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Photo: small cottage or barn with covered with lush green plants on the roof.Green roofs have a layer of plant material that captures water when it rains. From the
U.S. Environmental Agency Website.

Photo: walled garden section with plants in bloom, suitable for dry climates.
Green roof at the Denver Botanic Gardens.
From the U.S. Environmental Agency Website.

Green Roofs

Tracer Bullet 06-1


SCOPE

Green roofs, widely implemented in Germany, Switzerland, and other European countries, as well as in Canada, are becoming increasingly well known in the United States. Green roofs can help to counteract the effect of impervious surfaces in urban areas. Impervious surfaces, including sidewalks, roads, rooftops, parking lots, and runways, are usually constructed of impenetrable materials such as asphalt, concrete and stone, which repel water and prevent precipitation from seeping into soil. Because approximately 40 percent of the impervious surface area in our cities is located on rooftops, vegetated rooftops can have an important beneficial impact on the urban environment by reducing and controlling stormwater runoff. Green roofs act as filters for both air and water. They can also play an important role in reducing energy consumption for both heating and cooling, and in reducing the effects of urban heat islands. In addition, green roofs can contribute public green spaces to cities.

This guide is not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, but highlights selected works and resources about green roofs. Many of these works are available in the Science reference collection in the Science and Business Reading Room, which is located on the fifth floor of the Adams Building at the Library of Congress.

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INTRODUCTIONS TO THE TOPIC

Bass, Brad. Rooftop gardens. In Encyclopedia of global environmental change. v. 3. Chichester, New York, Wiley, c2002. p. 356-362.
   GE149.E443 2002 <SciRR>

Grant, Gary, Luke Engleback, and Barry Nicholson. Green roofs: their existing status and potential for conserving biodiversity in urban areas. Produced for English Nature by EcoSchemes, Ltd., c2003. 61 p. (English Nature Research Report No. 498)
   Available online at:http://www.english-nature.org.uk/news/news_photo/Greenroofs.pdf

Green roofs: research advice note. London, British Council for Offices, 2003. 12 p.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>
   Available online at: http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/Corporation

Chicago’s green rooftops: a guide to rooftop gardening. Chicago, Department of the
Environment, 2001. 9 p.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>
   Available online at:
   http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/COCWebPortal/COC_ATTACH/GuidetoRooftopGardening_v2.pdf

Wulkan, Bruce, Steve Tilley, and Toni Droscher. Green roofs: Justice Center green roof, City of Seattle. In Natural approaches to stormwater management: low impact development in Puget Sound. Olympia, WA, Puget Sound Action Team, 2003. p. 24-25.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>
   Available online at: http://www.psat.wa.gov/Publications/LID_studies/green_roofs.htm

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SUBJECT HEADINGS

Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which works on green roofs can be located include the following:

Highly Relevant

GREEN ROOFS

Relevant

ARCHITECTURE--ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
BUILDINGS--ENERGY CONSERVATION
BUILDINGS--ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
ROOF GARDENING
URBAN HEAT ISLAND
URBAN RUNOFF

Related

BUILDINGS--ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
CITY PLANNING--ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
COMPOST
DROUGHT-TOLERANT PLANTS
HYDROPONICS
MEMBRANES (TECHNOLOGY)
PLANT GROWING MEDIA
SEDUMS
SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE
SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS--ARCHITECTURE
SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS--DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
URBAN ECOLOGY
URBANIZATION--ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
VERTICAL GARDENING
XERISCAPING
XEROPHYTES

MORE GENERAL

AIR POLLUTION
ENERGY CONSERVATION

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BASIC TEXTS

Dunnett, Nigel, and Noel Kingsbury. Planting green roofs and living walls. Portland, OR, Timber Press, 2004. 254 p.
   SB419.5.D85 2004 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 245-249.

Green roofs: ecological design and construction. Earth Pledge. Atglen, PA, Schiffer Pub., c2005. 158 p.
   SB419.5.G76 2005 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 149-153.

Osmundson, Theodore. Roof gardens: history, design, and construction. New York, W. W. Norton, c1999. 318 p.
   SB419.5.O75 1999 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 308-310.

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RELATED TITLES

Big & green: toward sustainable architecture in the 21st century. Edited by David Gissen. New York, Princeton Architectural Press; Washington, National Building Museum, 2003. 192 p.
   NA2542.36.B54 2003

Innovative urban wet-weather flow management systems. Edited by Richard Field, James P. Heaney, and Robert Pitt. Lancaster, PA, Technomic Pub. Co., c2000. 535 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   TD657.I5 2000

Integrating city planning and environmental improvement: practicable strategies for sustainable urban development. Edited by Donald Miller and Gert de Roo. 2nd ed. Aldershot, Hants, Eng., Brookfield, VT, Ashgate, c2004. 336 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   HT241.I5825 2004

Mendler, Sandra, William Odell, and Mary Ann Lazarus. The HOK guidebook to sustainable design. Hoboken, Wiley, 2006. 464 p.
   NA2542.35M46 2006 <SciRR>

NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Enhancing Urban Environment: Environmental Upgrading of Municipal Pollution Control Facilities and Restoration of Urban Waters. Enhancing urban environment by environmental upgrading and restoration. Edited by Jiri Marsalek and others. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c2004. 394 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   TD657.N4 2004

Sajeva, Maurizio, and Mariangela Costanzo. Succulents II: the new illustrated dictionary. Portland, OR, Timber Press, 2000. 234 p.
   Bibliography: p. 232-234.
   SB438.S293 2000

Spiegel, Ross, and Dru Meadows. Green building materials: a guide to product selection and specification. 2nd ed. Hoboken, Wiley & Sons, 2006. 322 p.
   TH455.S65 2006 <SciRR>

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SELECTED TECHNICAL REPORTS AND GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

Most reports listed below are available in the microform collection of the Science Reading Room. These and other reports are sold by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. NTIS telephone: (703) 605-6585. NTIS web site: http://www.ntis.gov

Federal technology alert: green roofs . U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Washington, Federal Energy Management Program, Sept. 2004. 26 p.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>
   DOE/EE-0298
   Available online at: http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/

King, V. J., and C. Davis. Isolating and managing urban heat islands effect for selected Southeastern cities. Orangeburg, SC, South Carolina State University Transportation Center. Washington, Office of Research and Special Programs, Dept. of Transportation, May 2004. 86 p.
   PB2004-106797
   Also available online as Isolating and managing urban heat islands in selected Southern cities, at:
   http://www.utc.scsu.edu/Research/Reports/2002/heat_island.htm

Morgan, B. J. Evaluation of vegetated roofing technology: application at Air Force Plant Four, Building 15. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2004. 142 p.
   ADA-422925

Vegetated roof cover: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Washington, Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Oct. 2000. 3 p.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>
   Report Number: EPA-841-B-00-005 D
   Available online at: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS50931

Zhou, Nan, and others. Validation of the thermal effect of roof-spraying and green plants in an insulated building. Berkeley, CA, Lawrence Berkeley Lab; Washington, Department of Energy, 2004. 12 p.
   Presented at SimBuild 2004, IBPSA-USA National Conference, Boulder,CO, August 4-6, 2004. DE2004-833572
   Available online at: http://der.lbl.gov/presentations.html

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STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

ASTM Standards

ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world. The Annual Book of ASTM Standards can be consulted in the Science Reference collection of the Library of Congress. ASTM standards can also be purchased through ASTM International at: http://www.astm.org
See especially v. 4.12 for standards related to green roofs.

ASTM International. Annual book of ASTM standards. West Conshohocken, PA, ASTM International, c2002-
   TA401.A653 <SciRR>

Selected ASTM standards related to green roofs include:

ASTM: E2397-05. Standard practice for determination of dead loads and live loads associated with green roof systems. ASTM book of standards, v. 04-12, 2005.
TA401.A653 <SciRR>

ASTM: E2396-05. Standard test method for saturated water permeability of granulated drainage media (falling-head method) for green roof systems. ASTM book of standards, v. 04-12, 2005.
   TA401.A653 <SciRR>

ASTM: E-2398-05. Standard test method for water capture and media retention of geocomposite drain layers for green roof systems. ASTM book of standards, v. 04-12, 2005.
   TA401.A653 <SciRR>

BOCA Codes, International Code Council (ICC)

Building Officials and Code Administrators International Inc. (BOCA), now known as the International Code Council, publishes codes that establish minimum performance requirements for all aspects of the construction industry. BOCA codes at the Library of Congress are located in the Law Library Reading Room. Some state codes are available at no cost through the eCodes sections of the ICC Website, while others must be purchased:
http://www.iccsafe.org/

FLL Guidelines

Guidelines for the planning, execution and upkeep of green-roof sites. (Richlinien für die Planung, Ausfhrüng and Plege von Dachbegrnüng). The 2002 edition of these widely consulted guidelines is available in English, from the German organization responsible, the Research Society for Landscape Development and Landscape Design, (Forschungsgesellschaft and schaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau eV). Also available through the U.S. source listed below:
http://www.f-l-l.de/
http://www.roofmeadow.com/technical/fll.shtml

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

The LEED Green Building Rating System is a voluntary, consensus-based national standard for developing high-performance, sustainable buildings. LEED standards are available through the U.S. Green Building Council:
http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CategoryID=19

Low Impact Development (LID) Urban Design Tools

LID technology is an alternative comprehensive approach to stormwater management. This page from the Low Impact Development Center has links to Integrated Management Practices (IMP) standards and specifications:
http://www.lid-stormwater.net/

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DISSERTATIONS

Dissertations can be identified by using online resources or the following indexes located in the Main Reading Room. Consult any reference librarian about options. Some dissertations may be available in full text through electronic resources on public terminals at the Library of Congress.

Comprehensive Dissertation Index. Supplement. (1973- annual)
   Z5053.X47a

Dissertation Abstracts International (1938- monthly)
   Z5053.D57

Digital Dissertations (1980-)
   Electronic resource

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SELECTED DISSERTATIONS
Cunningham, Neil Raymond. Rethinking the urban epidermis: a study of the viability of extensive green roof systems in the Manitoba capital with an emphasis on regional case studies and stormwater management. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2001.
   Collation of the original: 270 p.
   Thesis (masters)--University of Toronto, 2001.
   UMI publication number AAT MQ62714 <MicRR>

Saiz Alcazar, Susana. Greening the dwelling: a life cycle energy analysis of green roofs in residential buildings. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2004.
   Collation of the original: 157 p.
   Thesis (masters)--University of Toronto, 2004.
   UMI publication number AAT MQ95249 <MicRR>

Streutker, David Richard. A study of the urban heat island of Houston, Texas. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2003.
   Collation of the original: 146 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Rice University, 2003
   UMI publication number AAT 3090184 <MicRR>

VanWoert, Nicholaus Douglas. Stormwater retention and water use by extensive green roofs. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2004.
   Collation of the original: 113 p.
   Thesis (masters)--Michigan State University, 2004.
   UMI publication number AAT 1420013 <MicRR>

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ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING SERVICES

Abstracting and Indexing Services that index relevant journal articles and other literature on green roofs are listed below. Consult reading room reference staff in order to access abstracting and indexing services in electronic format on the public terminals in the reading rooms at the Library of Congress.

Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals (1930-)
   Z5945.C653 and Electronic format

Bibliography of Agriculture, AGRICOLA (1942-)
   Z5073.U572 <SciRR> and Electronic format
   Online in LC: National Agricultural Library

Applied Science and Technology Abstracts (ASTA)
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR> and Electronic Format
   Online in LC: First Search's OCLC

Biological and Agricultural Index, BioAg Index (1916-)
   Z5073.A46 <SciRR> and Electronic format
   Online in LC: First Search's OCLC

Garden Literature Index
   Electronic format
   Online in LC: EBSCO

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
   Electronic format
   Online in LC: CSA

Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management
   Electronic format
   Online in LC: CSA

Environmental Issues and Policy Index
   Electronic format
   Online in LC: EBSCO

GEOBASE
   Electronic format
   Online in LC: First Search's OCLC

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JOURNALS

Journals that often contain articles relevant to green roofs include the following:
Architectural Record NA1.A6
BioCycle S661.C6
E: the Environmental Magazine TD171.7.E13
Ecological Engineering GE350.E25
Energy & Buildings TJ163.5.B84E523
Environmental Design & Construction TH1.E54
Environmental Health Perspectives RA565.A1E13
Environmental Quality Management TD194.T68
The Garden SB4.R8
Green Places SB469.L33
HortScience SB317.5.H675
Landscape and Urban Planning HT166.L33
Landscape Architecture SB473.L347

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REPRESENTATIVE JOURNAL ARTICLES

Calkins, M. Strategy, use and challenges of ecological design in landscape architecture. Landscape and urban planning, v. 73, Aug. 15, 2005: 29-48.
   HT166.L33

Curtis, Doug. It’s alive! Sustainability news, spring 2005: 7-8.
   Pamphlet Box <SciRR>
   http://www.nature.nps.gov/sustainabilityNews/

Eisenmen, Theodore. Chicago’s green crown. Landscape architecture, v. 94, Nov. 2004: 106-113.
   SB473.L347

Lubbell, Sam. Big and green: one of the tallest buildings in Manhattan will also be eco-friendly. Architectural record, v. 192, Aug. 2004: 30.
   NA1.A6

Meadows, Dru. ASTM International and Sustainable Development keeping pace with a new global market. ASTM standardization news, v. 32, Apr. 2004: 30-33.
   TA368.A517

Sherman, Rhonda. Compost plays key role in green roof mixes. BioCycle, v. 46, Mar. 2005: 29-33.
   S661.C6

Shufro, Cathy. Living roofs. E: the environmental magazine, v. 16, July/Aug. 2005: 18- 21.
   TD171.7.E13

Taylor, Tess. Sky lawn. Architecture, v. 92, July 2003: 71-72.
   NA1.A326

Theodosiou, Theodore G. Summer period analysis of a planted roof as a passive cooling technique. Energy & buildings, v. 35, Oct. 2003: 909-917.
   TJ163.5.B84E523

Velazquez, Linda S. Organic greenroof architecture: design considerations and system components. Environmental quality management, v. 15, Autumn 2005: 61-71.
   TD194.T68

VanWoert, Nicholaus D., and others. Watering regime and green roof substrate design affect sedum plant growth. HortScience, v. 40, June 2005: 659-674.
   SB317.5.H675

Villarreal, E. L., A. Semadeni-Davies, and L. Bengtsson. Inner city stormwater control using a combination of best management practices. Ecological engineering, v. 22, July 2004: 279-298.
   GE350.E25

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SELECTED MATERIALS

Selected Materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include:

Boxwood of Seattle, and Roofscapes Inc. Vegetated roof design specification example. Appendix 9. In Low impact development technical guidance manual for Puget Sound. Olympia, WA, Puget Sound Action Team; Washington State University Pierce County Extension, 2005. p. 225-229.

Frazer, Lance. Paving paradise: the peril of impervious surfaces. Environmental health perspectives, v. 113, July 2005: A456-462.
   Available online at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYP/is_7_113/ai_n14924799

Green roof feasibility review, King County office project. Seattle, Palladino & Co., Inc., 2004. 10 p.

Impervious surface reduction: green rooftops. In Minnesota urban small sites best practice management manual. St. Paul, MN, Metropolitan Council, 2003. p.3.29-3.34.
   Available online at: http://www.metrocouncil.org/environment/Watershed/BMP/CH3_RPPImpGreenRoof.pdf

Kuhn, Monica, and Steven Peck. Design guidelines for green roofs. Ontario, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the Ontario Association of Architects, 2003. 22 p.
   Available online at:
   http://www.cmhc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=70146

Multnomah County green roof project. In Stormwater demonstration project reports. Portland, OR, Portland Bureau of Environmental Services, December 2004. 7p.
   Available online at: http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=78291

Use of vegetated roof covers in runoff management. Philadelphia, Roofscapes, Inc., 2002. 5 p.
   Available online at: http://www.roofscapes.com/PDF/Runoff_Management.pdf

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SELECTED INTERNET RESOURCES

Information and Projects from Local, State, and Federal Government Agencies

Chicago City Hall Green Roof
American Society of Landscape Architects, 2002 Merit Award - Design winner.
http://www.asla.org/meetings/awards/awds02/chicagocityhall.html

City of Chicago Green Roofs
http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/dcd/supp_info/chicago_green_roofs.html

Green Roofs at GSA
http://www.gsa.gov/portal/category/104999

Green Roofs in Alexandria
https://www.alexandriava.gov/tes/gbrc/default.aspx?id=46606

Green Roofs in the District of Columbia
http://green.dc.gov/greenroofs

Green Roof Technology in Fairfax County
http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/nvswcd/newsletter/greenroof.htm

Heat Island Effect: Green Roofs
Basics on green roofs, with some illustrations and examples, from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/strategies/greenroofs.html

Heat Island Group
The Heat Island Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducts research on the summer warming trends occurring in urban areas, the so-called 'heat island' effect.
http://heatisland.lbl.gov

Green Roofs: Ingenuity sprouting from the rooftops
Science Nation, an online magazine from the National Science Foundation, has an article which includes a video about a project at Columbia University. The green roof on a 14-story building in Manhattan is the site for research into better ways to plant on rooftops.
http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/science_nation/greenroofs.jsp?WT.mc_id=USNSF_51

Portland EcoRoof program
http://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/44422

Organizations and Research Centers

American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA): Green Roof
http://www.asla.org/ContentDetail.aspx?id=25362

Center for Green Roof Research at Penn State University
Information on research, news, industry, and many links.
http://plantscience.psu.edu/research/centers/green-roof

The European Federation of Green Roof Associations
http://www.efb-greenroof.eu/

Green Roof Guide: Green Roofs in the UK
http://www.greenroofguide.co.uk/

Green Roof Research Program at Michigan State University
Descriptions and photographs of several projects, along with a list of publications, industry links, and other information.
http://www.hrt.msu.edu/greenroof/

Green Roofs for Healthy Cities
Non-profit industry association site, with conference news and proceedings, projects, and research.
http://www.greenroofs.org

International Green Roof Association
An international network, sharing information on green roof technology and public relations.
http://www.igra-world.com/index.php

Livingroofs.org
Independent U.K. site promotes green roofs and provides information and advice.
http://livingroofs.org

N.C. State University Biological and Agricultural Engineering Green Roof Research
Research findings are available in .pdf format.
http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/greenroofs/

Scandinavian Green Roof Institute
An introduction to green roofs, and history of Augustenborg’s Roof Garden, Malmö, Sweden.
http://www.greenroof.se

Compiled by Alison P. Kelly
January 2006
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