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Top Level Core Element: <variant>

Definition A deprecated variation of the <authority> in the MADS record.
Attributes type, otherType, hidden, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink
Subelements <name>, <titleInfo>, <topic>, <temporal>, <genre>, <geographic>, <hierarchicalGeographic>, <occupation>

Guidelines for Use

This element is optional and repeatable.

If this element is used, there must be at least one subelement under <variant>.

Element Description

Attributes

type

Definition
Indicates the type of variant.
Application
The following values may be used with type:
  • acronym – An acronym which is considered a variant of the name in <authority>. Used most frequently for corporate names.
  • abbreviation – Abbreviation generally applies to titles, when an abbreviation may be used for indexing or identification.
  • translation – A variant which is a translation of the authoritative name or title.
  • expansion – An expanded form of the name in <authority>.
  • other – A variant that does not have a specified variant type.

otherType

Definition
A specific relationship type that is not enumerated as a value of the type attribute.

hidden

Definition
Indicates whether variant metadata should not be displayed.
Application
The following value is used:
  • yes – This value is used to indicate that the variant information should not be displayed.

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

The following subelements are described below:

More than one of these subelements may be combined within the <variant> tags to control an authoritative heading that consists of multiple parts. Examples include name/title headings and subject strings with various components (e.g., <topic> and <geographic>).

MARC Mapping

Note:

<variant type="acronym"> = MARC 21 Authority fields 400, 410, 411, 430, 451, with subfield w/0="d"

<variant type="other"> = MARC 21 Authority fields 400, 410, 411, 430, 450, 451, 455, 480, 481, 482, 485

<variant type="other" otherType="content of subfield"> = MARC 21 Authority fields 400, 410, 411, 430, 450, 451, 455, 480, 481, 482, or 485, with subfield with subfield w/0 = "r" and with subfield $i and where "content of subfield" is content of the $i subfield

See also MARC 21 Authority Format Mapping to MADS Schema.

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Subelement of <variant>: <name>

Definition The name of a person, organization, event, or family associated with the <authority>.
Attributes type, authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink
Subelements <namePart>, <description>

Guidelines for Use

<name> is a container element that contains the subelements with the value of the variant authoritative name.

If <name> is used, at least one occurrence of the subelement <namePart> must be included.

The Library of Congress maintains a list of authority files, Name and Title Authority Source Codes, that can be used for the authority attribute of this element.

This subelement is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

type

Definition
Optionally, indicates the type of name that is recorded.
Application
The following values may be used with type:
  • personal – Indicates the name is that of a person.
  • family – Indicates the name is that of a family.
  • corporate – Indicates the name is that of a company, institution, or other organization.
  • conference – Indicates the name is that of a conference, meeting, or related type of event.

authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

The following subelements are described below:

MARC Mapping

<variant><name type="personal"> = MARC 21 Authority field 400

<variant><name type="family"> = MARC 21 Authority field 100 (1st Indicator=3)

<variant><name type="corporate"> = MARC 21 Authority field 410

<variant><name type="conference"> = MARC 21 Authority field 411

See MARC Mapping under the <variant> element.

See also MARC 21 Authority Format Mapping to MADS Schema.

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Subelement of <variant><name>: <namePart>

Definition The individual parsed parts that together make up the authoritative form of the name.
Attributes type, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

The content of an authoritative name is always contained in one or more <namePart> subelements. Parsing of names into parts can be used to indicate a date associated with the name, to parse the parts of a corporate name, or to parse parts of a personal name if desired.

MADS allows for either breaking up parts of the name (given and family, for example) in different <namePart> elements or enclosing the entire name in one element. Use of the former method affords more control in sorting and display. Either method is acceptable.

Name elements should appear in the same order as in their authorized form (the authority cited in the <name> authority attribute). If no authority is used for personal names, last name or family name should appear first, followed by a comma, followed by first or given names.

At least one occurrence of this subelement is mandatory if the <name> element is used. This subelement is repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

type

Definition
Identifies which part of the name is recorded in the <namePart>.
Application
When breaking a <name> element into constituent <namePart> elements, the type attribute should be used whenever applicable. The following values may be used with the type attribute:
  • date – Used to parse dates that are not integral parts of a name. For dates that are part of a name, e.g., dates within a conference name, do not use this attribute to separate the date, since it is an integral part of the name string. The birth date associated with a personal name, however, is not an integral part of the name but added to distinguish the name from others, so it does include a separate <namePart> with type="date". This attribute is not used when parsing the components of a corporate name.
  • family – Used for the surname of a person to identify members of the same family. This value is not used when the heading is for a family.
  • given – Used for a forename or first name of a person.
  • termsOfAddress – Used to record titles and enumeration associated with a name, such as Jr., II, etc.

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <namePart>.

MARC Mapping

<variant> <name type="personal"><namePart> = MARC 21 Authority field 400 subfields a and q

<variant> <name type="personal"><namePart type="date">= MARC 21 Authority field 400 subfield d

<variant> <name type="personal"><namePart type="termsOfAddress"> = MARC 21 Authority field 400 subfields b and c

<variant> <name type="corporate"><namePart>= MARC 21 Authority field 410 subfield a

<variant> <name type="corporate"> = MARC 21 Authority field 410 subfield b, c, d, and n

<variant> <name type="conference"> = MARC 21 Authority field 411 subfields a, c, d, e, n, and q

See also MARC 21 Authority Format Mapping to MADS Schema.

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Subelement of <variant><name>: <description>

Definition A textual description for a name when necessary, for example, to distinguish from other names.
Attributes lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

Used for additional descriptive information about the name entity.

This subelement is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <description>.

MARC Mapping

There is no MARC 21 Authority equivalent for <description>.

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Subelement of <variant>: <titleInfo>

Definition The authoritative form of the word, phrase, character, or group of characters that names a work.
Attributes displayLabel, authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink
Subelements <title>, <subTitle>, <partNumber>, <partName>, <nonSort>

Guidelines for Use

<titleInfo> is a container element that contains all subelements related to the authoritative form of a title. The data content is contained in the relevant subelements.

Do not include punctuation that is intended to delineate parts of titles that are separated into the different subelements of <titleInfo>.

There is no type attribute because only uniform titles are applicable.

The language of the title may be indicated if desired using the xml:lang or lang attributes.

The Library of Congress maintains a list of authority files: Name and Title Authority Source Codes, that may be used for the authority attribute.

This subelement is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

displayLabel

Definition
Provides additional text associated with the title if needed for display purposes.
Application
Appropriate cases would be for titles other than the primary title or subtitle. Include the text preferred and capitalization, but do not include delimiters such as colons.

authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

The following subelements are described below:

MARC Mapping

<variant><titleInfo> includes titles found in MARC 21 Authority field 400, 410, 411, 430.

See also MARC 21 Authority Format Mapping to MADS Schema.

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Subelement of <variant><titleInfo>: <title>

Definition A word, phrase, character, or group of characters that constitutes a variant title for a resource
Attributes lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

This element is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <title>.

MARC Mapping

<variant><titleInfo><title> = MARC 21 Authority fields 400, 410, 411, 430 with various title subfields

See also MARC 21 Authority Format Mapping to MADS Schema.

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Subelement of <variant><titleInfo>: <subTitle>

Definition A word, phrase, character, or group of characters that contains the remainder of the title information after the title proper.
Attributes lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

<subTitle> is used when it is desired to include the information as a separate element. Alternatively, the subtitle may be included as part of <title>.

When using the <subTitle> element, do not include punctuation at the end of the <title> element intended to delineate the title from the subtitle.

This element is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <subTitle>.

MARC Mapping

There is no MARC 21 Authority format equivalent for <subTitle>.

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Subelement of <variant><titleInfo>: <partNumber>

Definition A part or section number or sequential designation of a title.
Attributes lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

Use <partNumber> to describe the enumeration-type designation of a section of a title entity (for example, a volume number or an episode number of an audio or video clip of a digital item).

<partNumber> may follow <title> or <subTitle> as appropriate.

When using the <partNumber> element, do not include punctuation at the end of the preceding element intended to delineate the part number from previous parts of the title.

This element is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <partNumber>.

MARC Mapping

<variant><titleInfo><partNumber> = MARC 21 Authority fields 400, 410, 411, 430 subfield n

See also MARC 21 Authority Format Mapping to MADS Schema.

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Subelement of <variant><titleInfo>: <partName>

Definition A part or section name of a variant title.
Attributes lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

Use <partName> to describe the section or division titles of an object.

Multiple <partName> elements may be used in a single <titleInfo> to describe a single part with multiple hierarchical levels.

When using the <partName> element, do not include punctuation at the end of the preceding element intended to delineate the part name from previous parts of the title.

This element is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <partName>.

MARC Mapping

<variant><titleInfo><partName> = MARC 21 Authority fields 400, 410, 411, and 430 subfield p

See also MARC 21 Authority Format Mapping to MADS Schema.

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Subelement of <variant><titleInfo>: <nonSort>

Definition Characters, including initial articles, punctuation, and spaces that appear at the beginning of a title that should be ignored for indexing of titles.
Attributes lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

<nonSort> begin and end tags surround the nonfiling text which should not be regarded in sorting.

Punctuation may or may not be included within the non-sort value depending upon whether it is part of the sorting or non-sorting data. For instance, "The" as an initial article is input with space following the characters, while other data might not require a space (e.g. "L'"):

  • <nonSort>The </nonSort><title>Trial</title>
  • <nonSort>L'</nonSort><title>Enfant</title>

This element is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <nonSort>.

MARC Mapping

It is equivalent to the new technique in MARC 21 that uses control characters to surround
data disregarded for sorting. It is used for the same purpose as the nonfiling indicator value that
indicates the number of initial characters disregarded for sorting.

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Subelement of <variant>: <topic>

Definition Topical subject variants that do not fit into the <geographic>, <temporal>, <titleInfo>, <genre>, <hierarchicalGeographic>, or <occupation> subelements.
Attributes authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

The Library of Congress maintains a list of Subject Heading and Term Source Codes that can be used for the authority attribute of this element.

Element Description

Attributes

authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <topic>.

MARC Mapping

<variant><topic> = MARC 21 Authority field 450 subfields a and b and fields 400, 410, 411, 430, 448, 450, 451, 455, 480, 481, or 485 subfield x

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Subelement of <variant>: <temporal>

Definition A term indicating a time period or chronology.
Attributes authority, authorityURI, valueURI, encoding, point, qualifier, keyDate, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

The date may be in textual or structured form. If it is structured, the encoding attribute specifies the encoding scheme.

The Library of Congress maintains a list of Subject Heading and Term Source Codes, that may be used with the authority attribute of this element.

Element Description

Attributes

authority, authorityURI, valueURI, encoding, point, qualifier, keyDate, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <temporal>.

MARC Mapping

<variant><temporal> = MARC 21 Authority field 448 subfield a and fields 400, 410, 411, 430, 448, 450, 451, 455, 480, 481, 482, or 485 subfield y

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Subelement of <variant>: <genre>

Definition A term (or terms) that designates a variant term for a category characterizing a particular style, form, or content, such as artistic, musical, literary composition, etc.
Attributes authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

The Library of Congress maintains a list of Genre/Form Code and Term Source Codes that can be used for the authority attribute of this element.

This element is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <genre>.

MARC Mapping

<variant><genre> = MARC 21 Authority field 455 subfield a and fields 400, 410, 411, 430, 448, 450, 451, 455, 480, 481, 482, and 485 subfield v

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Subelement of <variant>: <geographic>

Definition A term or terms that designate a geographic entity.
Attributes authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

If the variant geographic name is in a hierarchical form use the <hierarchicalGeographic> element.

The Library of Congress maintains a list of authority files, Name and Title Authority Source Codes, that can be used for the authority attribute of this element.

This element is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <geographic>.

MARC Mapping

<variant><geographic> = MARC 21 Authority field 451 subfield a and fields 400, 410, 411, 430, 448, 450, 451, 455, 480, 482, or 485 subfield z

Subelement of <variant>: <hierarchicalGeographic>

Definition A term or terms that designate a geographic entity in a hierarchical form.
Attributes authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink
Subelements <continent>, <country>, <province>, <region>, <state>, <territory>, <county>, <city>, <citySection>, <island>, <area>, <extraterrestrialArea>

Guidelines for Use

<hierarchicalGeographic> is a container element for the specific hierarchical parts of a geographic entity. If a hierarchical description is not warranted or desirable, use the <geographic> element instead.

In general, use the term most commonly used in the original language or its translation for the geographic entity. First order political divisions may have different terms depending on the country. For instance, first order political divisions in the U.S. are states; in Canada provinces; in United Kingdom, England, Scotland, and Wales are countries and the next order division (e.g. Yorkshire) is county.

The Library of Congress maintains a list of authority files, Name and Title Authority Source Codes, that can be used for the authority attribute of this element.

This element is optional and repeatable.

Element Description

Attributes

authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

The following subelements are defined for <hierarchicalGeographic>. There are no attributes for these subelements.

  • <continent> – Includes Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America.
  • <country> – Name of a country, i.e. a political entity considered a country.
  • <province> – Includes first order political divisions called provinces within a country, e.g. in Canada.
  • <region> – Includes regions that have status as a jurisdiction, usually incorporating more than one first level jurisdiction.
  • <state> – Includes first order political divisions called states within a country, e.g. in U.S., Argentina, Italy. Use also for France département.
  • <territory> – Name of a geographical area belonging to or under the jurisdiction of a governmental authority.
  • <county> – Name of the largest local administrative unit in various countries, e.g. England.
  • <city> – Name of an inhabited place incorporated as a city, town, etc.
  • <citySection> – Name of a smaller unit within a populated place, e.g., neighborhoods, parks, or streets.
  • <island> – Name of a tract of land surrounded by water and smaller than a continent but is not itself a separate country.
  • <area> – Name of a non-jurisdictional geographic entity.
  • <extraterrestrialArea> – Name of any extraterrestrial entity or space, including solar systems, galaxies, star systems, and planets as well as geographic features of individual planets.

Subelement Attributes

All <hierarchicalGeographic> sublements have the attributes:

lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

MARC Mapping

There is no MARC 21 Authority format equivalent for <hierarchicalGeographic>, but it relates to the 752 and 762 fields in the MARC Bibliographic format.

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Subelement of <variant>: <occupation>

Definition A term that designates an occupation.
Attributes authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

The Library of Congress maintains a list of Occupation Term Source Codes, that can be used with the authority attribute of this element.

Element Description

Attributes

authority, authorityURI, valueURI, lang, xml:lang, script, transliteration, ID, xlink

See Attributes Used Throughout the MADS Schema for a description of each of these attributes.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <occupation>.

MARC Mapping

There is no MARC 21 Authority format equivalent for <occupation>, but it establishes the value used in the 656 field in the MARC Bibliographic format.

EXAMPLES

 

Name - Personal

<authority>
<name type="personal" authority="naf" >
<namePart>Lange, Dorothea</namePart>
</name>
</authority>
<variant type="other">>
<name type="personal">
<namePart>Taylor, Paul Schuster </namePart>
<namePart type="termsOfAddress">Mrs</namePart>
</name>
</variant>

 

Name - Corporate

<authority>
<name type="corporate" authority="naf" >
<namePart>IBM Deutschland</namePart>
<namePart>Institut für Logik und Linguistik</namePart>
</name>
</authority>
<variant type="other">
<name type="corporate">
<namePart>IBM Deutschland</namePart>
<namePart>Institute for Logic & Linguistics</namePart>
</name>
</variant>

 

<authority>
<name type="corporate" authority="naf" >
<namePart>Taller de Gráfica Mexicana</namePart>
</name>
</authority>
<variant type="other">
<name type="acronym">
<namePart>TGM</namePart>
</name>
</variant>

 

Name - Conference

<authority>
<name type="conference" authority="naf" >
<namePart>Jacobsen-McGill Arctic Research Expedition (1959-1962).</namePart>
</name>
</authority>
<variant type="other">
<titleInfo type="conference" authority="naf" >
<title>Jacobsen-McGill Arctic Research Expedition (1959-1962).</title>
<partName>Jacobsen-McGill Arctic Research Expedition (1959-1962).</partName>
</titleInfo>
</variant>
<variant type="other">
<titleInfo type="conference" authority="naf" >
<title>Meteorology (Jacobsen-McGill Arctic Research Expedition (1959-1962)</title>
</titleInfo>
</variant>

 

Title

<authority>
<titleInfo authority="naf">
<title>Chanson de Roland. English & French (Old French)</title>
</titleInfo>
</authority>
<variant type="other">
<titleInfo authority="naf">
<title>Song of Roland</title>
</titleInfo>
</variant>

 

Topic

<authority>
<topic authority="lctgm">Fish prints</genre>
</authority>
<variant type="other">
<topic>Fish impressions</topic>
</variant>
<variant type="other">
<topic>Fish rubbings</topic>
</variant>
<variant type="other">
<topic>Gyotaku</topic>
</variant>

 

Genre

<authority>
<genre authority="lcgft">Aerial photographs</genre>
</authority>
<variant type="other">
<genre>Photographs, aerial</genre>
</variant>

 

Geographic

<authority>
<geographic authority="naf">Ollantaytambo (Peru)</geographic>
</authority>
<variant type="other">
<geographic>Ollantaitambo (Peru)</geographic>
</variant>

 

Occupation

<authority>
<occupation authority="lctgm" >Authors</occupation>
</authority>
<variant type="other">
<occupation>Writers</occupation>
</variant>

 

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Last Updated: April 23, 2012