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Navigation

Tracer Bullet 05-6

 

 

Graphic of an ornate compass on an old map.  "Tropic of Cancer" is enscribed beneath the compass.

Map of a part of the island of Cuba and of the Bahamas. From the Geography and Map Division Websiet, Library of Congress.

 

SCOPE

From the simplest techniques to the most complex, the range of technological sophistication used in human navigation is very broad. Micronesian islanders still use simple stick charts to navigate their islands and surrounding waters, while scientists are using the world’s most sophisticated computers to navigate spacecraft to Mars and beyond. Satellite technology and Global Positioning Systems applications have almost completely changed the science and instruments of most human navigation. Knowledge of astronomy, geometry, and navigational mathematics has become less necessary, and the instruments of the early explorers have become museum pieces and collectors’ items.

Defined as the process of determining position and direction using visual and temporal clues in the environment navigation also refers to map-reading, or giving directions to a pilot or driver of a ship, boat, automobile, airplane, or spacecraft. In computing, the term is used to describe moving around a file system or finding online information. Navigation methods include celestial, or the observation of the sun, moon and stars; pilotage, or using visible natural and artificial features such as lighthouses; dead reckoning, or using compass and log to monitor progress on a journey; waypoint navigation, or using electronic equipment such as radio and satellite systems to follow a course; position-fixing, or determining current position by visual and electronic means; and collision-avoidance, which uses radar.

This guide presents works on all types of navigation, past and present, and includes works that cover basic principles. It does not include discussions of specific geographic locations, particular bodies of water, or other planets, except for a few case studies that illustrate broader concepts. Navigation is also location-finding behavior used by many other animals, and some works on this related topic are cited. This guide is not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, but is designed -- as the name Tracer Bullet implies -- to put the reader "on target," or, as in the case of the navigator, to get you home.

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INTRODUCTIONS

Navigation. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology. 9th ed. v. 11. New York, McGraw-Hill, c2002.
p. 598-602.
   Q121.M3 2002 v. 11 <SciRR>

Navigation. In Van Nostrand’s scientific encyclopedia. 9th ed. v. 2. New York, Wiley-Interscience, c2002.
p. 2421-2428.
   Q121.V3 2002 v. 2 <SciRR>

The practice of navigation. In May, W. E., A history of marine navigation. New York, Norton, 1973. p. 1-43.
   VK15.M39 1973 <SciRR>

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SUBJECT HEADINGS

Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which materials on navigation can be found, include the following:

Highly Relevant

NAVIGATION
   See also specialized aspects, e.g., ANIMAL NAVIGATION; COASTWISE NAVIGATION; DOPPLER NAVIGATION; FISHERIES NAVIGATION; HYPERBOLIC NAVIGATION; INERTIAL NAVIGATION (ASTRONAUTICS); INLAND NAVIGATION; NAVIGATION (AERONAUTICS); NAVIGATION, PREHISTORIC; PROPORTIONAL NAVIGATION; STEAM NAVIGATION; UNDERWATER NAVIGATION

   See also as a subdivision under names of individual bodies of water, e.g., NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN--NAVIGATION, ETC.

   May be subdivided geographically, e.g., NAVIGATION--ARCTIC REGIONS

Relevant

AIDS TO AIR NAVIGATION
   See also specialized aspects and specific types, e.g., AIRPLANES--CONTROL SYSTEMS; FLIGHT CONTROL; GUIDANCE SYSTEMS (FLIGHT); AERONAUTICAL INSTRUMENTS; SPACE VEHICLES--GUIDANCE SYSTEMS; and names of individual systems, e.g., LORAN; OMNIRANGE SYSTEM; TACAN

AIDS TO NAVIGATION
   See also specific aids, e.g., AERONAUTICAL CHARTS; ASTRONAUTICAL CHARTS; CHARTS, NAUTICAL; HYDROGRAPHIC CHARTS; LIGHTHOUSES; LORAN CHARTS; MAPS; NAVIGATIONAL WARNINGS, SPECIAL; NOTICES TO MARINERS; PILOT CHARTS; PILOT GUIDES; PLOTTING CHARTS

ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES IN NAVIGATION
   See also specific types of satellites and systems, e.g., AEROSAT SATELLITES; DIOSCURES PROJECT; MARISAT SYSTEM

ASTRONAUTICS IN NAVIGATION
COMPASS
DEAD RECKONING (NAVIGATION)
ELECTRONICS IN NAVIGATION
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
INLAND NAVIGATION
LASERS IN NAVIGATION
MAPS
NAUTICAL ALMANACS
NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY
NAUTICAL INSTRUMENTS
   See also specific instruments, e.g., CROSS-STAFFS; LOGS; SEXTANT; QUADRANT

RADAR IN NAVIGATION
RADIO IN NAVIGATION

Related

ARTIFICIAL HORIZONS
AVIONICS
COLLISIONS AT SEA
GEOMAGNETISM
GREAT-CIRCLE SAILING
GYROSCOPES
GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS
GYRO COMPASS
INTERPLANETARY VOYAGES
LIGHTHOUSES
LONGITUDE
MAGNETORECEPTION
NAVAL ART AND SCIENCE
ORBITAL MECHANICS
PILOTS AND PILOTAGE
RADIO COMPASS
RADIO DIRECTION FINDERS
RULE OF THE ROAD AT SEA
SAILING
SEAMANSHIP
SHIP HANDLING
SIGNALS AND SIGNALING
VOYAGES AROUND THE WORLD

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GENERAL TEXTS

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B. Navigation: principles of positioning and guidance. Wien, New York, Springer, c2003.
427 p.
   VK555.H68 2003 <SciRR>

Mixter, George W. Primer of navigation: with problems in practical work and complete tables. 7th ed. New York, W. W. Norton, c1995. 578 p.
   VK555.M58 1995 <SciRR>

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ADDITIONAL TEXTS

Akerblom, Kjell. Astronomy and navigation in Polynesia and Micronesia. A survey. Stockholm, Etnografiska museet, 1968. 170 p. (The Ethnographical Museum, Stockholm. Monograph series, publication no. 14)
   Bibliography: p. 157-166.
   See also article URL: http://www.ethnomath.org/resources/akerblom1968.pdf
   GN440.A34

Avionics navigation systems. Myron Kayton and Walter R. Fried, editors. 2nd ed. New York, Wiley, c1997. 773 p.    Includes bibliographical references.
   TL695.A82 1997 <SciRR>

Avis, Robert. Using radar: a practical guide for small craft. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Sheridan House, 2000. 84 p.
   VK560.A86 2000 <SciRR>

Brogdon, Bill. Boat navigation for the rest of us: finding your way by eye and electronics. 2nd ed. Camden, Me., International Marine/McGraw-Hill, c2001. 220 p.
   VK555.B794 2001 <SciRR>

Burch, David. Radar for mariners. Camden, Me., International Marine, c2005. 243 p.
   Bibliography: p. 235-237.
   VK560.B85 2005 <SciRR>

Fishbein, Samuel B. Flight management systems: the evolution of avionics and navigation technology. Prepared under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution. Westport,
Conn., Praeger, 1995. 237 p.
   Bibliography: p. 229-230.
   TL695.F57 1995 <SciRR>

Hobbs, Richard R. Marine navigation: piloting and celestial and electronic navigation. 4th ed. Annapolis, Md., Naval Institute Press, c1998. 677 p.
   VK555.H67 1998 <SciRR>

Karlsen, Leif K. Secrets of the Viking navigators. Seattle, One Earth Press, 2003. 204 p.
   Not in LC

Larkin, Frank J. Basic coastal navigation: an introduction to piloting. 2nd ed. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Sheridan House, 1998. 278 p.
   VK559. L34 1998 <SciRR>

Lewis, David. The voyaging stars: secrets of the Pacific Island navigators. New York, W. W. Norton, 1978. 208 p.    Bibliography: p. 202-203.
   GN440.L47 1978

Lewis, David. We, the navigators: the ancient art of landfinding in the Pacific. 2nd ed. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, c1994. 442 p.
   Bibliography: p. 419-431.
   GN440.L48 1994

Moody, Alton B. Navigation afloat: a manual for the seaman. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., c1980. 751 p.
   Bibliography: p. 653-677.
   VK555.M62 1980 <SciRR>

Tetley, Laurence L. Electronic navigation systems. 3rd ed. Oxford, Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001. 423 p.
   Rev. ed. of Electronic aids to navigation. 1991.
   VK560.T37 2001 <SciRR>

Thomas, Stephen D. The last navigator: a young man, an ancient mariner, the secrets of the sea. Camden, Me., International Marine, c1997. 307 p.
   Originally published New York, H. Holt, c1987.
   GN671.C3T48 1997

Williams, Roy. Geometry of navigation. Chichester, Eng., Horwood Pub., 1998. 134 p.
   Bibliography: p. 131-132.
   VK555.W55 1998

Wylie, Francis James, ed. The use of radar at sea. 5th rev. ed. London, Hollis & Carter, 1978. 332 p.
   At head of title: The Royal Institute of Navigation.
   VK560.W9 1978 <SciRR>

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SPECIALIZED TITLES

Animal Navigation

Hughes, Howard C. Sensory exotica: a world beyond human experience. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1999.
345 p.
   Includes bibliographical references
   QP435.H84 1999 <SciRR>

Migrating animals: magnetic travel. In Mielczarek, Eugenie Vorburger, and Sharon Bertsch McGrayne. Iron, nature’s universal element: why people need iron and animals make magnets. New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers University Press, c2000. p. 105-129.
   Bibliography: p. 177-196.
   QP535.F4 M54 2000 <SciRR>

Navigation. In Gould, James L. and Carol Grant Gould. The honey bee. New York, Scientific American Library, c1988. p. 124-155. (Scientific American Library series, no. 25)
   Bibliography: p. 227-231.
   QL568.A6G68 1988

Spatial representation in animals. Edited by Sue Healy. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 1998. 188 p.
   Bibliography: p. 159-184.
   QL782.S735 1998

Waterman, Talbot H. Animal navigation. New York, Scientific American Library; Distributed by W. H. Freeman, c1989. 243 p. (Scientific American Library series, no. 26)
   Bibliography: p. 227-231.
   QL782.W37 1989 <SciRR>

Wiltschko, R. Magnetic orientation in animals. Berlin, New York, Springer, c1995. 297 p. (Zoophysiologie, v. 33)
   Bibliography: p. 261-288.
   QL782.5.W54 1995 <SciRR>

Celestial Navigation & Dead Reckoning

Davies, Arthur E. Celestial navigation: a practical guide. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, Eng., Helmsman Books, 1992. 127 p.
   VK555.D275 1992

Etienne, Ariane S., and others. Role of dead reckoning in navigation. In Spatial representation in animals. Edited by Sue Healy. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 1998. p. 54-68.
   Bibliography: p. 159-184.
   QL782.S735 1998

Schlereth, Hewitt. Celestial navigation in a nutshell. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Sheridan House, 2000. 136 p.
   VK555.S339 2000 <SciRR>

Schufeldt, H. H., and G. D. Dunlop. Piloting & dead reckoning. 4th ed. Rev. by Bruce Allan Bauer. Annapolis, Md., Naval Institute Press, 1999. 176 p.
   Bibliography: p. 171.
   VK555.S54 1999 <SciRR>

Sumner line. In Van Nostrand’s scientific encyclopedia. 9th ed. v. 2. New York, Wiley-Interscience, c2002.
p. 3375-3376.
   Q121.V3 2002 <SciRR>

Toghill, Jeff E. Celestial navigation. 3rd ed. Sydney, New Holland Publishers, 1999. 122 p.
   VK555.T62 1999 <SciRR>

Wright, John Middleton. Dead reckoning navigation. London, Coles, 1968. 164 p.
   VK572.W7

Land Navigation & Route Finding

Blandford, Percy W. Maps and compasses. 2nd ed. Blue Ridge Summit, Penn., Tab Books, c1992. 269 p.
   GA151.B53 1991 <SciRR>

Crouch, Gregory. Route finding: navigating with map and compass. Helena, Mont., Falcon, 1999. 95 p.
   GV200.4.C76 1999 <SciRR>

Ferguson, Michael. GPS land navigation: a complete guidebook for backcountry users of the NAVSTAR satellite system. Boise, Idaho, Glassford Publishing, c1997. 255 p.
   Bibliography: p. 247.
   GV200.4.F47 1997

Fleming, June. Staying found: the complete map and compass handbook. 3rd ed. Seattle, Mountaineers Books, c2001. 157 p.
   GV200.4.F55 2001 <SciRR>

Lethem, Lawrence. GPS made easy: using Global Positioning Systems in the outdoors. 4th ed. Seattle, Mountaineers Books, 2003. 208 p.
   Bibliography: p. 205.
   GV191.623.L48 <SciRR>

Rutstrum, Calvin. The wilderness route finder: the classic guide to finding your way in the wild. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2000. 214 p.
   Originally published: New York, Macmillan, 1967.
   GV200.4.R89 2000 <SciRR>

Space Navigation

Bertotti, B., Paolo Farinella, and David Vokrouhlicky. Space navigation. In Physics of the solar system: dynamics and evolution, space physics, and spacetime structure. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer, Academic Publishers, c2003. p. 613-618. (Astrophysics and space science library, v. 293)
   QB501.B49 2003 <SciRR>

Jordan, James F., and Lincoln J. Wood. Navigation, Space mission. In Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. 2nd ed. v. 10. San Diego, Academic Press, c1992. p. 649-673.
   Q123.E497 1992 v. 10 <SciRR>

Noton, Maxwell. Spacecraft navigation and guidance. London, New York, Springer, c1998. 181 p.
   Bibliography: p. 165-167.
   TL1065.N68 1998

Park, Robert A. Interplanetary navigation. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. 128 p.
   TL1065.P3

Thornton, Catherine L., and James S. Border. Radiometric tracking techniques for deep-space navigation. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley-Interscience, c2003. 85 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TL4030.T49 2003 <SciRR>

Inertial Navigation, Satellite Navigation & Global Positioning Systems

Clarke, Bill. Aviator’s guide to GPS. 3rd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, c1998. 325 p.
   TL696.A77C58 1998 <SciRR>

Egbert, Robert I., and Joseph E. King. The GPS handbook. Short Hills, N. J., Burford Books, c2003. 190 p.
   Bibliography: p. 181-184.
   GV191.623.E43 2003 <SciRR>

El-Rabbany, Ahmed. Introduction to GPS: the Global Positioning System. Boston, Mass., Artech House, c2002. 176 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   G109.5.E6 2002 <SciRR>

Farrell, Jay, and Matthew Barth. The Global Positioning System and inertial navigation. New York, McGraw-Hill, c1999. 340 p.
   Bibliography: p. 327-332.
   G109.5.F37 1998

Jekeli, Christopher. Inertial navigation system. In Inertial navigation systems with geodetic applications. Berlin, New York, Walter de Gruyter, 2001. p. 101-138.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QB283.J45 2001

Larkin, Frank J. Coastal navigation using GPS: for sail and power. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Sheridan House, c2003.
290 p.
   VK559.L3423 2003 <SciRR>

Siouris, George M. Navigation, inertial. In Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. 2nd ed. v. 10. San Diego, Academic Press, c1992. p. 595-647.
   Q123.E497 1992 v. 10 <SciRR>

Sweet, Robert J. GPS for mariners. Camden, Me., International Marine/McGraw-Hill, c2003. 170 p.
   Bibliography: p. 165-167.
   VK562.S94 2003 <SciRR>

Ward, Phil. Navigation, satellite. In Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. 2nd ed. v. 10. San Diego, Academic Press, c1992. p. 676-702.
   Q123.E497 1992 v. 10 <SciRR>

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ALMANACS, EPHEMRIDES, PILOTS, TABLES, ETC.

The Astronomical almanac for the year ... Washington, U.S.G.P.O., c1980- .
   Some satellite tabulations have been moved to The Astronomical almanac online (2005).
   QB8.U6A77 <SciRR>

The Astronomical almanac online. U. S. Naval Observatory. A joint publication of the U. S. Nautical Almanac Office in the United States (USNO) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) in the United Kingdom.
   The printed version contains precise ephemerides of the Sun, Moon, planets, and satellites, data for eclipses and other astronomical phenomena for a given year, and serves as a world-wide standard for such information.
   URL: http://asa.usno.navy.mil

Bowditch, Nathaniel. The American practical navigator: an epitome of navigation. Originally by Nathaniel Bowditch; prepared and published by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency. 2002 bicentennial ed. Bethesda, Md., National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2002. 879 p. (United States. National Imagery and Mapping Agency; Pub. 9)
   Originally published under title: The new American practical navigator.
   URL: http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187
      (Corrected through U.S. Notice to Mariners No. 25/2005 (18 June 2005).)
   VK555.B7297 2002 <SciRR>

Bowditch, Nathaniel. Useful tables from the American practical navigator. Rev. ed. of 1938. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1940. 387 p. (United States. Hydrographic Office. Publication no. 9, pt. 2)
   VK563.B7 1940 <SciRR>

Dutton, Benjamin. Dutton’s nautical navigation. 15th ed. Annapolis, Md., Naval Institute Press, c2004. 447 p.
   Rev. ed. of Dutton’s navigation & piloting. 14th ed. 1985.
   VK555.D9597 2004 <SciRR>

The Nautical almanac for the year ... American ed. Washington, United States Naval Observatory, 2005. v.
   QB8.U3 <SciRR>

Reed’s marine distance tables. Compiled for the publishers by R. W. Caney and J. E. Reynolds. 5th ed. London, T. Reed Publications, 1981. 202 p.
   VK799.R44 1981

Sight reduction tables for air navigation. Pub. No. 249. Bethesda, Md., National Geospatial Intelligence Center, Corrected through U.S. Notice to Mariners No. 25/2005
   (18 June 2005)
      URL: http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_srta_list.html

Sight reduction tables for marine navigation. Pub. No. 229. Bethesda, Md., National Geospatial Intelligence Center, Corrected through U.S. Notice to Mariners No. 25/2005
   (18 June 2005)
      URL: http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_srtm_list.html

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ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

Allen, Craig H. Farwell’s rules of the nautical road. 8th ed. Annapolis, Md., Naval Institute Press, c2005. 719 p.    “Originally known as the Rules of the nautical road by Captain Raymond F. Farwell.
   Rev. ed. of Farwell’s rules of the nautical road. 7th ed/prepared by Richard A. Smith. c1994.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   K4184.F37 2004 <LawRR>

Bauer, Bruce A. The sextant handbook: adjustment, repair, use, and history. 2nd ed. Camden, Me., International Marine, c1992. 189 p.
   Bibliography: p. 181-183.
   VK583.B38 1992 <SciRR>

Bennett, George G. The complete on-board celestial navigator: everything but the sextant. 2003-2007 ed. Camden, Me., McGraw-Hill, c2003. 176 p.
   VK555.B45 2003

Cutler, Deborah W., and Thomas J. Cutler. Dictionary of naval terms. 6th ed. Annapolis, Md., Naval Institute Press, c2005. 244 p.
   V23.C88 2005 <SciRR Dict>

Goetzfridt, Nicholas J. Indigenous navigation and voyaging in the Pacific: a reference guide. New York, Greenwood Press, 1992. 294 p.
   (Bibliographies and indexes in anthropology; no. 6)
   GN440.I53 1992 <SciRR>

Grant, George Abernethy Alexander. The ship’s compass, including general magnetism theory, practice and calculations relating to magnetic and gyro compasses. 2nd ed., revised by J. Klinkert. London, Routledge and K. Paul, 1970. 603 p.
   VK577.G63 1970 <SciRR>

Great Britain. Ministry of Defence (Navy). Admiralty manual of navigation. Rev. 1987, superseding the ed. of 1964. London, H.M.S.O., 1987. Rev. ed. of Manual of navigation. Great
Britain, Admiralty. 1964.
   Incomplete contents: v.1. General navigation, coastal navigation, and pilotage.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   VK555.G75 1987 <SciRR>

International code of signals. Pub. No. 102. Bethesda, Md., National Geospatial Intelligence Center, Corrected through U.S. Notice to Mariners No. 25/2005 (18 June 2005).
   URL: http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_srta_list.html

Navigation rules: International-inland. United States Coast Guard. COMDTINST 1667272.2D. This manual contains the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGS). It also contains the Inland Navigation Rules. Some differences do remain between
the International and Inland rules, and the side-by-side presentation in this publication allow mariners to determine those differences.
   URL: http://www.uscg.mil/vtm/navrules/navrules.pdf

Peabody Museum of Salem, Salem, Mass. The Peabody Museum collection of navigating instruments. Salem, Mass., 1963. 154 p.
   VK585.P38

Pike, Dag. Reed’s sextant simplified. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Sheridan House, 2003. 103 p.
   VK583.P54 2003 <SciRR>

Tver, David F. The Norton encyclopedic dictionary of navigation. New York, W. W. Norton, c1987. 283 p.
   VK555.T88 1987 <SciRR-Dict>

United States. Coast Guard. Chapman navigation rules: international-inland navigation rules. COMDTISNT M16672.2D/U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security. Commentary by Dan Fales. New York, Hearst Books, c2004. 165 p.
   KF2566.A33 2004 <LawRR>

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HISTORICAL TEXTS

Aczel, Amir D. The riddle of the compass: the invention that changed the world. New York, Harcourt, c2001. 178 p.
   Bibliography: p. 165-168.
   VK577.A29 2001

Bennett, J. A. The divided circle: a history of instruments for astronomy, navigation, and surveying. Oxford, Phaidon, Christie’s, 1987. 224 p.
   Bibliography: p. 215-217.
   QB85.8.B46 1987 <SciRR>

Cotter, Charles H. A history of nautical astronomy. London, Sydney, Hollis & Carter, 1968. 387 p.
   Bibliography: p. 357-371.
   VK549.C63

Cortes, Martin. Arte of navigation. Facsimile reproduction with an introduction by D. W. Waters. Delmar, N. Y., published for the John Carter Brown Library by Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints, 1992. 1 v. (unpaged).
   Translation of: Breve compendio de la sphera y de la arte de navegar con nuevos instrumentos y reglas exemplificado con muy subtiles demonstraciones.
   Originally published: London, R. Jugge, 1561.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   VK551.C8313 1992

Davis, John. The seaman’s secrets (1633). A facsimile reproduction with an introduction by A. N. Ryan. Delmar, N.Y., published for the John Carter Brown Library by Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints, 1992. 1 v. (unpaged).
   Reprint. Originally published: London, Iohn Davvson, 1633.
   Bibliography: p. 23-25.
   VK551.D25 1992

Davys, John. The voyages and works of John Davis, the navigator. Edited with an introduction and notes by Albert Hastings Markham. New York, B. Franklin, 1970. 392 p. (Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, no. 59)
   Reprint of the 1880 ed., which was published in 2 v. and included a facsim. map with title: The map of the world A.D. 1600.
   “Works on the art of navigation previous to and during the age of Elizabeth”: p. 339-367.
   G161.H22 no. 59

Gurney, Alan. Compass: a story of exploration and innovation. New York, Norton, c2004. 320 p.
   Bibliography: p. 297-305.
   VK577.G84 2004

Hewson, J. B. A history of the practice of navigation. 2nd ed. Glasgow, Brown, Son & Ferguson, 1983. 295 p.    Includes bibliographical references.
   VK549.H45 1983

The History of mathematical tables: from Sumer to spreadsheets. Edited by M. Campbell-Kelly and others. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, c2003. 361 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QA47.H57 2003

Ifland, Peter. Taking the stars: celestial navigation from argonauts to astronauts. Newport News, Va., Mariners’ Museum; Malabar, Fla., Krieger Pub. Co., 1998. 222 p.
   Bibliography: p. 203-209.
   VK573.I34 1998 <SciRR>

Jonkers, A. R. T. Earth’s magnetism in the age of sail. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. 300 p.    Includes bibliographical references.
   QC813.J66 2003

Kelley, James E., Jr. On old nautical charts and sailing directions: technical essays. Melrose Park, Penn., Sometime Publishers, 1999. 281 p.
   Bibliography: p. 261-270.
   GA359.K45 1999 <G&M RR>

Kerr, Robert. A general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time. Edinburgh, W. Blackwood, 1824. 18 v.
   G161.K41

Maritime history as world history. Edited by Daniel Finamore. James C. Bradford and Gene A. Smith, series editors. Salem, Mass., Peabody Essex Museum; Gainesville, University Press of Florida, c2004. 216 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   V23.M273 2004

May, W. E. A history of marine navigation. With a chapter on modern developments, by Leonard Holder. New York, Norton, 1973. 280 p.
   Bibliography: p. 267-269.
   VK15.M39 1973 <SciRR>

Naish, John Michael. Seamarks: their history and development. London, Stanford Maritime, 1985. 192 p.
   Bibliography: p. 184-189.
   VK1015.N35 1985 <SciRR>

Sumner, Thomas H. A new and accurate method of finding a ship's position at sea, by projection on Mercator's chart ... The principles of the method being fully explained and illustrated by problems, examples, and plates, with rules for practice, and examples from actual observation. Boston, T. Groom & Co., 1851.
   URL: http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=moa;idno=AAN0447.0001.001
   (in Making of America Books, University of Michigan)

Taylor, E. G. R. The haven-finding art: a history of navigation from Odysseus to Captain Cook. New York, American Elsevier Pub. Co., 1971. 310 p.
   Bibliography: p. 279-281.
   VK549.T39 1971b

Vanvaerenbergh, Michel, and Peter Ifland. Line of position navigation: Sumner and Saint-Hilaire, the two pillars of modern celestial navigation. Bloomington, Ind., Unlimited Pub., c2003. 1 v. (various pagings).
   Includes reprint of Thomas A. Sumner’s A New and accurate method of finding a ship’s position at sea, by projection on Mercator’s chart (Boston: T. Groom, 1843) as well as translations of Marcq Saint-Hilaire’s Note sure la determination du point (originally published in Revue maritime et coloniale, Oct. 1873) and Calcul du point observe (originally published in Revue maritime et coloniale, Mar.-Aug. 1875).
   Bibliography: p. 30-31.
   VK549.V36 2003

Waters, David Watkin. The art of navigation in England in Elizabethan and early Stuart times. 2nd ed. with revisions. Greenwich, Eng., National Maritime Museum, 1978. 3 v. (708 p). (Modern maritime classics reprint,
no. 2)
   Reprint London, Hollis and Carter, 1958.
   Bibliography: p. 597-623.
   VK57.W37 1978

Williams, J. E. D. From sails to satellites: the origin and development of navigational science. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. 310 p.
   Bibliography: p. 299-302.
   Also available as an electronic book through NetLibrary.
   VK549.W55 1992 <SciRR>

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RELATED TEXTS

Baker, Robin. Human navigation and magnetoreception. Manchester, Eng., New York, Manchester University Press, c1989. 305 p.
   Bibliography: p. 286-300.
   QP435.B35 1989

Close encounters: sea- and riverborne trade, ports and hinterlands, ship construction and navigation in antiquity, the Middle Ages and in modern time. Edited by Marinella Pasquinucci and Timm Weski. Oxford, Archaeopress, 2004. 201 p. (BAR international series, 1283)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HE735.C66 2004

Drane, C. R., and C. Rizos. Positioning systems in intelligent transportation systems. Boston, Artech House, c1998. 369 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TE228.3.D73 1998

Piloting, seamanship, and small boat handling. Charles F. Chapman, with revisions by Elbert S. Maloney and others. New York, Motor Boat & Sailing.
   Began in 1922.
   Latest issue consulted: 64th ed.
   VM341.C63 ed. 64 2003 <SciRR>

Trimmer, John W. How to avoid huge ships. 2nd ed. Centreville, Md., Cornell Maritime Press, c1993. 99 p.
   VK371.T74 1993

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CONFERENCES, SYMPOSIA, ETC.

Conferences, Symposia, etc. are frequently the best source for the most up to date research on navigation systems and related topics, especially those of a highly technical nature.

Selected Conference Titles

IEEE 2000 Position Location and Navigation Symposium: San Diego, California, March 13-16, 2000. Sponsored by IEEE Aerospace & Electronics [sic] Systems Society. New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, c2000. 534 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   K555.I4 2000

Location services and navigation technologies: 24 April 2003, Orlando, Florida, USA. Yilin Zhao, chair/editor. Sponsored and published by SPIE–the International Society for Optical Engineering. Bellington, Wash., SPIE, c2003. 150 p. (Proceedings of SPIE–the International Society for Optical Engineering, v. 5084)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TL695.L63 2003

Radar 2002, 15-17 October 2002, Edinburgh International Conference Centre, Edinburgh, UK. London, IEE, c2002. 595 p. (Conference publication, no. 490)
   "Organised by the IEE Radar, Sonar & Navigation Professional Network."
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TK6573.R32246 2002

Satellite navigation systems: policy, commercial, and technical interaction: proceedings of an international symposium, 26-28 May 2003, Strasbourgh, France. Edited by M. Rycroft. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c2003. 266 p. (Space studies, v. 8)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   G109.5.S28 2003

Spatial information theory: foundations of geographic information science: international conference, COSIT 2003: Ittingen, Switzerland, September 2003: proceedings. Werner Kuhn, Michael F. Worboys, and Sabine Timpf, editors. Berlin, New York, Springer, c2003. 398 p. (Lecture notes in computer science, 2825)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   G70.212.C68 2003

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ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING SERVICES (A&Is)

(A&Is) recommended for periodical literature, conference reports, technical reports, and “grey literature” are listed below. For the current status of LC electronic resources, go to web page http://eresources.loc.gov from any LC public workstation. Selected open source indexes are also listed on this web page. For more information consult a Science Reference librarian.

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I>

ASTA (Applied Science & Technology Abstracts) (1983- )
   Electronic Format

Current Technology Index (1962- )
   Z7913.B7

EI Compendex (1995- )
   Electronic Format

Engineering Index (1884-1993)
   Z5851.E62 <SciRR A&I>

General Science Index (1978- )
   Z7401.G46 <SciRR A&I>

General Science Index (1984- )
   Electronic Format

GEOBASE (1980-present)
   Electronic Format

Geophysical Abstracts (1929-1971)
   QE500.U5

GeoREF (1785- )
   Electronic Format

Government Reports Announcements & Index (1946-1996)
   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I>

International Aerospace Abstracts (1961- )
   TL500.I57 <SciRR A&I>

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications
   Z1223.A18 <SciRR A&I>

NTIS (National Technical Information Service) (1964- )
   Electronic Format

NTIS (National Technical Information Service) (1964- )
   Microfiche <SciRR>

Oceanic Abstracts (1964- )
   GC1.O24 <SciRR A&I>

Readers’ Guide Abstracts (1983- )
   [electronic resource]

Readers’ Guide Retrospective (1890-1982)
   Electronic Format

Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature (1900- )
   AI3.R45

Science Citation Index (Institute for Scientific Information) (1945-2001)
   Z7401.S365<SciRR>

Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI Web of Knowledge) (1997-)
   Electronic Format

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JOURNALS

Journals recommended for articles on navigation; some may have articles available in full-text through LC subscription electronic databases. For more information consult a Science Reference librarian.

The Cartographic journal GA101.C33
Global positioning & navigation news VK562.G67
GPS world VK562.G68
Journal of experimental biology QH301.J68
Journal of the Institute of Navigation VK1.I5545
Journal of navigation VK1.I5545
Navigation: journal of the Institute of Navigation VK1.N33
Ocean navigator (formerly Navigator) VK555.N357
Professional geographer G3.P7

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SELECTED JOURNAL ARTICLES

Able, Kenneth P., and Mary A. Able. The roles of innate information, learning rules and plasticity in migratory bird orientation. Journal of navigation, v. 51, Jan. 1998: 1-9.
    VK1.I5545

Boles, Larry C., and Kenneth J. Lohmann. True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters. Nature, v. 421, Jan. 2, 2003: 60-63.
    Q1.N2

Bonsen G. zur, and others. Continuous navigation: combining GPS with sensor-based dead reckoning. GPS world, v. 16, Apr. 2005: 47-54.
    VK562.G68

Brower, Lincoln. Monarch butterfly orientation: missing pieces of a magnificent puzzle. The Journal of experimental biology, v. 199, Jan. 1996: 93-103.
    QH301.J68

Chen, C.-L., and others. A novel approach to great circle sailings: the great circle equation. Journal of navigation, v. 57, May 2004: 311-325.
    VK1.I5545

Cheng, Ken. Reflections on geometry and navigation.Connection science, v. 17, Mar. 2005: 5-21.
    QA76.87.C682

Chittka, L., and others. Navigation without vision: bumblebee orientation in complete darkness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - biological sciences, v. 266, Jan. 1999: 45-50.
    QH301.P7415

Colbert, M. Rendezvousing at familiar and unfamiliar places. Journal of navigation, v. 57, Sept. 2004: 327-338.
    VK1.I5545

Duckham, Matt, Lars Kulik, and Michael Worboys. Imprecise navigation. GeoInformatica, v. 7, June 2003: 79-94.
    G70.212.G473

Duckham, Matt, and Lars Kulik. "Simplest" paths: automated route selection for navigation. Spatial information theory: foundations of geographic information science: international conference, COSIT 2003. p. 169-185. (Lecture notes in computer science, 2825)
    G70.212.C68 2003

Foo, P., and others. Do humans integrate routes into a cognitive map? Map- versus landmark-based navigation of novel shortcuts. Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition, v. 31, Mar. 2005: 195-215.
    LB1051.J647

Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota, and others. On improving navigation accuracy of GPS/INS systems. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, v. 71, Apr. 2005: 377-389.
    TA593.A2P5

Hays, Graeme C., and others. Island-finding ability of marine turtles. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - biological sciences, v. 270, Suppl. 1, Aug. 2003: S5-S7.
    QH301.P7415

Jeffery, Kathryn. Computational and biological perspectives on the problem of navigation. Connection science, v. 17, Mar. 2005: 1-4.
    QA76.87.C682

Kopacz, Z., and others. The changes in maritime navigation and the competencies of navigators. Journal of navigation, v. 57, no. 1, 2004: 78-83.
    VK1.I5545

Legat, K., and B. Hofmann-Wellenhof. Galileo or for whom the bell tolls. Earth, planets and space, v. 52, Aug. 2000: 771-776.
    QB630.E27

Lobben, Amy K. Tasks, strategies, and cognitive processes associated with navigational map reading: a review perspective. The Professional geographer, v. 56, May 2004: 270-281.
    G3.P7

May, A. J., T. Ross, and S. H. Bayer. Driver's information requirements when navigating in an urban environment. Journal of navigation, v. 56, Jan. 2003: 89-100.
    VK1.I5545

Orchiston, Wayne, and Derek Howse. From Transit of Venus to teaching navigation: the work of William Wales. Journal of navigation, v. 53, 2000: 156-166.
    VK1.I5545

Romeo, John, and Graham Lester. Navigation is key to AUV missions. Sea technology, v. 42, Dec. 2001: 24,
26-29.
    V210.A1U5

Ryu, Jihan, and J. Christian Gerdes. Integrating inertial sensors with Global Positioning System (GPS) for vehicle dynamics control. Journal of dynamic systems, measurement and control, v. 126, June 2004: 243-254.
    TJ212.T68

Scherzinger, Bruno M. History of inertial navigation systems in survey applications. Photogrammetric engineering & remote sensing, v. 67, Nov. 2001: 1225-1227.
    TA593.A2P5

Schlesinger, B. Dynamic navigation systems: heading in the right direction. GEO: connexion, v. 2, no. 3, 2003:
58-59.
    Not in LC

Seymour, P. A. H. Navigational stimuli in the development of mathematical science. Journal of navigation, v. 51, Jan. 1998: 106-116.
    VK1.I5545

Simons, Andrew M. Many wrongs: the advantage of group navigation. Trends in ecology & evolution, v. 19, Sept. 2004: 453-455.
    QH540.T67

Stalleicken, Julia, and others. Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation? Journal of experimental biology, v. 208, June 2005: 2399- 2408.
    QH301.J68

Van Allen, James. Basic principles of celestial navigation. American journal of physics, v. 72, Nov. 2004:
1418-1424.
    QC1.A47

Wallraff, Hans G. Beyond familiar landmarks and integrated routes: goal-oriented navigation by birds. Connection science, v. 17, Mar. 2005: 91-106.
    QA76.87.C682

Zhilin Li, and Angelina Ho. Design of multi-scale and dynamic maps for land vehicle navigation. Cartographic journal, v. 41, Dec. 2004: 265- 279.
    GA101.C33

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SELECTED TECHNICAL REPORTS

SELECTED TECHNICAL REPORTS (TRs), may be identified using the indexes specified above. A large collection of these in paper and microfiche is available in LC from the Technical Reports Section. Consult a Science Reference Librarian for assistance.

Baker, J. L., and others. Novel approach to large scale brain network models: an algorithmic model for place cell emergence with robotic sensor input. Fairfax, Va., George Mason Univ., June 16, 2004. 5 p.
    ADA-425321
    URL: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA425321

Corban, J. E., and others. Biologically inspired direct adaptive guidance and control for autonomous flight systems. McDonough, Ga., Guided Systems Technologies, Sept. 30, 2004. 49 p.
    ADA-433221
    URL: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA433221

Malay, Benjamin P. Celestial navigation on the surface of Mars. Annapolis, Md., U. S. Naval Academy, May 2001. (Trident scholar project rept. no. 284 ) 34 p.
    ADA-392455
    URL: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA392455

Sanford, T. B., and R. H. Tyler. Nearshore navigation and communication based on deliberate EM signals and theoretical, numerical and observational studies of coastal ocean electrodynamics. Seattle, Washington Univ., Applied Physics Lab., April, 2005. 18 p.
    ADA-433494
    URL: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA433494

Williamson, Walton R., Jason L. Speyer, and Charles H. Jones. Detection and isolation of instrumentation failures applied to GPS and inertial navigation. Pomona, Calif., SYSENSE, Inc., May 2005. 23 p.
    ADA-433107
    URL: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA433107

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SELECTED MATERIALS

SELECTED MATERIALS such as newspaper clippings and short articles from popular sources are available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet box for Navigation. Ask a Science Reference librarian for the shelf location.

Long, Michael E. Secrets of animal navigation. National geographic, v. 179, June 1991: 70-99.

Nature on the move. Sunset, v. 191, Nov. 1993: 73-85.

Migrations. v. 6, Summer 1987. Orion nature quarterly: 1-65.

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ORGANIZATIONS

Non-Governmental

The Institute of Navigation
3975 University Drive, Suite 390
Fairfax, Va. 22030
Tel: (703) 383-9688
Fax: (703) 383-9689
Email: membership@ion.org
URL: http://www.ion.org/
   A non-profit professional society dedicated to the advancement of the art and science of navigation; it serves those interested in air, space, marine, land navigation, and position determination. Affiliated with the International Association of Institutes of Navigation.

The Navigation Foundation
P.O. Box 1126
Rockville, Md. 20850
Tel: (301) 622-6448
Fax: (301) 622-6448
Email: execdir@navigationfoundation.org
URL: http://www.navigationfoundation.org/
   The Foundation for the Promotion of the Art of Navigation (The Navigation Foundation) is a non-profit corporation dedicated to the preservation of the art of celestial navigation.

U. S. Government

U.S. Coast Guard Navigation Center (NAVCEN)
Commanding Officer
7323 Telegraph Road
Alexandria, Va. 22315
Tel: (703) 313-5900
Fax: (703) 313-5920
Email: tis-pf-nisws@uscg.mil
URL: http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/
   NAVCEN has responsibility for the development of high accuracy DGPS, and the development of new navigation technologies such as the use of inertial and enhanced LORAN to back up GPS. NAVCEN is also responsible for the Integrated ATONIS project; this effort aims to automate the collection and dissemination of aids to navigation information. NAVCEN now controls 78 DGPS sites and 24 LORAN stations across the United States.

U.S. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
Department of Commerce
14th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW
Room 6217
Washington, D.C. 20230
Tel: (202) 482-6090
Fax: (202) 482-3154
Email: answers@noaa.gov
URL: http://www.noaa.gov/
Source for Charting & Navigation products, including Nautical Charts, Hydrographic Surveys, Tide & Current Tables, historical maps and charts, remote sensing, and more.

U.S. Naval Observatory
Department of the Navy
3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20392-5420
Tel: (202) 762-1438
URL: http://www.usno.navy.mil/
   One of the oldest scientific agencies in the country. Established in 1830 as the Depot of Charts and Instruments, its primary mission was to care for the U.S. Navy's chronometers, charts and other navigational equipment. Today, the U.S. Naval Observatory is the preeminent authority in the areas of Precise Time and Astrometry, and distributes Earth Orientation parameters and other Astronomical Data required for accurate navigation and fundamental astronomy.

Foreign Government and International

H. M. Nautical Almanac Office
Space Science and Technology Department
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Chilton, Didcot, England
OX11 0QX
Tel: + (44) 12 3582 1900
Fax: + (44) 12 3544 5068
Email: hmnao@nao.rl.ac.uk
URL: http://www.nao.rl.ac.uk
   Responsible for producing the annual volumes of The Astronomical Almanac, The Nautical Almanac, Astronomical Phenomena, The Star Almanac and The UK Air Almanac in the United Kingdom. Several of these publications are produced in collaboration with the U.S. Naval Observatory. This site has a number of highly useful links.

International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Bureau
4 Quai Antoine 1er, B.P. 445
MC 98011 MONACO Cedex
Principality of Monaco
Tel: + (377) 93 10 81 00
Fax: + (377) 93 10 81 40
Email: info@ihb.mc
URL: http://www.ohi.shom.fr/iho.html
   An intergovernmental consultative and technical organization established in 1921 to support safety in navigation and protection of the marine environment.

The Royal Institute of Navigation
1 Kensington Gore
London, England SW7 2AT
Tel: + (44) 20 7591 3130
Fax: + (44) 20 7591 3131
Email: info@rin.org.uk
URL: http://www.rin.org.uk/default.asp
   The Royal Institute of Navigation (RIN) is a learned society with charitable status; it was formed in 1947. Its objects are to unite in one body those who are concerned with or who are interested in navigation and to further its development.

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RELEVANT DIGITAL DATA SETS

The Aladin Sky Atlas
   Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS)
   http://aladin.u-strasbg.fr/aladin.gml
      The Strasbourg astronomical data center (CDS) is a data center dedicated to the collection and worldwide distribution of astronomical data and related information. It is located at the Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory, France. The Sky Atlas is an interactive software allowing the user to visualize digitized images of any part of the sky, to superimpose entries from astronomical catalogs or personal user data files, and to interactively access related data and information from the SIMBAD, NED, VizieR, or other archives for all known objects in the field.

Astrometric & Positional Data Lists (16 May 2002)
   NASA Astronomical Data Center
   http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/adc/adc_cat1_holdings.html
      This listing shows the contents of the first line of the standard ReadMe document for data sets in the Astronomical Data Center's Astrometric and Positional data holdings. These lines include ADC data set identifier, the shortened title, the lead author, and the year of publication. These are hyperlinked to the "ReadMe" document that describes the data set.

Online Data from H. M. Nautical Almanac Office
   http://www.nao.rl.ac.uk/nao/online/
      Star almanac, daylight/moonlight diagrams, observer’s calendars, and astronomical and calendarical data sheets.

Data Services from U.S. Naval Observatory
   http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/
      Sunrise, Sunset, Moonrise, Moonset, and Twilight; Phases of the Moon; Eclipses and Transits; Positions of the Sun and Moon; Data for Solar System Bodies and Bright Stars; Dates; Celestial Navigation; and more.

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OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES

Scholarly & Historical

The Bowditch Initiative
Historic Salem, Inc., Salem, Mass.
http://www.nathanielbowditch.org/index.html
   From 2002, commemorating the 200th anniversary of the publication of Bowditch's signature work, The New American practical navigator. Site includes biography, bookmarks, and bibliography.

The Hakluyt Society.
http://www.hakluyt.com/index.htm
   Publishers of scholarly editions of primary sources on the 'Voyages and Travels'
undertaken by individuals from many parts of the globe.

Longitude at Sea
The Galileo Project, Rice University
    http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/observations/longitude.html

The Mariners Museum, Newport News, Virginia
http://www.mariner.org/
   “The largest international maritime history library in the Western Hemisphere.”
    Catalog online at: http://www.mariner.org/library/search_catalogs/lib_catalog.php

National Maritime Museum & Royal Observatory, Greenwich
   http://www.nmm.ac.uk/server/show/nav.005
   Interesting and useful historical resources, including John Harrison & the Problem of Longitude.

Navigation by Sextant
   PBS, NOVA Online, Shackleton’s Voyage of Endurance
   http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/shackleton/navigate/escapenav.html

Polynesian Voyaging Society
   http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/welcomeold2.html

Traditional Navigation in the Western Pacific
   University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
   http://www.museum.upenn.edu/navigation/Intro.html

Educational

The Astrolabe
http://www.astrolabes.org/
   A very general overview of astrolabe principles. Links are provided to other pages with more details.

Celestial Navigation Fundamentals
http://www.tecepe.com.br/nav/inav_c11.htm
   General overview with bibliography.

The Interactive Sextant
http://www.tecepe.com.br/nav/sextantflash.html
   Flash animation.

Starpath School of Navigation
http://www.starpath.com/
Provides instruction in navigation and weather, and produces and publishes books and software on navigation and related topics.

Miscellaneous

CelestialNavigation.net
http://www.celestialnavigation.net/
   “An attempt to bring together all of the best Celestial Navigation resources on the internet, with pointers to other resources as well.”

Navigation. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navigation

Navigation-l Mailing List Archive
   http://www.irbs.com/lists/navigation/

NGA Digital Navigation Publications
   http://164.214.12.145/pubs/
   Includes The American practical navigator and others.

Odden’s Bookmarks on Cartography
   http://oddens.geog.uu.nl/index.php

The Online Nautical Almanac
   http://www.tecepe.com.br/scripts/AlmanacPagesISAPI.isa

Port: Maritime Information Gateway
   http://www.port.nmm.ac.uk/

Subject Bibliography: NAVIGATION (029)
   http://bookstore.gpo.gov/sb/sb-029.html

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