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Norman Ross of the division of Paleontology, National Museum, preparing the skeleton of a baby dinosaur some seven or eight million years old for exhibition

Norman Ross of the division of Paleontology, National Museum, preparing the skeleton of a baby dinosaur some seven or eight million years old for exhibition


Tracer Bullet 97-2

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Dinosaurs were highly successful reptiles. They first appeared about 225 million years ago and continually evolved to inhabit diverse environments and geographic areas; indeed, dinosaur fossils have been found on every continent. For more than 100 million years dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial animals. Then, about 65 million years ago, dinosaurs (or, as some scientists would put it, "non-avian dinosaurs") and many other species became extinct within a geologically brief period of time.

The term Dinosauria was coined just over 150 years ago by the British anatomist and vertebrate paleontologist Richard Owen, referring to the three large fossil "terrible lizards" that had been discovered in Europe. Later in the 19th century, many discoveries of dinosaur fossils were made in the western United States, and that period has been called the Golden Age of Dinosaur Studies.

Because of the great number of new discoveries about dinosaurs in recent years, the present time has been referred to as the Second Golden Age of Dinosaur Studies. Certain questions stimulate both scientific and public interest: What factors made dinosaurs such highly successful animals for more than 100 million years? Were dinosaurs "warm-blooded"? What were the social and nesting behaviors of dinosaurs? What is the relationship between birds and dinosaurs? What caused dinosaurs to become extinct?

This literature guide lists Library of Congress sources for those who want to read about the discoveries and controversies related to dinosaurs. Not meant to be a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the user "on target."



Freedman, Bill. Dinosaur. In The Gale encyclopedia of science. v. 2. Detroit, Mich., Gale Research, c1996. p. 1141-1148.
   Q121.G35 1996 v. 2 <SciRR>

Gore, Rick. Dinosaurs. National geographic, v. 183, Jan. 1993: 2-53.
   G1.N27 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Kricher, John C. Peterson first guide to dinosaurs. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1990. 128 p.
   QE862.D5K65 1990

Padian, Kevin. Dinosaur. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology. 8th ed. v. 5. New York, McGraw-Hill, c1997. p. 321-335.
   Q121.M3 1997 v. 5 <SciRR>



Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which books on dinosaurs can be located in most card, book, and online catalogs, include the following:

Highly Relevant

   See also geographic subdivisions, e.g., "DINOSAURS--ARGENTINA"; " DINOSAURS-- CHINA"; " DINOSAURS--TEXAS"
   See also names of specific dinosaurs, e.g.", "APATOSAURUS", " CHAMPSOSAURUS", " STEGOSAURUS", " TYRANNOSAURUS REX"




More General




The Age of dinosaurs. Convened by Kevin Padian and Daniel J. Chure. Knoxville, Tenn., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Univ. of Tenn., Knoxville, Paleontological Society, 1989. 210 p. (Short courses in paleontology, no. 2)
   Bibliography: p. 184-210.
   QE862.D5A28 1989
   "12th annual short course of the Paleontological Society, sponsored in association with the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, the National Association of Geology Teachers, and the Geological Society of America [and] held at the 101st Annual Meeting of the GSA, St. Louis, Missouri, November 5, 1989."
   "This book is designed to help college professors to institute courses in the Age of Dinosaurs because we have found that dinosaurs are an excellent vehicle for teaching a broad range of concepts associated with earth and life sciences."

Bakker, Robert T. The dinosaur heresies: new theories unlocking the mystery of the dinosaurs and their extinction. New York, Morrow, c1986. 481 p.
   Bibliography: p. 463-472.
   QE862.D5B35 1986

Fastovsky, David E., and David B. Weishampel. The evolution and extinction of the dinosaurs. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1996. 460 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QE862.D5F38 1996 <SciRR>

Lambert, David. The ultimate dinosaur book. 1st American ed. London, New York, Dorling Kindersley in association with Natural History Museum, 1993. 192 p.
   QE862.D5L4246 1993

Lessem, Don. Kings of creation: how a new breed of scientists is revolutionizing our understanding of dinosaurs. New York, Simon & Schuster, c1992. 367 p.
   Bibliography: p. 321-351.
   QE862.D5L49 1992

Lucas, Spencer G. Dinosaurs: the textbook. 2nd ed. Dubuque, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown, c1997. 292 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QE862.D5L94 1997 <SciRR>

McGowan, Christopher. Dinosaurs, spitfires, and sea dragons. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1991. 365 p.
   Bibliography: p. 329-349.
   QE861.M38 1991
   "Completely revised and updated version of The successful dragons: a natural history of extinct reptiles ... 1983."

Norell, Mark, Eugene S. Gaffney, and Lowell Dingus. Discovering dinosaurs in the American Museum of Natural History. New York, Knopf, 1995. 204 p.
   QE862.D5N653 1995

Norman, David. Dinosaur! New York, Macmillan, 1995? 288 p.
   Bibliography: p. 279-281.
   QE862.D5N669 1995
   Originally published: London, Boxtree Ltd., 1991.
   "Based on the acclaimed four-part A&E television series hosted by Walter Cronkite."

Norman, David. The illustrated encyclopedia of dinosaurs: an original and compelling insight into life in the dinosaur kingdom. New York, Crescent Books, Distributed by Crown Publishers, c1985. 208 p.
   QE862.D5N67 1985 <SciRR>



Titles about Particular Geographic Areas or Habitats

Colbert, Edwin Harris. The little dinosaurs of Ghost Ranch. New York, Columbia University Press, c1995. 250 p.
   Bibliography: p. 229-237.
   QE862.S3C58 1995
   An account of cooperation between professional and amateur paleontologists in the discovery, excavation, preparation, and study of Coelophysis fossils from Arizona.

Jacobs, Louis L. Lone Star dinosaurs. College Station, Texas A&M University Press, c1995. 160 p. (Louise Lindsey Merrick natural environment series, no. 22)
   Bibliography: p. 143-151.
   QE862.D5J285 1995

Jacobs, Louis L. Quest for the African dinosaurs: ancient roots of the modern world. New York, Villard Books, 1993. 314 p.
   Bibliography: p. 291-304.
   QE862.D5J28 1993

Kranz, Peter Michael. Dinosaurs in Maryland. Baltimore, Dept. of Natural Resources, Maryland Geological Survey, 1989. 34 p. (Educational series/Department of Natural Resources, Maryland Geological Survey, no. 6)
   Bibliography: p. 32.
   QE121.E34 no. 6

Lucas, Spencer G. Dinosaurs of New Mexico. [New Mexico], New Mexico Academy of Science, 1993. 130 p. (New Mexico journal of science, v. 32)
   Bibliography: p. 107-120.
   QE862.D5L937 1993

Novacek, Michael J. Dinosaurs of the flaming cliffs. New York, Anchor Books, 1996. 367 p.
   Bibliography: p. 332-349.
   QE862.D5N684 1996
   Dinosaurs of the Gobi Desert.

Russell, Dale A. An odyssey in time: the dinosaurs of North America. Minocqua, Wis., NorthWord Press; Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1989. 240 p.
   Bibliography: p. 219-232.
   QE862.D5R77 1989

Tung, Chih-ming. Dinosaurian faunas of China. Dong Zhiming. English ed. Beijing, China Ocean Press; Berlin, New York, Springer-Verlag, c1992. 188 p.
   Bibliography: p. 175-188.
   QE862.D5T857 1992

Weishampel, David B., and Luther Young. Dinosaurs of the East Coast. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. 275 p.
   Bibliography: p. 239-265.
   QE862.D5W33 1996 <SciRR>

Titles about Particular Topics

Alexander, R. McNeill. Dynamics of dinosaurs and other extinct giants. New York, Columbia University Press, c1989. 167 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QE862.D5A33 1989

Benton, Michael J. Scientific methodologies in collision: the history of the study of the extinction of the dinosaurs. In Evolutionary biology. v. 24; 1989. New York, Plenum Press. p. 371-400.
   Bibliography: p. 394-400.

Dinosaur eggs and babies. Edited by Kenneth Carpenter, Karl F. Hirsch, John R. Horner. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1994. 372 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QE862.D5D4935 1994 <SciRR>

Glut, Donald F. The dinosaur scrapbook. Secaucus, N.J., Citadel Press, c1980. 320 p.
   Discusses and illustrates prehistoric animals as represented in motion pictures, pulp magazines, comic books, and other popular media.

Horner, John R., and James Gorman. Digging dinosaurs. New York, Workman Pub., c1988. 210 p.
   Bibliography: p. 201-205.
   QE862.D5H643 1988

Lockley, M. G., and Adrian P. Hunt. Dinosaur tracks and other fossil footprints of the western United States. Artwork by Paul Koroshetz. New York, Columbia University Press, c1995. 338 p.
   Bibliography: p. 311-323.
   QE845.L625 1995

Spalding, David A. E. Dinosaur hunters. Rocklin, Calif., Prima Pub., c1993. 310 p.
   Bibliography: p. 298-302.
   QE707.A2S63 1993

Thulborn, Tony. Dinosaur tracks. London, New York, Chapman and Hall, 1990. 410 p.
   Bibliography: p. 337-389.
   QE862.D5T48 1990

Wallace, Joseph E. The American Museum of Natural History's book of dinosaurs and other ancient creatures. New York, Simon & Schuster, c1994. 144 p.
   Bibliography: p. 142.
   QE841.W35 1994

Wilford, John Noble. The riddle of the dinosaur. New York, Knopf, Distributed by Random House, 1985. 304 p.
   Bibliography: p. 277-287.
   QE862.D5W55 1985 <SciRR>

Titles abut Particular Types of Dinosaurs

Dodson, Peter. The horned dinosaurs: a natural history. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, c1996. 346 p.
   Bibliography: p. 311-323.
   QE862.O65D64 1996

Gillette, David D. Seismosaurus: the earth shaker. New York, Columbia University Press, c1994. 205 p.
   Bibliography: p. 193-199.
   QE862.S3G56 1994

Horner, John R., and Don Lessem. The complete T. rex. New York, Simon & Schuster, c1993. 239 p.
   Bibliography: p. 227-229.
   QE862.S3H66 1993

Paul, Gregory S. Predatory dinosaurs of the world: a complete illustrated guide. New York, Simon and Schuster, c1988. 464 p.
   Bibliography: p. 423-440.
   QE862.D5P38 1988



Alvarez, Walter. T. rex and the crater of doom. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, c1997. 185 p.
   Bibliography: p. 147-169.
   QE506.A48 1997

Archibald, J. David. Dinosaur extinction and the end of an era: what the fossils say. New York, Columbia University Press, c1996. 237 p.
   Bibliography: p. 211-226.
   QE734.5.A73 1996

Carroll, Robert Lynn. Vertebrate paleontology and evolution. New York, Freeman, c1988. 698 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QE841.C254 1988

Colbert, Edwin Harris, and Michael Morales. Evolution of the vertebrates: a history of the backboned animals through time. 4th ed. New York, Wiley-Liss, c1991. 470 p.
   Bibliography: p. 439-456.
   QE841.C68 1990

Dingus, Lowell. Next of kin: great fossils at the American Museum of Natural History. New York, Rizzoli, 1996. 160 p.
   QE862.D5D4927 1996

Dixon, Dougal. The new dinosaurs: an alternative evolution. Topsfield, Mass., Salem House, 1988. 120 p.
   Bibliography: p. 115.
   QE862.D5D55 1988
   Presents a possible zoology of modern times if the extinction of 65 million years ago had not occurred.

The Mass-extinction debates: how science works in a crisis. Edited by William Glen. Stanford, Calif., Stanford University Press, 1994. 370 p.
   Bibliography: p. 301-348.
   QE721.2.E97M35 1994

Munsart, Craig A. Investigating science with dinosaurs. Englewood, Colo., Teacher Ideas Press, 1993. 249 p.
   Bibliography: p. 231-239.
   LB1585.3.M86 1993
   "For the teacher this book will provide a group of classroom-tested activities leading students [grades 4 through 12] through the discovery process of science, data acquisition and manipulation, and scientific applications."



Costa, Vincenzo. Dinosaur safari guide: tracking North America's prehistoric past: complete descriptions and directions for over 170 dinosaur (and other prehistoric creature) sites, museums, fossil exhibits, tracksites, and parks in the United States and Canada. Stillwater, Minn., Voyageur Press, c1994. 259 p.
   QE862.D5C73 1994 <SciRR>

The Dinosauria. Edited by David B. Weishampel, Peter Dodson, Halszka Osmolska. Berkeley, University of California Press, c1990. 733 p.
   Bibliography: p. 619-681.
   QE862.D5D513 1990 <SciRR>

Glut, Donald F. Dinosaurs, the encyclopedia. Jefferson, N.C., McFarland, c1997. 1076 p.
   Bibliography: p. 1023-1057.
   QE862.D5G652 1997 <SciRR>

Halls, Kelly Milner. Dino-trekking: the ultimate dinosaur lover's travel guide. New York, Wiley, c1996. 206 p.
   QE862.D5H224 1996

Lambert, David, and the Diagram Group. The dinosaur data book: the definitive, fully illustrated encyclopedia of dinosaurs. New York, Avon Books, c1990. 320 p.
   Bibliography: p. 306-310.
   QE862.D5L4245 1990 <SciRR>

Lessem, Don, and Donald F. Glut. The Dinosaur Society's dinosaur encyclopedia. New York, Random House, c1993. 533 p.
   QE862.D5L487 1993 <SciRR>

The Macmillan illustrated encyclopedia of dinosaurs and prehistoric animals: a visual who's who of prehistoric life. Dougal Dixon and others. New York, Collier Books; Toronto, Maxwell Macmillan Canada, 1992. 312 p.
   Bibliography: p. 304.
   QE841.M225 1992



Dino fest: proceedings of a conference for the general public, March 24, 1994. Edited by Gary D. Rosenberg and Donald L. Wolberg. Indianapolis, Ind., Geology Dept., Indiana University-Purdue University; Knoxville, Tenn., Paleontological Society, 1994. 503 p. (Paleontological Society. Special publication, no. 7)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QE862.D5D4933 1994
   "Hosted by The Department of Geology, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis."

Dinosaur systematics: approaches and perspectives. Edited by Kenneth Carpenter and Philip J. Currie. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1990. 318 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Papers from the Dinosaur Systematics Symposium, held June 3-5, 1986, at the Tyrrell Museum of Paleontology, Drumheller, Alberta.
   QE862.D5D4948 1990

Dinosaurs past and present. Edited by Sylvia J. Czerkas and Everett C. Olson. Los Angeles, Calif., Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in association with University of Washington Press, Seattle and London, 1987. 2 v.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Catalog of a traveling exhibition opened Feb. 15, 1986 and papers from a symposium convened by the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.
   QE862.D5D525 1987



Bibliography of fossil vertebrates. 1978+ The American Geological Institute, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Falls Church, Va., The Institute. annual.
   Z6033.V45B53 <SciRR>
   Compiled in cooperation with Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley.
   This annual continues the monographic volumes (which usually were issued to cover four- or five-year periods) beginning with the 1928/1933 volume, compiled by Charles Lewis Camp and associates and published by the Geological Society of America (Z6033.P2B48 <SciRR>).

Chure, Dan, and John S. McIntosh. A bibliography of the dinosauria (exclusive of the Aves), 1677-1986. Grand Junction, Colo., Museum of Western Colorado, 1989. 226 p. (Museum of Western Colorado paleontology series, #1)
   Z6033.D55C48 1989 <SciRR>

Fleury, Bruce E. Dinosaurs: a guide to research. New York, Garland, 1992. 468 p. (Garland reference library of the humanities, vol. 1196)
   Z6033.D55F54 1992 <SciRR>

Fouty, Gary. Death of the dinosaurs and other mass extinctions. Phoenix, Ariz., Oryx Press, 1987. 91 p. (Oryx science bibliographies, v. 10)
   Z6033.P2F68 1987 <SciRR>



Abstracting and Indexing Services that index relevant journal articles and other literature are listed below. Most of these services index to the term "Dinosaurs" and also to the scientific names of different dinosaurs. Consult a reference librarian for location of these items in the Science Reading Room.

NOTE: Many of these titles may also be available on CD-ROM terminals or on-line.

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I> and Computer format

Bibliography and Index of Geology (1969- )
   Z6031.G4 <SciRR A&I> and CD-ROM <SciRR>
   Continues: Bibliography and Index of Geology Exclusive of North America (1933-1968)
   Absorbed: Bibliography of North American Geology 1971

Biological Abstracts (1926- )
   QH301.B37 <SciRR A&I> and Computer format

Biological Abstracts/RRM (1967- )
   Z5321.B672 <SciRR A&I>

Biology Digest (1974- )
   QH301.B44 <SciRR A&I>

General Science Index (1978- )
   Z7401.G46 <SciRR A&I> and Computer format

Magazine Index
   Computer format

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900- )

Science Citation Index (1961-)
   Z7401.S365 <SciRR A&I> and CD-ROM <SciRR>
   See especially Permuterm Subject Index (1966-) for entries under relevant keywords.

Zoological Record (1864-)
   Z7991.Z87 <SciRR A&I>
   See: Index to Animal Names in Section 17, Reptilia



Journals that often contain relevant articles include the following:

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences
Journal of Paleontology QE701.J6
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology QE841.J67
National Geographic G1.N27
Natural History QH1.N13
Nature Q1.N2
Paleontological Journal QE701.P5443
Science Q1.S35
Scientific American T1.S5



Currie, Philip J., Gregory C. Nadon, and Martin G. Lockley. Dinosaur footprints with skin impressions from the Cretaceous of Alberta and Colorado. Canadian journal of earth sciences, v. 28, Jan. 1991: 102-115.

Dinosaur studies: special issue commemorating the 150th anniversary of Richard Owen's Dinosauria. Modern geology, v. 16, no. 1/2, 1991: 1-250.
   QE1.M76 v. 16
   A collection of 13 papers with numerous references.
   Partial contents: Making the fossil record of dinosaurs, by Peter Dodson and Susan D. Dawson.--The many myths, some old, some new, of dinosaurology, by Gregory S. Paul.--The discovery of dinosaur eggs, by Tony Thulborn.--The dinosaur footprint renaissance, by Martin Lockley.

Farlow, James O., Peter Dodson, and Anusuya Chinsamy. Dinosaur biology. In Annual review of ecology and systematics. v. 26; 1995. Palo Alto, Calif., Annual Reviews. p. 445-471.
   Includes 139 bibliographical references.

Hurlbert, Stuart H., and J. David Archibald. No statistical support for sudden (or gradual) extinction of dinosaurs. Geology, v. 23, Oct. QE1.G528

Molnar, R. E., and J. Wiffen. A Late Cretaceous polar dinosaur fauna from New Zealand. Cretaceous research, v. 15, Dec. 1994: 689-706.

Norell, Mark A., and others. A nesting dinosaur. Nature, v. 378, Dec. 21/28, 1995: 774-776.

Paul, Gregory S. The art of Charles R. Knight. Scientific American, v. 274, June 1996: 86-93.

Ruben, John A., and others. The metabolic status of some late Cretaceous dinosaurs. Science, v. 273, Aug. 30, 1996: 1204-1207.

Schwimmer, David R., and others. Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Blufftown Formation in western Georgia and eastern Alabama. Journal of paleontology, v. 67, Mar. 1993: 288-296.

Sereno, Paul C. The origin and evolution of dinosaurs. In Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. v. 25; 1997. Palo Alto, Calif., Annual Reviews. p. 435-489.
   QE1.A674 <SciRR>

Vickers-Rich, Patricia, and Thomas Hewitt Rich. Australia's polar dinosaurs. Scientific American, v. 269, July 1993: 50-55.

Weishampel, David B. Dinosaurian cacophony: inferring function in extinct organisms. BioScience, v. 47, Mar. 1997: 150-159.

Williams, Michael E. Catastrophic versus noncatastrophic extinction of the dinosaurs: testing, falsifiability, and the burden of proof. Journal of paleontology, v. 68, Mar. 1994: 183-190.



Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Alexander, R. McNeill. How dinosaurs ran. Scientific American, v. 264, Apr. 1991: 130-136.

Coria, Rodolfo A., and Leonardo Salgado. A new giant carnivorous dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Patagonia. Nature, v. 377, Sept. 21, 1995: 224- 226.

Currie, Philip J. The great dinosaur egg hunt. National geographic, v. 189, May 1996: 96-111.

Dinosaurs. Natural history, v. 104, June 1995: 28-72.
   A special issue celebrating the reopening of the halls of the dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History.
   Partial contents: Why cladistics? by Eugene S. Gaffney, Lowell Dingus, and Miranda K. Smith.--Horns, herds, and hierarchies, by Scott D. Sampson.--Track records, by Martin Lockley.--An egg thief exonerated, by James M. Clark.-- Origins of the feathered nest, by Mark Norell.--Within the bone, by Anusuya Chinsamy.--Designer jaws, by David B. Weishampel.

Hammer, William R., and William J. Hickerson. A crested theropod dinosaur from Antarctica. Science, v. 264, May 6, 1994: 828-830.

McDonald, Nicholas G. Connecticut in the age of the dinosaurs. Rocks and minerals, v. 70, Nov./Dec. 1995: 412-418.

Morell, Virginia. The origin of birds: the dinosaur debate. Audubon, v. 99, Mar./Apr. 1997: 36-45.

Novas, Fernando E., and Pablo F. Puerta. New evidence concerning avian origins from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Nature, v. 387, May 22, 1997: 390-392.

Over, D. Jeffrey. An exercise on dinosaur trackways for introductory science courses. Journal of geological education, v. 43, May 1995: 204-211.

Webster, Donovan. Dinosaurs of the Gobi: unearthing a fossil trove. National geographic, v. 190, July 1996: 70-89



Smithsonian Institution Libraries
National Museum of Natural History Branch
10th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20560
Telephone: (202) 357-1496
URL for Dinosaur Hall:
Library open to the public by appointment only.

U.S. Geological Survey Library
950 National Center
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, Virginia 20192
Telephone: (703) 648-4302

Also, the Internet offers a growing number of dinosaur sites, such as: the University of California (Berkeley) Museum of Paleontology (URL: These may include photographs of museum specimens, textual material, bibliographies, and/or links to other dinosaur sites on the Web


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