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Photo: Albert Einstein, head and shoulders portrait.
Photo: Albert Einstein. From Prints & Photographs Div., Library of Congress

The Annus Mirabilis of Albert Einstein

Science Reference Section
Science, Technology, and Business Division
Library of Congress

In 1905 Albert Einstein published four important papers, plus his dissertation, and set the stage for all of modern physics.

2005 marks the centennial of that miraculous year, the annus mirabilis.

The 1905 Papers | Biographical Essays | Other Readings
Journal Articles
| Web Sites

The 1905 Papers

Concerning an Heuristic Point of View Toward the Emission and Transformation of Light. Annalen der Physik 17 (1905): 132-148.
    Explanation of the photoelectric effect with use of the quantum hypothesis of Planck. Light is a flow of corpuscular objects with definite energies - Planck's quanta of energy.

On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in Stationary Liquids Required by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat. Annalen der Physik 17 (1905): 549-560.

On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. Annalen der Physik 17 (1905): 891-921.
    Invention of the theory of special relativity. Beginnings of the relativistic era in physics.

Does the Inertia of a Body Depend upon its Energy Content? Annalen der Physik 18 (1905): 639-641.
    Invention of the theory of special relativity, E = mc2. Beginnings of the relativistic era in physics


Biographical Essays

Cropper, William H. Adventure in Thought - Albert Einstein (in his) Great physicists: the life and times of leading physicists from Galileo to Hawking. Oxford, New York, Oxford Univ. Press, c2001: 203-227.
   QC15.C76 2001

Einstein, Albert (in) Dictionary of scientific biography. New York, Scribner, 1981. v. IV: 312-333.
   Q141.D5 <SciRR-Desk>


Other Readings

Einstein, Albert. The collected papers of Albert Einstein. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1987. 8 v.
   QC16.E5 A2 1987 <SciRR>

Einstein’s 1905 Papers (in) Albert Einstein, edited by Clarice Swisher. San Diego, Greenhaven Press, c2002: 56-65.
   QC16.E5 E3917 2002

Einstein’s miraculous year: five papers that changed the face of physics. Princeton, NJ, Princeton Univ. Press, c1998. 198 p.
   QC7 .E52 1998 <SciRR>


Journal Articles

Einstein’s Century. Astronomy, v. 33, Feb. 2005. Special Section: 30-53.

Einstein’s Legacy. Science, v. 307, Feb. 11, 2005. Special Section: 865-890.

Miller, Arthur I. Einstein, Picasso. Physics Education, v. 39, no. 6, Nov. 2004: 484-489.

Miraculous visions. Economist, v. 374, Jan. 1, 2005: 59-62.


Web Sites

Albert Einstein
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland
      Detailed biography with hyperlinks.

Albert Einstein (1979-1955)
American Institute of Physics
      Links to exhibit, bibliography, special features, essays by historians, and his voice, explaining the Equivalence of Energy and Matter, the equation E is equal to m c-squared.

Albert Einstein
      Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1921, "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect."

Digital Einstein Papers from  Princeton University Press

      "the finer points of relativity in less time than it takes to eat a sandwich."

Five Papers That Shook the World
      Matthew Chalmers describes Einstein's miraculous year in a feature article from Physics World.

Living Einstein
Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
      Includes primary sources, articles, teaching material, as well as links to other Einstein-related Websites.

Einstein Archive
University of Leiden, Netherlands
      Includes three of Einstein's manuscripts, including one recently found in the archives of Leiden University's Lorentz Institute for Theoretical Physics.

The Great Works - 1905
American Institute of Physics
      A chronology of Einstein’s 1905 work.

World Year of Physics 2005 - Einstein in the 21st Century

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   February 24, 2017
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