster draws on the formal
idiom of European Art Deco, indicating the designer's
assimilation of the influence of French poster masters
such as Cassandre.
The Middle East and Africa
he, after David Roberts. Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, 1839. Lithograph printed in colors. Published in George Croly and David Roberts, The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Egypt, and Nubia (London: F.G. Moon, 1842-49).
The great sacred cities and sites of the Near East were
fully illustrated for the first time in the monumental
three-volume illustrated work by David Roberts, with
descriptive text by the "orientalist" Reverend George
Croly. Roberts, a self-taught Scottish scene painter,
was praised for the accuracy and coloring of his
drawings. Belgian printmaker Louis Haghe's portfolio
of reproductions made after them were considered quite
faithful to the originals, and a masterpiece in the art
Lewis Larson. Surrender of the Mayor of Jerusalem to the
British Army, December 9, 1917. Recent gelatin silver print from stereographic negative.
Mayor of the city Hussein Hashim El-Husseini (with cane) walked along the Jaffa Road under a flag of truce made from half of a hospital bedsheet until he reached the first British outpost. There he surrendered the city to two British sentinels. The Matson Collection of photographs is part of an archive of 20,000 photographic negatives documenting people, places, and events of the Middle East from the turn of the century to World War II. (Gift of G. Eric Matson)
Félix Teynard. Le Kaire. Tombeaux de Sultans Mamelouks (Tomb of the Mameluke Sultans, Cairo). Salt print photograph, 1851-1852. Published in Égypte et Nubie, Sites et
Monuments les plus Interessants pour l'Étude de l'Art et de l'Histoire (Paris: Goupil et Cie, 1858).
In the mid-nineteenth century, a growing vogue for tourism led Americans and western Europeans to such exotic places as Greece, the Holy Land, and Egypt. Photographers exploited this trend by producing and marketing series and albums of souvenir views. Félix Teynard's photographic exploration of Egypt and Nubia in 1851-52 produced one of the earliest photographic records of the archaeological sites in this region. The sandy terrain and the weathered faces of the monuments that Teynard photographed are heightened by the surface texture of the photographic paper of the calotype process--one of the earliest processes for producing photographs on paper. Le Kaire is from a series of 160 photographs issued originally in installments and then as a complete collection in book form in 1858. The Library's copy is one of only twelve known complete copies that survive today.