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Science and Technology in 18th Century America

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A guide to sources chronicling the history of science, invention, medicine and technology in colonial America. This compilation, an update of TB 74-4, provides references to a variety of materials and sources in the collections of the Library of Congress useful in researching science and technology in eighteenth-century America. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target."



Barck, Oscar Theodore, and Hugh Talmage Lefler. Industrial life in the colonies. In their Colonial America. New York, Macmillan, 1958. p. 335-350.
   E188.B26 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Browne, Charles A. Thomas Jefferson and the scientific trends of his time. Chronica botanica, v. 8, summer 1964: 363-423.
   QK1.C55 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Clark, Harry H. The influence of science on American ideas, from 1771-1809. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, v. 35, 1943: 305- 349.
   AS36.W7 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Kilgour, Frederick G. Science in the American colonies and the early republic, 1664-1845. Cahiers d'histoire mondiale. Journal of world history, v. 10, no. 2, 1967: 393-415.
   D1.C22 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>



Subject headings under which books on science and technology in colonial America can be located in the Library's card, book, and online catalogs include the following. You may also want to use key words such as 18th century, early republic, revolutionary period, early America, colonial America, eighteenth century, etc., in conjunction with specific terms or scientific disciplines.

Highly Relevant




More General




Bedini, Silvio A. Thinkers and tinkers: early American men of science. New York, Scribner, 1975. 520 p.
   Bibliography: p. 489-490.
   Q127.U6B33 <SciRR>

Cohen, I. Bernard. Science and the founding fathers: science in the political thought of Jefferson, Franklin, Adams, and Madison. New York, W. W. Norton, c1995. 368 p.
   Bibliography: p. 315-353.
   E302.5.C62 1995 <SciRR>

Early American science. Brooke Hindle, editor. New York, Science History Publications, 1976. 213 p.    Includes bibliographical references.
   Q127.U6E17 <SciRR>

Early American technology: making and doing things from the colonial era to 1850. Edited by Judith A. McGaw. Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, c1994. 482 p.
   Bibliography: p. 358-460.
   T21.E24 1994 <SciRR>

Friedenberg, Zachary B. The doctor in colonial America. Danbury, Conn., Rutledge Books, 1998. 259 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Not Yet in LC

Greene, John C. American science in the age of Jefferson. Ames, Iowa State University Press, 1984. 484 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Q127.U6G69 1984 <SciRR>

Hindle, Brooke. The pursuit of science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789. Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1956. 410 p.
   Bibliography: p. 387-392.
   Q127.U6H5 <SciRR>

Stearns, Raymond Phineas. Science in the British colonies of America. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1970. 766 p.
   Bibliography: p. 712-717.
   Q127.N6S7 <SciRR>

Struik, Dirk Jan. Yankee science in the making: science and engineering in New England from Colonial times to the Civil War. New York, Dover Publications, 1991. 544 p.
   Bibliography: p. 485-532.
   "Unabridged, slightly enlarged republication of the revised edition, first published by Collier Books, New York, 1962. The original edition was published by Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1948."
   Q127.U6S8 1991 <SciRR>



Bell, Whitfield J. Early American science: needs and opportunities for study. New York, Russell & Russell, 1971, c1955. 85 p.
   Bibliography: p. 37-80.
   Q127.U6B35 1971 <SciRR>

Cohen, I. Bernard. Some early tools of American science: an account of the early scientific instruments and mineralogical and biological collections in Harvard University. With a foreword by Samuel Eliot Morison. New York, Russell & Russell, 1967, c1950. 201 p.
   Q127.U6C6 1967

Fortune, Brandon Brame, and Deborah J. Warner. Franklin and his friends: portraying the man of science in eighteenth century America. Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. 178 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   An exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, April 16-September 6, 1999.
   Q143.F8F67 1999 <SciRR>

Hawke, David Freeman. Nuts and bolts of the past: a history of American technology, 1776-1860. New York, Harper & Row, c1988. 308 p.
   Bibliography: p. 287-293.
   T21.H39 1988 <SciRR>

Hindle, Brooke. Technology in early America: needs and opportunities for study. With a directory of artifact collections, by Lucius F. Ellsworth. Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture at Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1966. 145 p.
   Bibliography: p. 29-94.
   T21.H5 <SciRR>

Martin, Edwin Thomas. Thomas Jefferson: scientist. New York, H. Schuman, 1952. 289 p.
   Bibliography: p. 261-283.
   E332.M33 <SciRR>

Regis, Pamela. Describing early America: Bartram, Jefferson, CrŠvecoeur, and the rhetoric of natural history. DeKalb, Northern Illinois University Press, 1992. 189 p.
   Bibliography: p. 177-183.
   PS367.R44 1991

Rowland, K. T. Eighteenth century inventions. Newton Abbot, David & Charles; New York, Barnes & Noble, 1974. 160 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   T18.R68 1974

Science and society in early America: essays in honor of Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. Edited by Randolph Shipley Klein. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1986. 426 p. (American Philosophical Society. Memoirs, v. 166)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Q11.P612, v. 166

Scientific societies in eighteenth century America. In Bates, Ralph S. Scientific societies in the United States. 3d ed. Cambridge, Mass., M.I.T. Press, 1965. p. 1-27.
   Bibliography: p. 245-293.
   Q11.A1B3 1965 <SciRR>

Wilbur, C. Keith. Revolutionary medicine, 1700-1800. 2nd ed. Old Saybrook, Conn., Globe Pequot Press, c1997. 88 p.
   Bibliography: p. 79-80.
   E283.W54 1997 <SciRR>



America's wooden age: aspects of its early technology. Edited by Brooke Hindle. Tarrytown, N.Y., Sleepy Hollow Restorations, 1975. 218 p.
   Bibliography: p. 211-212.

Bedini, Silvio A. Early American scientific instruments and their makers. Rancho Cordova, Calif., Landmark Enterprises, c1986. 189 p.
   Bibliography: p. 172-176.
   Originally published in Washington, D.C., Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, 1964.
   "Errata and addenda": p. 185-186.
   "Addenda to bibliography": p. 188-189.
   Q185.B4 1986 <SciRR>

Bedini, Silvio A. Thomas Jefferson and American vertebrate paleontology. Charlottesville, Va., Commonwealth of Virginia, Dept. of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Division of Mineral Resources, 1985. 26 p. (Virginia Division of Mineral Resources. Publication, 61)
   Bibliography: p. 24-26.
   "Presented by the author as the keynote address for the Symposium on the Quaternary of Virginia held at Charlottesville in September 1984."
   QE841.B385 1985

Bidwell, Percy Wells, and John I. Falconer. History of agriculture in the Northern United States, 1620-1860. Clifton, N.J., A. M. Kelley, 1973. 512 p. (Library of early American business and industry, 59)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Reprint of the 1925 ed.
   S441.B5 1973 <SciRR>

Bishop, J. Leander. A history of American manufactures from 1608-1860. 3d ed., rev. and enl., with an introduction by Louis M. Hacker. New York, A. M. Kelley, 1966. 3 v. (Library of early American Business and industry, 1)
   Bibliographical footnotes.
   3d ed. first published in 1868.
   TS23.B72 1966 <SciRR>

Blanton, Wyndham Bolling. Medicine in Virginia in the eighteenth century. New York, AMS Press, 1980, c1931. 449 p.
   Bibliography: p. 421-426.
   Reprint of the ed. published by Garrett & Massie, Richmond, Va.
   R345.B52 1980

Brown, M. L. Firearms in colonial America: the impact on history and technology, 1492-1792. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1980. 450 p.
   Bibliography: p. 411-415.

Catesby, Mark. Catesby's Birds of colonial America. Edited by Alan Feduccia. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, c1985. 176 p.
   Bibliography: p. 171-172.
   Includes text of The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands.
   QL683.A87C38 1985

Cowen, David L. The colonial and revolutionary heritage of pharmacy in America. Trenton, New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, 1976. 24 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   "Originally appeared in thirteen monthly installments in the New Jersey journal of pharmacy starting with the June 1975 issue."

Duffy, John. Epidemics in colonial America. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1953. 274 p.
   Bibliography: p. 249-265.

Goldenberg, Joseph A. Shipbuilding in colonial America. Charlottesville, Published for the Mariners Museum, Newport News, Virginia, by the University Press of Virginia, 1976. 306 p. (Mariners Museum. Publication, no. 33)
   Bibliography: p. 287-299.

Gordon, Maurice Bear. Naval and maritime medicine during the American Revolution. Ventnor, N.J., Ventnor Publishers, c1978. 134 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.

Gray, Lewis Cecil. History of agriculture in the southern United States to 1860. Assisted by Esther Katherine Thompson, with an introductory note by Henry Charles Taylor. Washington, The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1933. 2 v. (Carnegie Institution of Washington. Publication 430) (Contributions to American economic history, no. 7)
   Bibliography: v. 2, p. 943-1016.

Harvard University. The apparatus of science at Harvard, 1765-1800. By David P. Wheatland, assisted by Barbara Carson. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, 1968. 203 p.
   Bibliography: p. 200.

Hedrich, U. P. A history of horticulture in America to 1860. New York, Oxford University Press, 1950. 551 p.
   Bibliography: p. 515-523.
   SB83.H4 <SciRR>

Hornberger, Theodore. Scientific thought in the American colleges, 1638-1800. New York, Octagon Books, 1968, c1946. 108 p.
   Bibliography: p. 89-103.
   Q181.H77 1968

Mulholland, James A. A history of metals in colonial America. University, Ala., University of Alabama Press, c1981. 215 p.
   Bibliography: p. 203-209.
   TN623.M84 <SciRR>

Murphy, Lamar R. Enter the physician: the transformation of domestic medicine, 1760-1860. Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press, c1991. 312 p.
   Bibliography: p. 229-302.
   RC81.M965 1990

Powell, J. H. Bring out your dead: the great plague of yellow fever in Philadelphia in 1793. Reprinted with a new introduction by Kenneth R. Foster, Mary F. Jenkins, and Anna Coxe Toogood. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, c1993. 304 p.
   Bibliography: p. 287-294.
   Originally published in New York, Arno Press, 1949.
   RC211.P5P6 1993

Reiss, Oscar. Medicine and the American Revolution: how diseases and their treatments affected the colonial army. Jefferson, N.C., McFarland & Co., c1998. 278 p.
   Bibliography: p. 265-272.
   E283.R45 1998

Reveal, James L. Gentle conquest: the botanical discovery of North America with illustrations from the Library of Congress. Washington, Starwood Pub., c1992. 160 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QK21.N6R48 1992 <SciRR>

Shryock, Richard Harrison. Medicine and society in America, 1660-1860. New York, New York University Press, 1960. 182 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Reprinted from the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for October 1949.
   R148.S45 <SciRR>

Tunis, Edwin. Colonial craftsmen and the beginnings of American industry. Cleveland, World Pub. Co., 1965. 159 p.

Titles relating to Correspondence, Reminiscences and Biography

Bartram, John. The correspondence of John Bartram, 1734-1777. Edited by Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley. Gainesville, University Press of Florida, c1992. 808 p.
   Bibliography: p. 792-797.
   QK31.B3A4 1992

Bartram, John. John and William Bartram's America: selections from the writings of the Philadelphia naturalists. Edited with an introduction by Helen Gere Cruickshank. Greenwich, Conn., Devin-Adair, c1990. 418 p.
   Reprint of the 1957 ed.
   QH31.B23A3 1990

Bedini, Silvio A. At the sign of the compass and quadrant: the life and times of Anthony Lamb. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1984. 84 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Reprinted from v. 74, pt. 1 (1984) of the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society.
   Q143.L29B43 1984

Bedini, Silvio A. Thomas Jefferson: statesman of science. New York, Macmillan, c1990. 616 p.
   Bibliography: p. 519-543.
   E332.2.B37 1990 <SciRR>.

Beall, Otho T., and Richard H. Shryock. Cotton Mather, first significant figure in American medicine. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1954. 241 p. (Publications of the Institute of the History of Medicine. First series: Monographs, v. 5)
   Reprinted from v. 63 (1954) of the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society.

Bell, Whitfield J. The colonial physician & other essays. New York, Science History Publications, 1975. 229 p.
   R152.B43 1975
   Contents: Portrait of the colonial physician.--John Redman, medical preceptor (1722-1808).--Philadelphia medical students in Europe, 1750- 1800.-- Thomas Parke, physician and friend.--James Hutchinson (1752-1793): a physician in politics.--Benjamin Franklin and the practice of medicine.--James Smith and public encouragement of vaccination.--Lives in medicine: Thacher, Williams and Gross.--Joseph M. Toner (1852-1896) as a medical historian.--John Morgan: adventures of a biographer.--Adam Cunningham's Atlantic crossing, 1728.--William Shippen's introductory lecture.--Body snatching in Philadelphia.-- An eighteenth century American medical manuscript.--Dr. James Rush on his teachers.

Bell, Whitfield J. John Morgan, continental doctor. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1965. 301 p.
   Bibliography: p. 267-291.
   R154.M74B4 1965

Betts, Edwin M., and Hazlehurst Bolton Perkins. Thomas Jefferson's flower garden at Monticello. 3rd ed. Revised and enlarged by Peter J. Hatch. Charlottesville, Published for the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, Inc., by the University Press of Virginia, 1986. 96 p.
   Bibliography: p. 95-96.
   E332.74.B48 1986

Cantwell, Robert. Alexander Wilson: naturalist and pioneer, a biography. With decorations by Robert Ball. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1961. 318 p.

Cohen, I. Bernard. Benjamin Franklin's science. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1990. 273 p.
   Bibliography: p. 213-266.
   QC16.F68C64 1990

Collinson, Peter. Brothers of the spade: correspondence of Peter Collinson, of London, and of John Custis, of Williamsburg, Virginia, 1734-1746. By E. G. Swem. Barre, Mass., Barre Gazette, 1957. 196 p.
   Bibliography: p. 97-131, 145-177.
   Reprinted from v. 58, pt. 1 (1949) of the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society.
   QK31.C7A4 1957

Dickinson, H. W. Robert Fulton, engineer and artist: his life and works. Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press, 1971. 333 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Reprint of 1913 ed.
   "Appendix C: List of writings by Robert Fulton," p. 282- 283.
   "Appendix F: Fulton's U.S. Patent Specification of 1810."
   VM140.F9D5 1971

Eliot, Jared. Essays upon field husbandry in New England, and other papers, 1748- 1762. Edited by Harry J. Carman and Rexford G. Tugwell, with a biographical sketch by Rodney H. True. New York, AMS Press, 1967. 261 p.
   Bibliography: p. 255-256.
   Reprint of the 1934 ed., which was issued as Columbia University studies in the history of American agriculture, 1.
   Contents: Essays upon field husbandry in New England.--An essay on the invention, or art of making very good, if not the best iron, from black sea sand.--Letters on agriculture received by Jared Eliot from J. Bartram and others.
   S497.E4 1967

Estes, J. Worth. Hall Jackson and the purple foxglove: medical practice and research in Revolutionary America, 1760-1820. Hanover, N.H., University Press of New England, 1979. 291 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.

Ferguson, Eugene S. Oliver Evans, inventive genius of the American Industrial Revolution. Greenville, Del., Hagley Museum, c1980. 72 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.

Ford, Edward. David Rittenhouse, astronomer-patriot, 1723-1796. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1946. 226 p.
   Bibliography: p. 213-217.

Franklin, Benjamin. Benjamin Franklin's Experiments: an new edition of Franklin's Experiments and observations on electricity. Edited, with a critical and historical introduction by I. Bernard Cohen. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1941. 453 p.
   "Bibliographical table": p. 158-161.
   QC516.F85 1941

Frick, George Frederick, and Raymond Phineas Stearns. Mark Catesby: the colonial Audubon. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1961. 137 p.
   "A checklist of Mark Catesby's published works": p. 109- 111.

Goodman, Nathan Gerson. Benjamin Rush, physician and citizen, 1746-1813. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934. 421 p.
   Bibliography: p. 377-406.

Green, Constance McLaughlin. Eli Whitney and the birth of American technology. Boston, Little, Brown, 1956. 215 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.

Hall, Courtney Robert. A scientist in the early republic: Samuel Latham Mitchell, 1764-1831. New York, Russell & Russell, 1967, c1962. 162 p.
   "Bibliography of Mitchell's writings": p. 141-150.
   Bibliography: p. 151-155.
   Q143.M675H3 1967

Jefferson, Thomas. Thomas Jefferson's Farm book, with commentary and relevant extracts from other writings. Edited by Edwin Morris Betts. Princeton, Published for the American Philosophical Society by Princeton University Press, 1953. 552 p. (Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, v. 35)
   Bibliography: p. 529-531.

Jefferson, Thomas. Thomas Jefferson's Garden book, 1766-1824, with relevant extracts from his other writings. Annotated by Edwin Morris Betts. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1944. 704 p. (Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, v. 22)
   Bibliography: p. 663-666.

Kalm, Pehr. Travels into North America. Translated into English by John Reinhold Forster. Introd. by Ralph M. Sargent. Barre, Mass., Imprint Society, 1972. 514 p.
   Translation of En resa til Norra America.

The Life and scientific and medical career of Benjamin Waterhouse: with some account of the introduction of vaccination in America. I. Bernard Cohen, editor. New York, Arno Press, 1980. 2 v.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   A collection of four of Waterhouse's own writings, followed by a section containing some articles, published in a variety of journals, dealing with the life and career of Waterhouse and his role in the introduction of vaccination.    R154.W29L5

Rush, Benjamin. The autobiography of Benjamin Rush; his "Travels through life" together with his Commonplace book for 1789-1813. Edited with introd. and notes by George W. Corner. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1970, c1948. 399 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   E302.6.R85R8 1970

Savage, Henry, and Elizabeth J. Savage. André‚ and François André‚ Michaux. Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1986. 435 p.
   Bibliography: p. 411-420.
   QK31.M45S28 1986

Slaughter, Thomas P. The natures of John and William Bartram. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1996. 304 p.
   Bibliography: p. 275-292.
   QK31.B3S58 1996

Thacher, James. American medical biography. With an new introd. and a bibliography by Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. New York, Da Capo Press, 1967. 2 v.
   Bibliography: p. 279-291.
   Reprint of 1st ed., published in Boston in 1828.

Warren, Edward. The life of John Warren, M.D., Surgeon-General during the war of the revolution, first professor of anatomy and surgery in Harvard College, president of the Massachusetts Medical Society, etc. Boston, Noyes, Holmes and Company, 1874. 568 p.

Winthrop, John. The scientific work of John Winthrop. Michael Shute, editor. New York, Arno Press, 1980. ca 350 p. in various pagings.
   Q171.W79 1980
   Reprints of eighteen articles, letters, etc., published between 1742 and 1916 by various publishers.

Wright, Karl Eugene. "Pennsylvania medical men of the American Revolution and era": a history of the Revolution and era told through the lives of those who lived and made that history. S.l., K. E. Wright, 1981. 36 p.
   Includes bibliographical references

Titles for Younger Readers

The Arts and sciences: a sourcebook on colonial America. Edited by Carter Smith. Brookfield, Conn., Millbrook Press, c1991. 96 p. (American albums from the collections of the Library of Congress
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Describes and illustrates the arts and sciences of colonial and early Federal America through a variety of images produced at the time.
   E162.A667 1991

Farming: copyright-free illustrations for lovers of history. Compiled by Bobbie Kalman. New York, Crabtree Pub., c1998. 32 p.
   S441.F25 1998
   Etchings and descriptions depict various aspects of farm life in pioneer times, including the chores, the livestock, and the harvest.

Feldman, Eve. Benjamin Franklin, scientist and inventor. New York, F. Watts, 1990. 64 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Discusses Benjamin Franklin's experiments and inventions involving electricity and examines his improvements to everyday objects of his time.
   Q143.F8F45 1990

Giblin, James. The mystery of the mammoth bones, and how it was solved. New York, HarperCollins Publishers, c1999. 97 p.
   Bibliography: p. 89-91.
   Describes the efforts of the artist, museum curator, and self- taught paleontologist, Charles Willson Peale, to excavate, study, and display the bones of a prehistoric creature that is later named "mastodon."
   QE882.U7G48 1999

January, Brendan. Science in colonial America. New York, Franklin Watts, c1999. 64 p.
   Bibliography: p. 61-62.
   Describes the scientific contributions made by people in colonial America, including natural history, medicine, astronomy, and electricity.
   Q127.U6J35 1999

Sanger, Marjory (Bartlett). Billy Bartram and his green world: an interpretative biography. New York, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1972. 207 p.
   Bibliography: p. 197-202.
   A biography of the eighteenth-century man who devoted his life to studying and drawing birds, animals, and plants in America's wilderness.
   QL31.B33S35 1972

Terkel, Susan Neiburg. Colonial American medicine. New York, Franklin Watts, c1993. 111 p.
   Bibliography: p. 104-106.
   Examines the health risks in the American colonies during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and looks at the questionable, and even dangerous, treatments and remedies available at the time.
   R151.T43 1993

Thompson, Sylvia, and Mary Marcoux. Colonial science: studying the colonial uses of herbs helps children link the past with the present. Science and children, v. 33, Feb. 1996: 12-15, 35.



Brigham, David R. Public culture in the early republic: Peale's Museum and its audience. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, c1995. 215 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   AM101.P496B75 1995

Goler, Robert I. The healing arts in early America. New York, Fraunces Tavern Museum, c1985. 56 p.
   Bibliography: p. 54-56.
   Catalog of an exhibition on view at Fraunces Tavern Museum from Dec. 6, 1985 through June 20, 1986.
   R152.G55 1985

Hatch, Peter J. The fruits and fruit trees of Monticello. Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1998. 222 p.
   Bibliography: p. 207-214.
   E332.74.H38 1998

Hood, Graham. Bonnin and Morris of Philadelphia: the first American porcelain factory, 1770-1772. Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture at Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1972. 78 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.

Quimby, Ian M. G. Apprenticeship in colonial Philadelphia. New York, Garland Pub., 1985. 215 p.
   Bibliography: p. 187-192.
   Originally presented as the author's thesis (M.A.)--University of Delaware, 1963.
   HD4885.U5Q56 1985

Rice, Howard C. The Rittenhouse orrery: Princeton's eighteenth-century planetarium, 1767-1954. A commentary on an exhibition held in the Princeton University Library. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Library, 1954. 88 p.
   Bibliography: p. 76-81.

Stapleton, Darwin H. The transfer of early industrial technologies to America. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1987. 215 p. (Memoirs of the (American Philosophical Society, v. 177)
   Bibliography: p. 202-207

Woolf, Harry. The transits of Venus: a study of eighteenth-century science. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1959. 258 p.
   Bibliography: p. 215-251



Handbook, Encyclopedias, Dictionaries containing supplementary material include:

Dictionary of American biography. New York, Scribner, 1928-1958. 22 v.
   E176.D563 <BusRR>

Dictionary of scientific biography. New York, Scribner, 1970-
   Q141.D5 <SciRR Desk>

Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery (San Marino, Calif.). Science and the new world (1526-1800): an exhibition to illustrate the scientific contributions of the new world and the spread of scientific ideas in America. San Marino, Calif., 1937. 18 p.

Kelly, Howard A. A cyclopedia of American medical biography, comprising the lives of eminent deceased physicians and surgeons from 1610-1910. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1912. 2 v.

Thornton, John Leonard., and R. I. J. Tully. Scientific books, libraries and collectors: a study of bibliography and the book trade in relation to science. 3d ed. London, Library Association, 1971. 508 p.
   Bibliography: p. 381-465.
   See especially "Scientific books from 1701-1800.": p. 142- 199.
   Z7401.T45 1971 <SciRR>



Agricultural history. Eighteenth-century agriculture: a symposium. Edited by John T. Schlebecker. Davis, Calif., Agricultural History Society, 1969. 214 p. (Agricultural history, v. 43, Jan. 1969)
   S1.A16, v. 43

Farming in the new nation: interpreting American agriculture, 1790-1840. Edited by Darwin P. Kelsey. Washington, Agricultural History Society, 1972. 239 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Papers presented at a symposium held Sept. 16-18, 1970, in Old Sturbridge Village, Mass., and sponsored by the Agricultural History Society, Old Sturbridge Village, the Smithsonian Institution, and the United States Department of Agriculture, and originally published as v. 46, no. 1, Jan. 1972, of Agricultural history.

Medicine in colonial Massachusetts, 1620-1820: a conference held 25 & 26 May 1978. The Colonial Society of Massachusetts. Boston, The Society; Charlottesville, Distrib-uted by the University Press of Virginia, c1980. 425 p. (Colonial Society of Massachusetts. Publications, v. 57)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   F61.C71, v. 57

The Pursuit of knowledge in the early American Republic: American scientific and learned societies from colonial times to the Civil War. Edited by Alexandra Oleson and Sanborn C. Brown. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, c1976. 372 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Papers from a five-day workshop held by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in Cape Newagen, Me., June 1973.



Dissertations can be located by using the following indexes located in the Library's Main Reading Room, on FirstSearch, or from the Library's web site using computers in the Library's Computer Catalog Centers. From the Public Workstation home-page, choose Electronic Resources, followed by Other Subscription Services, and scroll down to Digital Dissertations. This file includes full text of currently issued dissertations.

Comprehensive Dissertation Index 1861/1972- (1973- annual) Z5053.X47 1973
Dissertation Abstracts International (1938- monthly) Z5053.D57
Dissertation Abstracts Ondisc (CD-ROM&--same coverage as print volumes)  
Masters Abstracts International (1962-1985) Z5055.U49M3



Ardila, Marta. Science policies in the American colonies: a comparative study. Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms, 1992. 323 p.
   UMI Microfiche 92-12812
   Bibliography: p. 298-309.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Boston University, 1992.

Condon, Adrienne. Transatlantic friends: the correspondence of Peter Collinson (1694- 1768) and John Bartram (1699-1777). Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms, 1996. 215 p.
   UMI Microfiche 96-22226
   Bibliography: p. 208-214.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of South Florida, 1996.

Malone, Robert J. Everyday science, surveying, and politics in the old southwest: William Dunbar and the influence of place on natural philosophy. Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms, 1996. 347 p.
   UMI Microfiche 97-09271
   Bibliography: p. 326-344.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Florida, 1996.

Parrish, Susan S. Performances of curiosity: British and British-American natural histories of the new world in the colonial period. Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms, 1998. 273 p.
   UMI Microfiche 99-01571
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Stanford University, 1998



Agriculture in Britain and America, 1660-1820: an annotated bibliography of the eighteenth-century literature. Compiled by Samuel J. Rogal. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1994. 266 p. (Bibliographies and indexes in world history, no. 23)
   Bibliography: p. 237-240.
   Z5075.G8R64 1994 <SciRR>

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. Classified index to the publications of the American Philosophical Society. A list of papers, monographs, treatises and books published by the Society, 1769-1940. Philadelphia, 1940. 173 p.

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. Library. Catalog of manuscripts in the American Philosophical Society Library, including the archival shelflist. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Pub. Corp., 1970. 10 v.

Current bibliography in the history of technology. 1990- Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1992-
   TI.T27 and Computer Format
   Issued by the Society for the History of Technology and previously (1964-1990) appeared annually in issues of its Technology and culture.
   Also available online (1976- ) through RLIN's Eureka as part of the HST, History of science and technology, file.

Cutting, Rose Marie. John and William Bartram, William Byrd II, and St. John de Crèvecoeur: a reference guide. Boston, G. K. Hall, c1976. 174 p. (Reference guides in literature, no. 12)

Darton, Nelson Horatio. Catalogue and index of contributions to North American geology, 1732-1891. New York, Arno Press, 1980. 1045 p.
   Bibliography: p. 1036-1040.
   Reprint of the 1896 ed. published by the Govt. Print. Off., Washington, which was issued as no. 127 of the U.S. Geological Survey bulletin.
   Z6034.N65D37 1980 <SciRR>

Erlen, Jonathon. The history of the health care sciences and health care, 1700-1980: a selective annotated bibliography. New York, Garland, 1984. 1028 p. (Garland reference library of the humanities, v. 398) (Bibliographies of the history of science and technology, v. 10)
   Z6660.8.E74 1984 <SciRR>

Ferguson, Eugene S. Bibliography of the history of technology. Cambridge, Mass., Society for the History of Technology, 1968. 347 p. (Society for the History of Technology. Monograph series, v. 5)
   Z7914.H5F4 <SciRR>

Fusonie, Alan M. Heritage of American agriculture: a bibliography of pre-1860 imprints.. Beltsville, Md., National Agricultural Library, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1975 1968. 347 p. (National Agricultural Library, Library list, 98)
   Z881.U4L5, no. 98

Gephart, Ronald M. Revolutionary America, 1763-1789: a bibliography. Compiled by Ronald M. Gephart. Washington, Library of Congress; for sale by the Supt. of Docs, U.S. G.P.O., 1984. 2 v. (1672 p.)
   Z1238.G43 1984 <MRR Alc>
   See especially, v. 2, p. 979-991.

Guerra, Francisco. American medical bibliography, 1639-1783. A chronological catalogue, and critical and bibliographical study of books, pamphlets, broadsides, and articles in periodical publications relating to the medical sciences--medicine, surgery, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary medicine--printed in the present territory of the United States of America during British dominion and the Revolutionary War. New York, L. C. Harper, 1962. 885 p. (Yale University. Dept. of the History of Science and Medicine. Publication, no. 40)
   Z6659.G8 <SciRR>

ISIS cumulative bibliography: a bibliography of the history of science formed from ISIS critical bibliographies 1-90, 1913-65. Edited by Magda Whitrow. London, Mansell in conjunction with the History of Science Society, 1971-1984. 6 v.
   Z7405.H6I2 <SciRR>

ISIS cumulative bibliography 1966-1975: a bibliography of the history of science formed from ISIS critical bibliographies 91-100 indexing literature published from 1965 through 1975. Edited by John Neu. London, Mansell in conjunction with the History of Science Society, 1980-1985. 2 v.
   Z7405.H6I2 Suppl. <SciRR>

ISIS cumulative bibliography 1976-1985: a bibliography of the history of science formed from ISIS critical bibliographies 101-110 indexing literature published from 1975 through 1984. Edited by John Neu. Boston, G. K. Hall in conjunction with the History of Science Society, c1989. 2 v.
   Z7405.H6I2 Suppl. 2 <SciRR>

ISIS cumulative bibliography 1986-1995: a bibliography of the history of science formed from the annual ISIS current bibliographies. Edited by John Neu. Canton, Mass., Published for the History of Science Society by Science History Publications, 1997. 4 v.
   Z7405.H6I2 1997 Suppl. 3 <SciRR>

Meisel, Max. A bibliography of American natural history: the pioneer century, 1769- 1865. New York, Hafner Pub. Co., 1967. 3 v.
Z7408.U5M52 <SciRR>
   Reprint of work first published, 1924-1929.

National Library of Medicine (U.S.). Early American medical imprints: a guide to works printed in the United States, 1668-1820. By Robert B. Austin. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1961. 240 p.
   Z6661.U5A44 <SciRR>

National union catalog of manuscript collections. 1959/61-1993. Washington, Library of Congress.
   Z6620.U5N3 <MRR Alc> and Computer Format
   Ceased with index 1991-1993.
   The data from this title is now available online through RLIN or at the URL:

Rink, Evald. Technical Americana: a checklist of technical publications printed before 1831. Foreword by Eugene S. Ferguson. Sponsored by the Eleutherian Mills Historical Library. Millwood, N.Y., Kraus International Pubs., c1981. 776 p.
   Z7912.R56 <SciRR>

Romaine, Lawrence B. A guide to American trade catalogs, 1744-1900. New York, Dover, 1990. 422 p.
   Bibliography: p. 397-399.
   Reprint. Originally published in New York, R. R. Bowker, 1960.
   Z7164.C8R6 1990 <SciRR Desk>

Schlebecker, John T. Bibliography of books and pamphlets on the history of agriculture in the United States, 1607-1967. Santa Barbara, Calif., American Bibliographical Center--Clio, 1969. 183 p.
   Z5057.U5S28 <SciRR>
   "Published under contract with the Smithsonian Institution."



Goode, George B. The beginnings of natural history in America. Report of the United States National Museum, pt. 2, 1897: 357-406.
   Q11.U5 1897, pt. 2

Griffenhagen, George B. Drug supplies in the American Revolution. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 225, 1961: 110-133.
   Q11.U6, no. 225

Merrill, George P. Contributions to the history of American geology. Report of the United States National Museum, 1904: 189-733.
   Q11.U5 1904

Pearson, John C., ed. The fish and fisheries of colonial North America: a documentary history of the fishery resources of the United States and Canada. Prepared for the National Marine Fisheries Service. Rockville, Md., The Service.; Springfield, Va., distributed by the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1972. 9 v.
   Contents:--Pt. 1. The Canadian Atlantic provinces.--pt. 2. The New England states.--pt. 3. The Middle Atlantic states.-- pt.4. The Chesapeake Bay states.--pt. 5. The South Atlantic states.--pt. 6. The Gulf states and West Indies.--pt. 7. The inland states.--pt. 8. The Great Lake[s] states.--pt. 9. The Pacific Coast.

United States. Patent Office. Subject-matter index of patents for inventions issued by the United States Patent Office from 1790 to 1873, inclusive. New York, Arno Press, 1976. 3 v. (1951 p.)
   T223.D7A45 1976 <SciRR>
   Reprint of the 1874 ed. published by the Government Printing Office, Washington.

Welsh, Peter C. United States patents 1790-1870: new uses for old ideas. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 241, 1966: 109-154.
   Q11.U6, no. 241
   "Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology, Paper 48."



Abstracting and Indexing Services that index relevant journal articles and other literature on science and technology in 18th-century America are listed below. Some suggested terms for searching are:

"National History--Cultural History-- Science"
"National History--Economic History--Industries"
"Colonial Science"
"Colonial Technology,"

FirstSearch and Eureka, available on workstations in the Science Reading Room and the Computer Catalog Centers, contain additional files. Consult a reference librarian for the location of abstracting and indexing (A&I) services and computer terminals.

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913 - ) Z7913.I7 <SciRR> and Computer format
America, History and Life (1963 - ) Z1236.A48, etc. <MRR Alc> and Computer format
Bibliographic Index (1937 - ) Z1002.B595 <SciRR>
Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications (1895 - ) Z1223.A18 <SciRR> and Computer format
Poole's Index to Periodical Literature (1802-1906) AI3.P7 <BusRR>
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1907 - ) AI3.R48 <BusRR>
Virginia Historical Index (1934-1936) F221.S93 1965 <LH&G Ref>
Writings on American History (1902 - ) Z1236.L331 <MRR Alc>



Journals that often contain relevant articles on science and technology in 18th-century America include the following:

Agricultural History
American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings
American Philosophical Society. Proceedings Q11.P5
American Philosophical Society. Transactions Q11.P6
Bulletin of the History of Medicine R11.B93
(Also available on Project Muse)
Isis Q1.I7
Osiris Q1.O7
Pixel Vision T385.P528
Royal Society of London. Philosophical Transactions Q41.L8
Scientific Monthly
Technology and Culture T1.T27
William and Mary Quarterly F221.W71
(Also available on JSTOR)



Andreasen, N. J. C. Benjamin Franklin: physicus et medicus. JAMA, journal of the American Medical Association, v. 236, July 5, 1976: 57-62.

Brasch, Frederick E. John Winthrop (1714-1779), America's first astronomer and the science of his period. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, v. 23, Aug./Oct., 1916: 154-170.

Brasch, Frederick E. The Royal Society of London and its influence upon scientific thought in the American colonies. Scientific monthly, v. 33, Oct. 1931: 337-355; Nov. 1931: 448-469.

Cohen, I. Bernard. Science and the Revolution: the vital interplay of engineering and science with Government had its beginning in war necessities. Technology review, v. 47, Apr. 1945: 367-368, 374, 376, 378.

Corgan, James X. American geological education in the 18th century. Journal of geological education, v. 35, no. 4, 1987: 184-192.

Ewing, Galen W. Early teaching of science at the College of William and Mary in Virginia. Journal of chemical education, v. 15, Jan. 1938: 3-13.

Favretti, Rudi J. Colonial gardens. Arnoldia, v. 31, July 1971: 145-171.

Hornberger, Theodore. The scientific ideas of John Mitchell. Huntington Library quarterly, v. 10, 1947: 277-296.

Kilgour, Frederick G. The rise of scientific activity in colonial New England. Yale journal of biology and medicine, v. 22, Dec. 1949: 123-138.

Kraus, Michael. American and European medicine in the eighteenth century. Bulletin of the history of medicine, v. 8, May 1940: 679-695.

Low, W. A. The farmer in post-Revolutionary Virginia, 1783-1789. Agricultural history, v. 25, July 1951: 122-127.

Manks, Dorothy S. How the nursery trade began. Plants & gardens, v. 23, autumn 1967: 4-11.

Miller, Hubert M. Mark Catesby, an eighteenth century naturalist. Tyler's quarterly historical and genealogical magazine, v. 29, Jan. 1948: 167-180.

Mohanty, Gail Fowler. Experimentation in textile technology, 1788-1790, and its impact on handloom weaving and weavers in Rhode Island. Technology and culture, v. 29, Jan. 1988: 1-31.

Simpson, Marcus B. The artist-naturalist John Abbot (1751-ca1840): contributions to the ornithology of the southeastern United States. North Carolina historical review, v. 41, July 1984: 347-390.

Stearns, Raymond S. Colonial fellows of the Royal Society of London, 1661-1788. Osiris, v. 8, 1948: 73-121.

Tiggert, William D. A 1759 spotted fever epidemic in North Carolina. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, v. 42, July 1987: 296-304.

Walcott, Robert R. Husbandry in colonial New England. New England quarterly, v. 9, June 1936: 218-252.



Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Bell, Whitfield J. The practice of medicine in colonial America. Bulletin of the history of medicine, v. 31, Sept./Oct. 1957: 442-453.

Blake, John B. Early American medical literature. JAMA, journal of the American Medical Association, v. 236, July 5, 1976: 41-46.

Bonta, Marcia. Birding in America ... in the18th century: long before John James Audubon brought the birds of this continent to the world, Finnish naturalist Pater Kalm wrote of America's avian treasures. Living bird, v. 18, winter 1999: 18-24.

Cassedy, James H. Meteorology and medicine in colonial America: beginnings of experimental approach. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, v. 24, Apr. 1969: 193-204.

Dibner, Bern. Benjamin Franklin, electrician: in celebration of the two hundredth year of the nation he helped found. Norwalk, Conn., Burndy Library, 1976. 48 p. (Burndy Library. Publication, no. 30)

Fleming, Thomas. The Bartrams: they blazed a trail in paradise. National wildlife, v. 16, Oct./Nov. 1978: 24-31.

Groffman, Sidney. The eyes of liberty: an optometric bicentennial art portfolio. Journal of the American Optometric Association, v. 47, Aug. 1976: 1017- 1040.

Kastner, Joseph. Colonial botanist, self-taught, filled European gardens with his American finds. Smithsonian, v. 8, Oct. 1977: 122-129.
   Article on John Bartram.

Spaulding, Paul P., and Adon A. Gordus. The longest battle in the war for independence: disease and medicine during the American Revolution. Daughters of the American Revolution magazine, v. 107, Feb. 1973: 84-86, 182.

Stadelman, Bonnie S. Flora and fauna versus mice and mold. William and Mary quarterly, 3d ser., v. 28, Oct. 1971: 595-606.
   Considers the many problems involved in shipping new botanical specimens--especially live plants--to England and describes some of the ingenious packing methods that were attempted.

Stewart, Doug. Mark Catesby: both Audubon and Linnaeus were indebted to this intrepid British limner of the new world. Smithsonian, v. 28, Sept. 1997: 96- 103.

Waring, Joseph I. Medicine in Charleston at the time of the revolution. JAMA, journal of the American Medical Association, v. 236, July 5, 1976: 31-34.

Williams. William H. Independence and early American hospitals, 1751-1812. JAMA, journal of the American Medical Association, v. 236, July 5, 1976: 35-39.



American Philosophical Society Library
105 South 5th Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Telephone: (215) 440-3400
This Library is a major national center for research in the history of science, medicine, and technology. It houses over 250,000 volumes and bound periodicals, 7 million manuscripts, 1 million images and thousands of hours of audio tapes. Researchers who plan to visit the Library are encouraged to call at least a day in advance. An impressive list of catalogues, bibliographies, and finding aids relating to the holdings of the Library is available on the Library's home page.

John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
313 First Street
P.O. Box 1776
Williamsburg, VA 23187-1776
Telephone: (757) 565-8510
The primary purpose of the Library is to serve the staff of the Foundation, but anyone with a serious interest in the study of the eighteenth-century Chesapeake is welcome to use the collection. The Library's home page provides links of interest to those studying science and technology in eighteenth-century America, including Jack Lynch's Eighteenth-Century Resources (URL:

History of Medicine Division
National Library of Medicine
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20894
Telephone: (301) 496-5405
The National Library of Medicine's resources for historical scholarship in medicine and related sciences are among the richest of any institution in the world. HISTLINE (History of medicine Online) contains citations to secondary literature dealing with the history of medicine and related fields published since 1964. HISTLINE is updated weekly, with about 6,000 citations added yearly. A wider selection of literature was published between 1964 and 1993 in NLM's Bibliography of the History of Medicine (Z660.B5822 <SciRR>).

The Newcomen Society of the United States
412 Newcomen Road
Exton, PA 19341-1999
Telephone: (617) 363-6600
A non-profit Membership Corporation for the study and recognition of achievement in American business and the society it serves. The Thomas Newcomen Library and Museum in Steam Technology and Business History has a 2,700-volume research library on the early history, technology and biography of steam, 1,000 pamphlets on steam development, and 1,000 19th century trade catalogs of steam machinery.

Early American Industries Association
c/o Elton Hall, Executive Director
167 Bakerville Road
South Dartmouth, MA 02748-4198
Telephone: (508) 993-4198
The purpose of the Early American Industries Association, Inc., is to encourage the study and better understanding of early American industries in the home, in the shop, on the farm, and on the sea as well as to discover, identify, classify, preserve and exhibit obsolete tools, implements, and mechanical devices which were used in early America.


The Internet offers a growing number of sites useful for the study of the history of science and technology. Most of the organizations listed above provide links to related sites from their web sites. It is also possible to find sites using a search engine, such as AltaVista, Google, or NorthernLight, to locate additional sites. Suggested terms include "Colonial America" "Early American Science," "American Inventors," or "Medicine in18th-Century America." Specific terms such as "textile mills," as well as names, such as "Benjamin Franklin," "Eli Whitney," or "Benjamin Banneker" can also be used. The following sites may be of interest.

Archiving Early America
This site is devoted almost exclusively to primary source material from 18th- Century America. Newspapers, maps, and other materials are viewable in their original formats.

A Day in the Life of Thomas Jefferson
This site looks at daily life at Monticello during Jefferson's time, including the plantation industries. There is a discussion of his moldboard plough, 18th-Century nail making, and other related material.

At Home in the Heartland Online
A virtual museum exhibit about family life in Illinois from 1700 to the present. The section on the 1700's has brief essays on Native Americans, French settlers and African slaves, and their lives during this time period. The technology used in daily life is illustrated.

The Robert C. Williams Museum of Papermaking
This informative site provides a virtual tour of the history of paper, with information on early papermaking and mills in the American colonies.


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