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Technology Transfer: The Use of Government Laboratories and Federally Funded Research and Development

Tracer Bullet 93-5


The opportunity to improve the availability, dissemination, and use of federal technology has consistently been a challenge. Over the years, several federal efforts have been undertaken to promote the transfer of technology from the federal government to state and local jurisdictions and to the private sector. The primary law affording access to the federal laboratory system is P.L. 96-480, the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, as amended by the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502), the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (P.L. 101-418), the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-189), and the National Defense Authorization Act for FY91 (P.L. 101-510). In addition, this legislation has firmly established technology transfer as a mission of all federal laboratories and facilities. In addition, these legislative acts have given federal agencies the authority to enter directly into cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs) with U.S. private companies.

While there are over 700 federal laboratories, the majority of these are small operations that employ 5-10 researchers and are located within a federal agency, a contractor, or a university. The largest laboratories, with 8,000-10,000 employees, focus primarily on basic research or very specialized applications, and although many federal laboratories are attempting to become more attuned to industry's needs, their primary responsibility remains to their executive agencies and to Congress. According to the Council on Competitiveness in its Industry as a Customer of the Federal Laboratory (Washington, 1992), 'the challenge facing industry is how to help focus R&D at the labs so that it is appropriate to industrial needs, how to structure joint technology development programs, and how to access R&D at the labs.'

The efforts of several agencies (NASA, DOE, and Commerce) and those of the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Federal Technology, aimed at encouraging the private sector to utilize the knowledge and technologies generated by the federal laboratories, are discussed below.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration

When the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established in 1959, Congress set aside a small percentage of the total budget to make the technical fruits of the space program available to other users. By their challenging nature, NASA programs are especially productive sources of advanced technology. These technologies are a national asset in that they can be reused or retooled to develop new products and processes to the benefit of the U.S. economy and expanded industrial productivity. Indeed, technology transfer--the process by which technology developed in one organization, in one area, or for one purpose is applied in another organization, in another area, or for another purpose--is generally referred to as a "spinoff." "Spinoffs," however, do not happen automatically; it takes well-organized efforts to put the technology to work in new ways and to realize a dividend on our considerable national investment in aerospace research.

NASA tries to facilitate and expedite the process by means of its Technology Transfer Program, in which it utilizes a variety of methods and mechanisms to stimulate the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the economy. The program is managed by the Technology Transfer Division, a component of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the division coordinates the activities of technology transfer specialists located throughout the United States. Mechanisms to encourage technology transfer include an annual technology transfer conference and exposition and a series of government/industry/academic workshops covering such topics as patent licensing, cooperative R&D, and small business research opportunities. Publications, such as its monthly NASA Tech Briefs and its annual Spinoff, inform potential users of technologies that can be used to solve manufacturing or industry problems, meet market needs, or develop new products in a timely and cost-effective manner.

In 1985, NASA created a nationwide network of nonprofit consortia of NASA, universities, and companies to conduct space-based, high technology research and development in specific areas ranging from materials processing to remote sensing to biotechnology. The program was designed to use the collective abilities and expertise of all three sectors to move emerging technologies from the laboratory to the marketplace with some dispatch. As of September 1993, there were 17 Centers for the Commercial Development of Space throughout the United States, more than 350 industrial affiliates, and in excess of 50 universities participating in the program.

In early 1993, NASA established a pilot program to develop Technology Commercialization Centers in conjunction with several NASA field centers. These "incubators" couple NASA technological innovations with skills and resources needed to create new business ventures. Two Centers already in existence, one at the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and the other at the Johnson Space Center, Houston Texas, draw upon their own talent and technology pool as well as a regional network of entrepreneurs, investment capital, market and business expertise.

NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology's mission is to pioneer innovative customer-focused space concepts and technology generated and developed through industrial, academic, and governmental alliances. In addition to the centers previously mentioned, the office also sponsors NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers, a National Technology Transfer Network, and a NASA Small Business Innovation Research program.

Department of Commerce

The Department's Under Secretary for Technology is responsible for identifying opportunities and/or barriers affecting U.S. commercial innovation, quality, productivity, and manufacturing; advocating federal policies and programs to eliminate government-wide statutory, regulatory, or other barriers to the rapid commercialization of U.S. science and technology; fostering and promoting federal involvement in research and development; and promoting joint efforts involving business, industry, educational institutions, and state and local organizations to encourage technology commercialization. Reporting to the Under Secretary of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Technology Policy, which has the primary responsibility for maximizing the role and contribution of technology to U.S. competitiveness and economic security, are the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Technical Information Services (NTIS).

The National Institute of Standards and Technology, founded in 1901 as the National Bureau of Standards, was renamed in 1988 by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act and directed specifically to assist industry in developing technology to improve product quality and to facilitate rapid commercialization of products based on new scientific discoveries. Several NIST programs have been set up to spur innovation and accelerate the adoption of new ideas and technology by U.S. companies. NIST's Advanced Technology Program provides seed money to help U.S. businesses on precompetitive, generic technologies with high commercial potential, and NIST's research and testing facilities at Gaithersburg, Maryland, and Boulder, Colorado, are made available to businesses engaged in cooperative and proprietary work. A 20-megawatt research reactor with a cold neutron facility, a metals processing laboratory, and an automated manufacturing research facility are among the resources available for use. The Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award, established by Congress in 1987 and managed by NIST in cooperation with the private sector, is another approach used by NIST to encourage industry and business to create a competitive advantage.

Through its regional manufacturing technology centers (MTCs), NIST provides technical and financial support to nonprofit centers that assist small- and medium-sized companies in gaining expertise with new manufacturing technologies. Each center's approach is unique, dictated by its location and the type of manufacturing of its client base. In general, the MTCs provide a wide range of services, including individual project engineering, training courses, demonstrations, and assistance in selecting and using software and equipment. All manufacturing technology centers have established large collections of computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software packages as well as a wide variety of PC-based hardware systems and workstations. This allows manufacturers to experiment with an extensive selection of state-of-the-art systems to make intelligent decisions on the systems best suited for their business. Since 1989, seven MTCs have been established in the following cities: Cleveland, Ohio; Columbia, South Carolina; Ann Arbor, Michigan; Overland Park, Kansas; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Torrance, California. Each MTC must be sponsored by a U.S.-based nonprofit institution or organization, which may include a state government agency, and receives financial support from NIST for the first six years.

The Department of Commerce's National Technical Information Service contains an Office of Federal Patent Licensing. This office encourages federal agencies to evaluate their technical reports and identify those projects with commercial applications. Consequently, a variety of products and services has been developed by NTIS to improve industrial access to practical government technology. Among these are the Guide to Innovation Resources Planning for the Smaller Business which describes more than 50 federal and 85 state government offices that offer assistance to smaller businesses in bringing technologies to market; the Directory of Federal Technology Resources, which describes special technical resources provided by federal agencies and their laboratories, including staff experts, equipment for sharing, technical information centers, software sources, information analysis centers, and other services; the Federal Technology Catalog, published annually, which indexes some 1200 new technologies announced throughout the year in NTIS' Tech Notes; and the annual Catalog of Government Inventions Available for Licensing, containing some 1200 summaries of patents and patent applications arranged into more than 40 subject categories.

Department of Energy

Although technology transfer has always been a concern of the Department of Energy (DOE) and its laboratories, it has received increasing emphasis from U.S. policy makers in recent years as a means for enhancing the nation's competitiveness. DOE's goals for technology transfer for the 1990's are defined in its Partnerships for Global Competitiveness: a Draft Strategic Plan (July 29, 1993). Responding to the new challenges and the economic imperative facing the nation, DOE plans to reorient programs and redirect resources--particularly at its laboratories--toward technology transfer programs. Efforts are underway to inform business and industry of the capabilities of DOE's laboratories, to help find assistance or collaboration, and to indicate the best way to accomplish the desired objectives. Key initiatives in promoting the success of its plan include reducing the processing time for its Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), developing integrated programs with industry and other government agencies, stepping up its exchange programs in which its laboratory staff work in industry facilities and industry personnel work in government laboratories to enhance each others' technical capabilities and support research in specific areas, and encouraging arrangements that permit private parties to conduct research and development at DOE laboratories.

DOE has significant resources that can be accessed by the private sector, e.g., 10 national laboratories plus many other laboratories and specialized facilities with a replacement value approaching $100 billion, about 60,000 highly skilled and experienced scientists, engineers, and technicians, thousands of licensable patents and software packages, and annual R&D investments of more than $6.5 billion. By implementing CRADAs and utilizing other technology transfer mechanisms, DOE can reduce costs and provide benefits to both private industry and the nation as a whole through collaborative, cost-shared research and development. While the research and development pursued under a CRADA are generally part of the participating DOE laboratory's mission and related to a DOE program, some funding is available to pursue "spinoff" developments. DOE's annual Technology Transfer provides commentary on some of the many opportunities available to U.S. business and industry to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities. One of DOE's most important goals in this area is to increase the number and scope of collaborative research and development projects with U.S. industry. Successful technology transfer cannot occur if organizations work in isolation; the technology transfer process requires a team effort between laboratories and industry. The laboratories and facilities provide some of the technical capabilities required for successful application of technology, and industry lends a market-oriented production perspective to the technology transfer process.

Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer

One of the primary federal efforts to facilitate and coordinate the transfer of technology between various levels of government and to the private sector is the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer (FCC). The consortium was originally established under the auspices of the Department of Defense in 1971 to improve the exchange of technology among defense laboratories. In 1974, it was expanded to include other federal departments in a voluntary organization of approximately 300 federal laboratories. The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided the FCC with a legislative mandate and required the membership of most federal laboratories. Today, over 600 research laboratories and centers from more than 16 federal departments are members of the consortium, a service organization that works to maximize the transfer of technology. Regional activities are organized by six regional coordinators, who also serve as primary referral points to funnel requests for technical assistance to appropriate laboratories. The FCC network of federal laboratories can be accessed through these regional coordinators, individual laboratories, the FCC Locator in Sequim, Washington, or FCC's national contacts.

Technology transfer from federal laboratories to the private sector works best when a person-to-person match can be made between a potential user and the appropriate laboratory expertise. Technology transfer officers at specific laboratories are the representatives to the FCC and can help initiate those contacts and technology transfer arrangements at their laboratories.

The FCC itself does not transfer technology; it assists and improves the technology transfer efforts of the laboratories where the work is performed. In addition to developing methods to augment individual laboratory transfer efforts, the consortium serves as a clearinghouse for requests for assistance and will refer requesters to the appropriate laboratory or federal department. The work of the consortium is funded by a set-aside of 0.008% of the portion of each agency's R&D budget used for the laboratories. Five percent of this is used for a demonstration program with state, local, or nonprofit organizations designed to improve methods of transfer.

Regardless of the size of an organization, dealing with a resource as large and diverse as the federal laboratory system can sometimes be a cumbersome and time consuming process. FCC provides a technology support system to help U.S. firms make use of this federal resource. Smaller businesses classically require outside help in financial base support and analysis, business management and planning, problem solving and idea feasibility evaluations, and product or process improvements. The road from government R&D to markets and industry is bridged by people providing leads to government laboratories that can furnish technical input, expertise, and facilities. This Tracer Bullet lists sources, contacts, and references that individuals seeking to take advantage of the expertise, facilities, and technology available at the more than 700 federal laboratories may be able to use to their benefit.



Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which under which materials on federally funded research and development and technology transfer can be located in most card, book, and online catalogs, include those listed below.

Highly Relevant




More General




Brown, Harold, and John Wilson. A new mechanism to fund R&D. Issues in science and technology, v. 9, winter 1992/93: 36-41.
   Calls for the creation of a unique federally funded quasi-public entity--the Civilian Technology Corporation that would "help industry identify research that could potentially be commercialized and then provide financial support. It must be able to make decisions free from power politics and insulated from narrow self-interest--whether congressional, executive branch, or corporate."

Carr, Robert K. Doing technology transfer in federal laboratories (Part 1). Journal of technology transfer, v. 17, spring/summer 1992: 8-33.
   Based on interviews with technology-transfer professionals in federal laboratories and universities, this paper discusses the phenomenon of technology transfer, highlighting subjects such as technology push and market pull, cooperative R&D, technology licensing, start-up companies, information dissemination, models of technology transfer, and limits to federal technology transfer.

Industry as a customer of the federal laboratories. Washington, Council on Competitiveness, 1992. 32 p.
   Pamphlet Box <SciRR>
   Explores the opportunities and barriers facing industry and the federal laboratories, especially DOE and NASA, as they attempt to establish new partnerships in the transfer of technology. Nine recommendations for achieving customer-driven technology-transfer programs are given.

Winebrak, James J. A study of technology-transfer mechanisms for federally funded R&D. Journal of technology transfer, v. 17, fall 1992:
   54-61. T174.3.J68
   Attempts to understand the relative effectiveness of various technology-transfer mechanisms used in federally funded research and development projects. An analysis is carried out for 116 technology-transfer case studies based on survey data compiled through the U.S. Department of Energy program offices. The results show that offering financial incentives and creating supportive advisory groups are highly successful ways to transfer technology.



Beyond spinoff: military and commercial technologies in a changing world. John A. Alic and others. Boston, Mass., Harvard Business School Press, c1992. 428 p.
   T15.B48 1992

Carter, Ashton B., and William J. Perry. New thinking and American defense technology. New York, Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, 1990. 32 p.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Commercializing defense related technology. Edited by Robert Lawrence Kuhn. New York, Praeger, 1984. 251 p.
   "Derived from a seminal Conference on Commercial Application of Defense Related Research and Development, sponsored by the Austin-based RGK Foundation and held in the spring of 1983 in Tallahassee, Florida."
   HC110.T4C64 1984

Federal lab technology transfer: issues and policies. Edited by Gordon R. Bopp. New York, Praeger, 1988. 208 p.
   T174.3.F43 1988 <SciRR>

Grissom, Fred E., and Richard L. Chapman. Mining the nation's brain trust: how to put federally funded research to work for you. Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., c1992. 194 p.
   T174.3.G77 1992 <SciRR>

Innovation through technical and scientific information: government and industry cooperation. Science and Public Policy Program, University of Oklahoma and others. New York, Quorum Books, 1989. 198 p.
   Q180.U5I46 1989

Made in America: regaining the productive edge. Michael L. Dertouzos and others. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, c1989. 344 p.
   Bibliography: p. 331-340.
   HC110.I52M34 1989

National Academy of Engineering. Committee on Technology Policy Options in a Global Economy. Mastering a new role: shaping technology policy for national economic performance. Committee on Technology Policy Options in a Global Economy, National Academy of Engineering. Washington, National Academy Press, 1993. 132 p.
   Bibliography: p. 110-121.
   HD3616.U47N24 1993

Science, technology, and the federal government: national goals for a new era. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. Washington, National Academy Press, 1993. 54 p.
   Pamphlet Box <SciRR>

Science, technology, and the states in America's third century. A report of the Carnegie Commission. New York, Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, 1992. 73 p.
   Pamphlet Box <SciRR>

Technology and U.S. competitiveness: an institutional focus. Edited by W. Henry Lambright and Dianne Rahm. Prepared under the auspices of the Policy Studies Organization. New York, Greenwood Press, 1992. 185 p. (Contributions in economics and economic history, no. 139)
   Bibliography: p. 169-175.
   See especially "Federal Programs, institutions, and issues": p. 1-67.
   HC110.T4T395 1992



Commercialization of federally funded R&D: a guide to technology transfer from federal laboratories ... for the use of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, 1988. 58 p.
   HC110.T4C63 1988

President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (U.S.). Renewing the promise: research-intensive universities and the nation; a report. Prepared by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. Washington, President of the United States; For sale by the U.S. Govt. Print. Office, 1992. 46 p.
   Q180.6.U54P74 1992

Technology transfer obstacles in federal laboratories: key agencies respond to subcommittee survey. Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Energy of the Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives, 101st Congress, second session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, 1990. 349 p.
   T174.3.T395 <SciRR>

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. The future of the Department of Energy laboratories. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 1st session. Oct. 9, 1991. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Office., 1992. 155 p.
   KF27.S39 1991g <Law>

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. H.R. 5229--Fundamental Competitiveness Act of 1992 and H.R. 5230--American Technology and Competitiveness Act of 1992. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd Session. Aug. 5, 1992. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, 1992. 177 p.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Subcommittee on Energy. Technology transfer. Hearing, 103rd Congress, 1st session. Mar. 23, 1993. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, 1993. 252 p.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Subcommittee on Technology and Competitiveness. Technology transfer from federal laboratories and universities: report. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, 1992. 16 p.
   T174.3.U516 1992

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Small Business. Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Energy. Improving technology transfer programs at Department of Energy laboratories. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. Dec. 4, 1992. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, 1992. 233 p.

United States. General Accounting Office. NASA aeronautics: impact of technology transfer activities is uncertain; report to Congressional requesters. Mar. 16, 1993. Washington, U.S. General Accounting Office, 1993. 12 p.
   "GAO/NSAID-93-137, B-252106."

United States. General Accounting Office. Technology transfer: barriers limit royalty sharing's effectiveness; report to Congressional committees. Dec. 7, 1992. Washington, U.S. General Accounting Office, 1992. 128 p.
   "GAO/RCED-93-6, B-247177."

United States. General Accounting Office. Technology transfer: federal efforts to enhance the competitiveness of small manufacturers; report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Small Business, U.S. Senate. Nov. 22, 1991. Washington, U.S. General Accounting Office, 1991. 46 p.
   "GAO/RCED-92030, B-246099."



Catalog of government inventions available for licensing. 1981- Springfield, Va., National Technical Information Service.

Directory of federal laboratory & technology resources: a guide to services, facilities, and expertise. 1986?- Springfield, Va., National Technical Information Service.
   Includes listing of federal laboratory technology transfer contacts.
   The 1992/93 issue available from NTIS as PB93-100097.
   T21.D57 <SciRR desk>

Federal laboratories for partnerships in technology reinvestment: directory of federal laboratories with programs in TRP technology focus areas. Produced by DelaBarre & Associates, Inc. Sequim, Wash., Federal Laboratory Consortium, Administration Office, June 1993. 44 p.
   A partial listing of member laboratories indicating technology and capabilities within each specific focus area.
   Pamphlet Box <SciRR>

Gibson, David V., Frederick Williams, and Kathy L. Wohlert. The state of the field: a bibliographic view of technology transfer. In Technology transfer: a communication perspective. Edited by Frederick Williams, David V. Gibson. Newbury Park, Calif., Sage Publications, c1990. p. 277-292.
   T174.3.T3757 1990 <SciRR>

Orr, James F., and Judith L. Wolfe. Technology transfer and the diffusion of innovations: a working bibliography with annotations. Monticello, Ill., Vance Bibliographies, 1979. 76 p. (Public Administration series--bibliography: P-232)

Tapping federal technology: inventions, expertise, and facilities. Prepared by the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer, Information Systems Committee. Kathleen C. Hayes, Project Manager. Washington, Federal Laboratory Consortium, 1992. 220 p. (Federal Laboratory Consortium handbook series, no. 3)
   Pamphlet Box <SciRR>



Abstracting and Indexing Services that index relevant journal articles and other literature on technology transfer, government laboratories and federal aid to research are listed below. Suggested terms are given as aids in searching.

ABI/Inform (1987-)
   CD-ROM <B&E>
   See: Laboratories
   Technology Transfer

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913-)
   CD-ROM <SciRR>
   Z7913I7 <SciRR A&I>
   See: Government Laboratories
   Research, Cooperative
   Technology Transfer

Business Periodicals Index (1958-)
   CD-ROM <B&E>
   Z7164.C81B983 <B&E>
   See: Government Laboratories
   Industrial Research/Conversion
   Technological Innovations
   Technology Transfer

Magazine Index
   Available in several formats at LC
   See: Government Laboratories
   Technology Transfer--Technique

Public Affairs Information Service Bulletin (1915-)
   See: Government-Sponsored Research Z7163.P9 (B&E>
   Industry and State
   Technological Innovations
   Technology and State
   Technology Transfer

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900-)
   See: Government Laboratories
   Technology Transfer



Journals that often contain relevant articles include the following:

GDP's Business Science Technology Developments & News
Not in LC Collections
Issues in Science and Technology Q124.6.I85
Journal of Technology Transfer T174.3.J68
Newslink (Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer) Not In LC Collections
Research Policy Q180.A1R44b
Tech Trans, the Technology Transfer Newsletter Not In LC Collections
Technology Transfer: U.S. Department of Energy Research & Development Laboratory Transfer Program TJ163.25.U6T38
Technology Transfer Business Not In LC Collections
United States. Spinoff (National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Technology Utilization Office) T1.U39a



Berkowitz, Bruce D. Can defense research revive U.S. industry? Issues in science and technology, v. 9, winter 1992/93: 73-81.

Bloch, Erich, and David Cheney. Technology policy comes of age. Issues in science and technology, v. 9, summer 1993: 55-60.

Brown, Marilyn A., and others. Demonstrations: the missing link in government sponsored energy technology deployment. Technology in society, v. 15, no. 2, 1993: 185-205.

Cole, Bernard. DOE labs: models for tech transfer. IEEE spectrum, v. 29, Dec. 1992: 53-57.

Federal-State cooperation in science and technology programs. Journal of technology transfer, v. 17, spring/summer 1992: 40-50.

Fulghum, David A. U.S. labs reorient to new endeavors. Aviation week & space technology, v. 137, Dec. 7, 1992: 46-48, 50-51, 53, 56-58.

Hays, Sandy M. Inventions in the wings. Agricultural research, v. 40, Sept. 1992: 4-8.

Hunt, Margaret. Star wars materials launch commercial products. Machine design, v. 65, Mar. 26, 1993: 52- 54, 56, 58.

Marazita, Carlo F. Technology transfer in the United States: industrial research at engineering research centers versus the technological needs of U.S. industry. Technological forecasting and social change, v. 39, July 1991: 397-410.

Niosi, Jorge, and others. National systems of innovation: in search of a workable concept. Technology in society, v. 15, no.2, 1993: 207-227.

Schriesheim, Alan. Toward a golden age for technology transfer. Issues in science and technology, v. 7, winter 1990/91: 52-58.

Swennes, Robert H. Commercializing government inventions: utilizing the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. Public contract law journal, v. 20, spring 1991: 365-385.
   K16.U17 <Law>



Government Reports Announcements & Index (1946-)
   CD-ROM <SciRR>
   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&E>
   See: Government/Industry Relations
   Government Inventions for Licensing
   Technology Transfer
   Technology Utilization

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications
   See: Federal Aid To Research
   Technology Transfer



Commercialization process for achieving technological innovation from federal laboratory inventions: the Fort Monmouth experience. A case study approach in the use of training materials for technology transfer workshops. Final report. Prepared in cooperation with Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA. Sponsored by the Economic Development Administration. Norwalk, Conn., Association of University Technology Managers, Aug. 1992. 175 p.
   PB93-109981 <SciRR>

Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) handbook. Final report. San Diego, Calif, Naval Oceans System Center, Mar. 1991. 129 p.
   AD-A237-474 <SciRR>

Improvement of technology transfer from government laboratories to industry. Washington, Dept. of Engineering Management, George Washington University, June 1990. 19 p.
   Not in LC Collections
   Presented at the 15th Technology Transfer Society Annual Conference, Technology Transfer in the Global Economy, Dayton, Ohio, June 26-28, 1990.

Licensing in the federal laboratory: a discussion of the main subjects in licensing as it relates to the transfer of technology from the federal laboratory. Final report. Funded by the Economic Development Administration, Washington, D.C. Norwalk, Conn., Association of University Technology Managers, Aug. 1992. 111 p.
   PB93-109999 <SciRR>

Moving technology from federal laboratories to industry. Final report. Gaithersburg, Md., U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Office of Research and Technology Applications, 1988. 11 p.
   HC13.I63 1988
   Published in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced Technology in Natural Resource Management, Fort Collins, Colo., June 20-23, 1988, p. 198-208.

Innovation, the economy, and the federal laboratories: principles and issues of the innovation process. Funded by the Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Albuquerque, N.M.. Sandia National Labs., Dec. 1991. 117 p.
   "SAND 893014."
   DE92006909 <SciRR>



Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Barrett, Randy. A day at Sandia puts technology transfer in far sharper focus: a visit with Dan Arvizu and his staff of 30 reveals the many moving parts behind a national laboratory's very successful courtship of major U.S. companies. Technology transfer business, spring 1993: 12-16, 18.

Berlin, Brett. Defense contractors go gunning for the green. Technology transfer business, summer 1993: 23-26.

Brown, Marilyn A., Linda G. Berry, and Rajeev K. Goel. Guidelines for successfully transferring government-sponsored innovations. Research policy, v. 20, Apr. 1991: 121-143.

The Defense labs wage peace. Design news, v. 49, Apr. 19, 1993: 52-56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 80, 82.
Partial contents: Murray, C. J. Carderock reaches out to private industry.--Wingo, W. Technology transfer spreads like wildfire at NRL.--Haskins, S. Los Alamos: a wealth of computer power.--Lynch, T. CRADAs augment army technology.

Jenks, Andrew. Livermore National Laboratory: free software leads to wider use. Technology transfer business, spring 1993: 47.

The National laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy ... creating technology for America's energy future. [Washington? 1993] 93 p.
   See particularly "The DOE national laboratories: contact information, operators, budgets, and staffing" (p. 91-93).

Nichols, Don. Technology transfer. Small business reports, v. 17, Apr. 1992: 29-37, 39.

Partnering in technology with the federal government: a quick reference. Sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Technology Utilization. Oak Ridge, Tenn., Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 1993. 26 p.

Scott, William B. U.S. labs increase focus on technology transfers. Aviation week & space technology, v. 136, Feb. 17, 1992: 38-39.

Souder, William E., Ahmed S. Nashar, and Venkatesh Padmanabhan. A guide to the best technology-transfer practices. Journal of technology transfer, v. 15, winter/spring 1990: 5-16.



Commercial Development and Technology Transfer Division
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA Headquarters
Washington, DC 20546
Telephone: 202-358-1986
Fax: 202-358-1500

Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer
1850 M Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: 202-331-4220
Fax: 202-331-4290
Can provide an overview on its technology support system to help industry and smaller businesses capitalize on the technical expertise and information available at federal laboratories.

Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer Information Locator
P.O. Box 545
Sequim, WA 98382
Telephone: 206-683-1005
Fax: 206-683-6654
Identifies laboratory resources capable of responding to specific requests, utilizes the FCC Technical Specialist System to complement information sources, monitors status of laboratory and other responses, and obtains user feedback and evaluation. Also publishes Newslink, a monthly newsletter of technology transfer activities, upcoming meetings, and notes, as well as Tapping Federal Technology and other handbooks and directories useful to individuals working in the field of technology transfer.

National Technology Transfer Center
Wheeling Jesuit College
316 Washington Avenue
Wheeling, WV 26003
Telephone: 304-243-2463
An independent organization, initially funded by NASA, chartered to promote the transfer of technologies developed in the federal laboratory system to U.S. businesses. Acts as a hub for a new nationwide technology transfer network, working closely with the Federal Laboratory Consortium, the six Regional Technology Transfer Centers, and other appropriate federal, state, and local economic development authorities, as well as with universities, companies, and industry associations. Maintains Business Gold, an electronic bulletin board that tracks research in progress at 17 federal agencies. In cooperation with several federal agencies performing research and development work, administers a program of licensing and promoting government inventions. Also screens inventions and selects those appropriate for prospective industry licensees. Useful publications for the prospective patentee include Government Inventions for Licensing and the annual Catalog of Government Patents.

Office of Federal Patent Licensing
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: 703-487-4838
Fax: 703-321-8199

Office of Scientific and Technical Information
U.S. Department of Energy
P.O. Box 62
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
Telephone: 615-576-1188

Office of Technology Utilization
U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Avenue S.W.
Washington, DC 20585
Telephone: 202-586-5388
Fax 202-586-8854

Technology Development and Small Business Programs
Office of Technology Commercialization
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Physics Building, Room B256
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
Telephone: 301-975-6501
Contact point for NIST programs for business and industry.


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