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Biomass Energy

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SCOPE

Almost any combustible organic matter can potentially be used as an energy source. Biomass is typically defined as any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis. Materials from biomass can be used as fuel (biofuels), biobased chemicals (bioproducts), or for energy production (bioenergy). Biomass energy is generally divided into three segments: wood, waste, and alcohol fuels. Typical biomass sources are agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, grasses, woody plants and crops, such as corn and soybeans. Coal and petroleum are biomass sources, however these materials are considered nonrenewable sources of energy due to the length of time it takes them to form.

Related Tracer Bullet titles available from the Library of Congress include Alcohol Fuels TB 79-8 and Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Combustion Processes TB 06-8 (http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/tracer-bullets/altfuelvehiclestb.html).

This guide is not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, but rather highlights selected works and resources about biomass energy. This guide is designed--as the series implies--to put the reader on target. Many of the works listed are available in the Science Reference collection in the Science and Business Reading Room, which is located on the fifth floor of the Adams Building at the Library of Congress.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC

Bioenergy and agriculture: promises and challenges. Edited by Peter Hazell and R. K. Pachauri. Washington, International Food Policy Research Institute, c2006. 24 p. (Focus 14, brief 1-12)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP360.B558 2006
   URL: http://www.ifpri.org/2020/focus/focus14/focus14.pdf

Klass, Donald L. Biomass as an energy resource: concept and markets. In his Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals. San Diego, Academic Press, c1998. p. 29-50.
   TP339.K54 1998 <SciRR>

Mowery, Deborah L. Biomass. In Macmillan encyclopedia of energy. v. 1. New York, Macmillan Reference USA, c2001. p. 157-166.
   TJ163.28.M33 2001 <SciRR>

Traverso, Alberto. Biomass. In Encyclopedia of energy engineering and technology. v. 1. Boca Raton, CRC Press, c2007. p. 86-92.
   TJ163.2.E385 2007 <SciRR>

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SUBJECT HEADINGS

Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which books about biomass energy can be found include the following:

HIGHLY RELEVANT

BIOMASS ENERGY

RELEVANT

AGRICULTURAL WASTES AS FUEL
AGRICULTURAL WASTES RECYCLING
ALCOHOL AS FUEL
BIODIESEL FUELS
BIOGAS
BIOMASS CHEMICALS
BIOMASS COMBUSTION
BIOMASS CONVERSION
BIOMASS GASIFICATION
ENERGY CROPS
FOREST BIOMASS
FUELWOOD CROPS
METHANOL
METHANOL AS FUEL
REFUSE AS FUEL
WASTE PRODUCTS AS FUEL
WOOD WASTE AS FUEL

MORE GENERAL

BIOTECHNOLOGY
GREEN TECHNOLOGY
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
SYNTHETIC FUELS

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BASIC TEXTS

Bioenergy. Edited by Judy D. Wall, Caroline S. Harwood and Arnold Demain. Washington, ASM Press, c2008.
437 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP339.B49 2008

Biorefineries-industrial processes and products: status quo and future directions. Edited by Birgit Kamm, Patrick R. Gruber and Michael Kamm. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH, c2006. 2 v.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP155.2.E58B55 2006 <SciRR>

Brown, Robert C. Biorenewable resources: engineering new products from agriculture. Ames, Iowa State Press, c2003. 286 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP339.B76 2003

Catalysis for renewables: from feedstock to energy production. Edited by Gabriele Centi and Rutger A. van Santen. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH, c2007. 423 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP360.C38 2007

Hobson, P. N., S. Bousfield, and R. Summers. Methane production from agricultural and domestic wastes. London, Applied Science Publishers; New York, Halsted Press Division, Wiley, 1981. 269 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP762.H62 1981

Klass, Donald L. Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals. San Diego, Academic Press, c1998. 651 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP339.K54 1998 <SciRR>

Materials, chemicals, and energy from forest biomass. Dimitris S. Argyropoulos, editor. Washington, American Chemical Society, c2007. 591 p. (ACS symposium series, 954)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP339.M367 2007

Porteous, Andrew. Refuse derived fuels. London, Applied Science; New York, Halsted Press, 1981. 137 p.
   Includes bibliographical references
   TP360.P67 1981

Wayman, Morris, and Sarad R. Parekh. Biotechnology of biomass conversion: fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, c1990. 278 p.
   Bibliography: p. 267-273.
   TP248.B55W39 1990

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SPECIALIZED TITLES

Alcohol as Fuel

Alcoholic fuels. Edited by Shelley Minteer. Boca Raton, FL, CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. 273 p. (Chemical industries, v. 112)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP358.A4445 2006 <SciRR>

Biofuels for transport: an international perspective. Paris, International Energy Agency, 2004. 210 p.
   Bibliography: p. 195-210.
   TP339.B543 2004 <SciRR>

Handbook on bioethanol: production and utilization. Edited by Charles E. Wyman. Washington, Taylor & Francis, c1996. 424 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP358.H27 1996 <SciRR>

Horne, Brian. Power plants: biofuels made simple. Machynlleth, Powys, UK, Centre for Alternative Technology, c1996. 62 p. (New futures, 16)
   TP360.H67 1996

Rendleman, C. Matthew, and Hosein Shapouri. New technologies in ethanol production. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 2007. 30 p. (Agricultural economic report, no. 842)
   Bibliography: p. 27-30.
   TP358.R46 2007

Biomass Energy and Sustainability

Bioenergy from sustainable forestry: guiding principles and practice. Edited by J. Richardson and others. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic, c2002. 344 p. (Forestry sciences, v. 71)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HD9769.F842B56 2002

Biofuels for transport: global potential and implications for sustainable energy and agriculture. World Watch Institute. London, Sterling, VA, Earthscan, 2007. 452 p.
   Bibliography: p. 407-443.
   TP339.B5435 2007 <SciRR>

Biomass and agriculture: sustainability, markets and policies. Paris, OECD, 2004. 565 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HD9502.5.B542B557 2004

The Biomass assessment handbook: bioenergy for a sustainable environment. Edited by Frank Rosillo-Calle and others. London, Sterling, VA, Earthscan, 2007. 269 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP339.B548 2007 <SciRR>

Economics of sustainable energy in agriculture. Edited by Ekko C. van Ierland and Alfons Oude Lansink. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c2002. 248 p. (Economy & environment, v. 24)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S494.5.E5E26 2002

Goettemoeller, Jeffrey, and Adrian. Sustainable ethanol: biofuels, biorefineries, cellulosic biomass, flex-fuel vehicles, and sustainable farming for energy independence. Maryville, MO, Prairie Oak Pub., c2007. 195 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HD9502.5.A433U54486 2007

How much bioenergy can Europe produce without harming the environment? Copenhagen, European Environment Agency, c2006. 67 p. (EEA report, 2006/no. 7)
   Bibliography: p. 55-59.
   TD195.B56H68 2006

Mousdale, David M. Biofuels: biotechnology, chemistry, and sustainable development. Boca Raton, CRC Press, c2008. 404 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP358.M68 2008 <SciRR>

Rosenberg, Norman J. A biomass future for the North American Great Plains: toward sustainable land use and mitigation of greenhouse warming. Dordrecht, Springer, c2007. 198 p. (Advances in global change research, v. 27)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S448.R68 2007

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HANDBOOKS, ENCYCLOPEDIAS, AND DICTIONARIES

Biomass handbook. Edited by Osamu Kitani and Carl W. Hall. New York, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c1989. 963 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP248.B55B555 1989

Dictionary of renewable resources. Edited by Hans Zoebelein with contributions of Volker Böllert and others. 2nd rev. and enl. ed. Weinheim, New York, Wiley-VCH, c2001. 408 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S922.D53 2001 <SciRR Dict>

Duke, James. Handbook of energy crops. 1983. Unpublished. [The Handbook of energy crops exists only as an electronic publication on the NewCROPS Web site]
   URL: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/dukeindex.html

Encyclopedia of energy. Editor in chief, Cutler J. Cleveland; associate editors Robert U. Ayres and others. Amsterdam, Boston, Elsevier Academic Press, c2004. 6 v.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TJ163.28.E53 2004 <SciRR>

The Handbook of biomass combustion and co-firing. Edited by Sjaak van Loo and Jaap Koppejan. London, Sterling, VA, Earthscan, 2008. 442 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP339.H36 2008 <SciRR>

The Wiley encyclopedia of energy and the environment. Attilio Bisio, Sharon Boots, editors. New York, Wiley, c1997. 2 v. (1562 p.)
   Includes bibliographical references
   TJ163.235.W55 1997 <SciRR>

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CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

Alternative Energy Conference (1994, Kansas City, Mo.). Liquid fuels, lubricants, and additives from biomass: proceedings of an Alternative Energy Conference, 16-17 June 1994, Kansas City, Missouri. Edited by Bruce Dale. St. Joseph, MI, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, c1994. 191 p. (ASAE publication, 94-06)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP360.A442 1994

Biomass Conference of the Americas (3rd, 1997, Montréal, Québec). Making a business from biomass in energy, environment, chemicals, fibers, and materials: proceedings of the 3rd Biomass Conference of the Americas, Montréal, Québec, Canada, August 24-29, 1997. Edited by Ralph P. Overend and Esteban Chornet. Oxford, Tarrytown, NY, Pergamon, 1997. 2 v. (1673 p.)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP360.B58685 1997

Biomass energy--data, analysis, and trends: conference proceedings: Paris, France, 23th- 24th March 1998. International Energy Agency, European Commission, Research Directorate (DG XII), United Nations Environment Programme, Industry and Environment. Paris, OECD/IEA, 1998. 339 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP339.B55 1998

Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals (27th, 2005, Denver, Colo.). Biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: the twenty-seventh symposium: proceedings for the Twenty-Seventh Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, held May 1-May 4, 2005, in Denver, Colorado. Totowa, NJ, Humana Press, 2006. 1 v. (Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, v. 129-132)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP248.3.J68, v. 129-132

World Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry (1st, 2000, Seville, Spain). 1st World Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry: proceedings of the conference held in Sevilla, Spain, 5-9 June 2000. Edited by S. Kyritsis and others. London, James & James, c2001. 2 v. (2135 p.)
   Includes bibliographical references
   TP339.W67 2000

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GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS can be identified and located by going to individual government Web sites in the section “Additional Sources of Information,” and by searching the Monthly Catalog of U.S. Government Publications or GPO Access http://www.gpoaccess.gov/.

Biofuel: DOE lacks a strategic approach to coordinate increasing production with infrastructure development and vehicle needs: report to congressional requesters. Washington, GAO, 2007. 51 p. (GAO-07-713)
   URL: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07713.pdf

Breaking the biological barriers to cellulosic ethanol: a joint research agenda: a research roadmap resulting from the Biomass to Biofuel Workshop, December 7-9, 2005, Rockville, Maryland. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2006. 206 p. (DOE/SC-0095)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TP339.B73 2006

National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Water Implications of Biofuel Production in the United States. Water implications of biofuel production in the United States. Washington, National Academies Press, 2008. 76 p.
   URL: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12039

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SELECTED CONGRESSIONAL REPORTS

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. Biomass use in energy production: new opportunities in agriculture: hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, second session, May 6, 2004. Washington, U.S. G.P.O., 2004. 158 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   KF26.A35 2004 <Law>
   URL: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_senate_hearings&docid=f:93560.pdf

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. The state of the biofuels industry: hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, second session, April 26, 2006. Washington, U.S. G.P.O., 2006. 79 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   KF26.A35 2006n <Law>
   URL: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109_senate_hearings&docid=f:30237.pdf

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Accelerated biofuels diversity: hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Tenth Congress, first session, to discuss accelerated biofuels diversity, February 1, 2007. Washington, U.S. G.P.O., 2007. 93 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   KF26.E55 2007e <Law>
   URL: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:34568.pdf

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TECHNICAL REPORTS

TECHNICAL REPORTS and other types of literature may be identified in the following:

Government Reports Announcements & Index (1946- )
   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic format

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications (1895- )
   Z1233.A18 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic format

Department of Energy: Information Bridge
   Electronic format
   URL: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
   Electronic format
   URL: http://www.ntis.gov/

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TECHNICAL REPORTS

SELECTED TECHNICAL REPORTS Most of the reports listed below are available in electronic format and in print from the technical reports collection of the Science, Technology and Business Division. These and other reports on the subject may also be purchased from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

Erbach, D.C., and others. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. Oak Ridge, TN, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Apr. 2005. 78 p.
   PB2005108232

Fuels from sugar crops: systems for sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets. Richard Nathan, editor. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Oak Ridge, TN, Technical Information Center, U.S. Dept. of Energy, July 1978. 148 p. [Also in general collections, TP360.F82 Ft. Meade]
   TID22781

Marker, T. L. Opportunities for biorenewables in oil refineries. Washington, Department of Energy, 2006. 64 p.
   DE2006861458
   URL: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp;jsessionid=59D6CCCD7803918F24BFF529C85D929E?purl=/861458-Wv5uum/

Milbrandt, A. Geographic perspective on the current biomass resource availability in the United States. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dec. 01, 2005. 70 p. (NRELTP56039181)
   DE2005861485
   URL: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/39181.pdf

Morris, G. Biomass energy production in California: the case for a biomass policy; final report. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dec. 14, 2000. 99 p. (NRELSR57028805)
   DE2001772427
   URL: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28805.pdf

Sheehan, J., and others. A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program; biodiesel from algae. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, July 1998. 328 p. (NRELTP58024190)
   DE2000315003040
   URL: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24190.pdf

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DISSERTATIONS

Dissertations can be identified by using online resources or the following indexes located in the Main Reading Room. Consult any reference librarian about options. Some dissertations may be available in full text through electronic resources on public terminals at the Library of Congress.

Comprehensive Dissertation Index, 1861-1972
   Z5053.X47 1973

Comprehensive Dissertation Index. Supplement (1973- annual)
   Z5053.X47a

Digital Dissertations
   Electronic format

Dissertation Abstracts International (1938- monthly)
   Z5053.D57 and Electronic format

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SELECTED DISSERTATIONS

Heaton, Emily Anne. The comparative agronomic potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum as energy crops in Illinois. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2006.
   UMI publication number AAT3242866
   Collation of the original: 104 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.

Ismayilova, Rubaba Mammad. An analysis of producing ethanol and electric power from woody residues and agricultural crops in East Texas. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2007.
   UMI publication number AAT3270756
   Collation of the original: 294 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Texas A&M University.

Mapemba, Lawrence Daniel. Cost to deliver lignocellulosic biomass to a biorefinery. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2005.
   UMI publication number AAT 3179555
   Collation of the original: 275 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Oklahoma State University.

Vesvikar, Mehul S. Understanding the hydrodynamics of anaerobic digesters for bioenergy production. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2006.
   UMI publication number AAT3250686
   Collation of original: 221 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Washington University in St. Louis.

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BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Alcohol fuels bibliography: (1901- March 1980): a product of the Solar Energy Information Data Bank, Solar Energy Research Institute. Golden, CO, The Bank; Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office; Springfield, VA, National Technical Information Service, 1981. 458 p.
   Z7914.A5A43 1981 <SciRR>

Bibliography: production of ethanol from biomass. Muscle Shoals, AL, Div. Of Chemical Development, Tennessee Valley Authority, 1979. 176 p. (DE86900545)
   TVAPUB868 (TRS)

Hall, Carl W. Bibliography of biomass energy: including items published separately as books, booklets, bulletins, dissertations, pamphlets, and reports. St. Joseph, MI, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1985. 45 p. (ASAE publication, 86-6)
   Z7914.F8H35 1985

McCarl, Henry N., and Jayne Handlin. Bibliography on energy from biomass. Monticello, IL, Vance Bibliographies, 1981. 16 p. (Publication Administration Series, P-806)
   Z7914.F8M36

Miller, Ellen Kay. Biofuels, January 1986-August 1992. Beltsville, MD, National Agricultural Library, 1992. 60 p. (Quick bibliography series, 92-63)
   Z7914.F8M55 1992

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ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING SERVICES

Abstracting and Indexing Services that index relevant journal articles and other literature are listed below. Some suggested terms for searching are “Biodiesel,” “Biofuel,” “Biomass Energy,” “Biorefineries,” “Energy Crops,” “Ethanol,” or more specific headings, depending upon the topic of interest. Many titles may now be available in electronic format. Consult a reference librarian for the location and format of abstracting and indexing services.

Agricola
   Electronic format
   URL: http://agricola.nal.usda.gov

Agricultural and Environmental Biotechnology Abstracts (1993-2003)
   S494.5.B563A363

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR> and Electronic Format

BasicBIOSIS
   Electronic Format

Biofuel Abstracts
   Electronic format

Chemical Abstracts (1907-)
   QD1.A51 <SciRR>

CSA Technology Research Database
   Electronic format

Energy Citations Database
   Electronic format
   URL: http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/

Environment Complete
   Electronic format

Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management
   Electronic format

Society of Automotive Engineers.
   Technical Papers
   Cumulative Index of SAE Technical Papers (1906-1993)
   TL1.C83 <SciRR>
   Annual Index/Abstracts of SAE Technical Papers (1993- )
   TL1.S473 <SciRR>

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JOURNALS

Journals that often contain relevant articles include the following:

Annual Review of Environment and Resources TJ163.2.A56
Biomass and Bioenergy TP360.B5854
BioCycle
   URL: http://www.jgpress.com/biocycle.htm
S661.C6
Bioresource Technology: Biomass, Bioenergy, Biowastes, Conversion Technologies, Biotransformations, Production Technologies TP360.B5957
Bioresources
   URL: http://www.bioresourcesjournal.com
 
Chemical and Engineering News TP1.C35
Energy Policy HD9502.A1E54
Environment UF767.S33
Green Chemistry TP155.G365
International Journal of Sustainable Energy TJ810.I468
Mother Earth News AP2.M7919
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science TJ163.9.P75
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review TJ807.R45
Renewable Energy World TJ809.R69
World Watch HC79.E5W674

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REPRESENTATIVE JOURNAL ARTICLES

Charles, Michael B., and others. Public policy and biofuels: the way forward? Energy policy, v. 35, Nov. 2007: 5737-5746.
   HD9502.A1E54

Demirbas, Ayhan. Progress and recent trends in biofuels. Progress in energy and combustion science, v. 33, Feb. 2007: 1-18.
   TJ163.9.P75

Hamelinck, Carlo N., and Andre P. C. Faaij. Outlook for advanced biofuels. Energy policy, v. 34, Nov. 2006: 3268-3283.
   HD9502.A1E54

Hill, Jason, and others. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 103, July 25, 2006: 11206-11210.
   Q11.N26
   URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/30/11206.full

McGinnis, L. Fueling America without petroleum. Agricultural research, v. 55, Apr. 2007: 10-13.
   S1.A1815

Rotman, David. The price of biofuels. Technology review, v. 111, Jan./Feb. 2008: 42-51.
   T171.M47

von Blottnitz, Harro, and Mary Ann Curran. A review of assessments conducted on bio-ethanol as transportation fuel from a net energy, greenhouse gas, and environmental life cycle perspective. Journal of cleaner production, v. 15, no. 7, 2007: 607-619.
   TD897.5.J68

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SELECTED MATERIALS

Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Bridgewater, Tony. Biomass for energy. Journal of the science of food and agriculture, v. 86, Dec. 2006: 1755-1768.

Carney, Dan. Second-generation biodiesel. Automotive engineering international, v. 116, May 2008: 20-22.

Cascone, R. Biofuels: what is beyond ethanol and biodiesel? Hydrocarbon processing, v. 86, Sept. 2007: 95-109.

Clark, James H., and others. Green chemistry and the biorefinery: a partnership for a sustainable future. Green chemistry, v. 8, Oct. 2006: 853-860.

Demirbas, Ayhan. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections. Energy conversion and management, v. 49, Aug. 2008: 2106-2116.

Dismuke, G. Charles, and others. Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops from biofuel. Current opinion in biotechnology, v. 19, June 2008: 235-240.

Gray, Kevin A. Cellulosic ethanol-state of the technology. International sugar journal, v. 109, Mar. 2007: 145-151.

Kanwischer, Derek. Brewin’ our own biofuels. Mother earth news, no. 228, June/July 2008: 89-96.

Monfort, Joe. Despite obstacles, biofuels continue to surge. World watch, v. 21, July/Aug. 2008: 34-35.

Naylor, Rosamond, and others. The rippling effect: biofuels, food security, and the environment. Environment, v. 49, Nov. 2007: 31-43.

Petrolia, Daniel Ryan. The economics of harvesting and transporting corn stover for conversion to fuel ethanol: a case study for Minnesota. Biomass and bioenergy, v. 32, July 2008: 603-612.

Sanderson, Katharine. A field in ferment. Nature, v. 444, Dec. 7, 2006: 673-676.

Scharlemann, Jörn P. W., and William F. Laurance. How green are biofuels? Science, v. 319, Jan. 4, 2008: 43-44.

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ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Non-Governmental & Non-Profit Organizations

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
2950 Niles Rd.
St. Joseph, MI 49085
Tel: (269) 429-0300
Fax: (269) 429-3852
Email: hq@asabe.org
URL: http://www.asabe.org
   “The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers is an educational and scientific organization dedicated to the advancement of engineering applicable to agricultural, food, and biological systems ... Agricultural, food, and biological engineers develop efficient and environmentally sensitive methods of producing food, fiber, timber, and renewable energy resources.”

Biomass Energy Foundation
554 Orchard St., #4
Golden, CO 80401
Tel: (303) 279-3707
Fax: (303) 279-3734
Email: info@biomassenergyfoundation.org
URL: http://www.biomassenergyfoundation.org
   “The Biomass Energy Foundation is a group of scientists and citizens. It is a private foundation dedicated to perfecting and implementing technical solutions to meet a significant portion of the worlds coming fuel need.”

Ethanol Promotion and Information Council
17220 Wright St., Suite 150
Omaha, NE 68130
Tel: (402) 932-0567
Fax: (402) 932-1752
Email: info@drivingethanol.org
URL: http://www.drivingethanol.org
   “The Ethanol Promotion and Information Council (EPIC) is a nonprofit alliance of ethanol industry leaders who have come together to grow consumer demand for ethanol energy through targeted marketing. Our goal is to reach consumers and key influences across the country and educate them on the performance and environmental benefits of using an ethanol-enriched fuel in their automobiles.”

Renewable Energy Policy Project (REEP)
1612 K St., NW
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: (202) 293-2898
Fax: (202) 293-5857
Email: Research Manager jerrys@repp.org
Bioenergy URL: http://www.repp.org
   REPP's goal is to accelerate the use of renewable energy by providing credible information, insightful policy analysis, and innovative strategies amid changing energy markets and mounting environmental needs by researching, publishing, and disseminating information, creating policy tools, and hosting highly active, on-line, renewable energy discussion groups.

U. S. Government Agencies & Organizations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Biomass Research
1617 Cole Blvd.
Golden, CO 80401-3393
Tel: (303) 275-3000 (Main)
Tel: (303) 384-6826 (Biomass)
URL: http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/
   The National Renewable Laboratory is the nation’s primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development.

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agriculture Research Service
National Programs: National Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems
Bioenergy and Energy Alternatives
5601 Sunnyside Ave.
Rm. 4-2288
Beltsville, MD 20705
Tel: (301) 504-7987
URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/programs/programs.htm?NP_CODE=307
   The mission of the USDA Bioenergy and Energy Alternatives National Program is “to create jobs and economic activity in America, reduce the Nation's dependence on foreign oil, and improve the environment by developing alternate energy sources and increasing the use of agricultural crops as feedstocks for biofuel.”

U.S. Department of Energy
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Biomass program
1000 Independence Avenue, SW
EE-2E, 5H-021
Washington, DC 20585
Tel: (877) 337-3463
Email: eere_ biomass@ee.doe.gov
URL: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/index.html
   “The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and our national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuel, bioproducts, and biopower.”

International Organizations

European Commission Energy: New and Renewables
   URL: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/index_en.htm
   “The development of renewable energy-- particularly energy from wind, water, solar power and biomass-- is a central aim of the European Commission's energy policy.”

Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP)
   URL: http://www.globalbioenergy.org
   “GBEP brings together public, private, and civil society stakeholders in a joint commitment to promote bioenergy for sustainable development.”

International Energy Agency (IEA): Bioenergy
   Bioenergy URL: http://www.ieabioenergy.com
   IEA Homepage URL: http://www.iea.org
   “IEA Bioenergy is an organisation set up in 1978 by the International Energy Agency (IEA) with the aim of improving cooperation and information exchange between countries that have national programmes in bioenergy research, development and deployment.”

United Nations Foundation: United Nations International Bioenergy Initiative
United Nations Foundation
1800 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202) 887-9040
Fax: (202) 887-9021
   URL: http://www.unfoundation.org/bioenergy/index.asp
   “The International Bioenergy Initiative was launched by the United Nations Foundation (UN Foundation) in 2005. This Initiative integrates in-country resources and international markets to create economic opportunities for rural communities and developing nations.”

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SELECTED INTERNET RESOURCES

THE INTERNET offers a growing number of sites useful for finding information about biomass energy. Several of the organizations listed above provide links to related sites as well as a variety of information resources. You might try the sites described below, or use your favorite search engine and appropriate key words to identify more specific resources.

Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network (BFIN)
   URL: http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/main.aspx
   “BFIN is a gateway to a wealth of biomass feedstock information resources from the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and other research organizations.”

Biomass Programs Database
   URL: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/document_database.html
   “The Biomass Document Database is a collection of public documents of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program. This includes most documents prepared since 1980 by the Biofuel Technology Program, many of the more recent documents for the whole Biomass Program, and selected "related" documents that are relevant to the Biomass Program, even if not produced by it.”

Center for Agriculture and Rural Development (CARD): Biorenewables
   URL: http://www.card.iastate.edu/research/bio/
   The Biorenewables Policy Division explores “the impact of biofuel growth on the mix and location of livestock, effects of possible policy changes on biofuel production and prices, impacts of increased biofuel production on water quality, and impacts on local basis for corn and soybeans.”

Nature Resources Defense Council (NRDC)
   URL: http://www.nrdc.org/air/transportation/biofuels/contents.asp
   Biofuel: The Growing Solution to Energy Dependence and Global Warming.
   This index collects NRDC studies, analyses and other policy materials that answer many of the most pressing questions about these fuels.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Publications Database
   URL: http://www.nrel.gov/publications/
   The NREL Publications Database contains bibliographical information about publications developed or written by NREL staff and subcontractors. Search the database for publications from 1977 to the present on subjects related to renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. Many publications are available electronically as Adobe Acrobat PDF files.

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   January 4, 2011
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