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Top-level Element: <titleInfo>

Element <titleInfo>
Definition A word, phrase, character, or group of characters, normally appearing in a resource, that names it or the work contained in it.
Attributes type; authority; authorityURI, valueURI; usage; displayLabel; supplied; nameTitleGroup; altRepGroup; altFormat; contentType; xlink; ID; lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration; otherType
Subelements <title> <subTitle> <partNumber> <partName> <nonSort>

GUIDELINES | EXAMPLES | MAPPINGS

GUIDELINES FOR USE

Titles are an extremely important access point for digital library resources and are frequently used in brief record displays to assist end users in deciding whether to investigate a resource further. In supplying a title, consider expectations of end users for naming of resources.

Choice and format of titles should be governed by a content standard such as the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2), Cataloguing Cultural Objects (CCO), or Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS). Details such as capitalization, choosing among the forms of titles presented on an item, and use of abbreviations should be determined based on the rules in a content standard. One standard should be chosen and used consistently for all records in a set.

<titleInfo> is a container element that contains all subelements related to title information. Data content is contained in subelements. Do not include punctuation intended to delineate parts of titles that are separated into subelements of <titleInfo>.

If multiple titles are recorded, repeat <titleInfo><title> for each. <titleInfo> is also repeated for each type attribute value.

The language of the title may be indicated if desired using the xml:lang or lang attributes.

A uniform title may be linked to a name in the record using the nameTileGroup attribute.

Specific DLF/Aquifer Guidelines

The DLF/Aquifer Implementation Guidelines for Shareable MODS Records require the use in all records of at least one <titleInfo> element with one <title> subelement. Other subelements of <titleInfo> are recommended when they apply. Additional <titleInfo> elements should be used to indicate other titles for the resource. When no title appears on the item being described, a title should be supplied.

The DLF/Aquifer guidelines recommend against the use of brackets or other punctuation to indicate the title has been supplied rather than appearing on the item; the displayLabel attribute, however, may be used to indicate that the title is supplied.

The DLF/Aquifer guidelines recommend the use of authoritative titles and the authority attribute whenever the type attribute is set to "uniform" and/or "abbreviated". Authority codes for "uniform" should be taken from the Name and Title Authority Source Codes; authority codes for "abbreviated" should be taken from the code list for Abbreviated Title Source Codes, both maintained by the Library of Congress. The authority attribute should not be used with titles having a type attribute of "translated" or "alternative" since these title types would not be represented in an authority file.

See the <titleInfo> entry in the DLF/Aquifer Summary of MODS Requirements and Recommendations Table for further information on requirements of this element, its attributes, and subelements.

Aggregator information: <titleInfo> is the primary descriptive element used for identification and display for many digital objects. Most aggregators index <titleInfo> and will use it in a brief display.

The "Title Practices" section in the DLF/NSDL Best Practices for Shareable Metadata External Link discusses the use of titles. The DLF/Aquifer guidelines are more prescriptive than the DLF/NSDL Best Practices, requiring at least one title be present in every record.

Element Description

Attributes

All attributes except lang, xml:lang, script, and transliteration are only applied to the <titleInfo> element.

type

Definition
Identifies what type of title is recorded.
Application
The following values may be used with the type attribute:
  • abbreviated - Title as abbreviated for indexing or identification.
  • translated - Translation or transcription of the main title.
  • alternative - Varying form of the title if it contributes to the further identification of the item.
  • uniform - The uniform title used as a main entry in a bibliographic record. Used when a work has appeared under varying titles, necessitating that a particular title be chosen to represent the work.
For the primary title of the resource, do not use the type attribute.

authority

Definition
The controlled list from which the value is taken.
Application
Record the name of the authoritative list used, if applicable, e.g. authority="naf". The Library of Congress maintains a list of authority files for titles: Name and Title Authority Source Codes and Abbreviated Title Source Codes.

authorityURI

Definition
A URI uniquely identifying the vocabulary from which the controlled term has been selected, as assigned by the body responsible for the maintenance of the vocabulary.
Application
URIs identifying authorities may or may not be dereferenceable to human- or machine-readable information on the authority file, controlled vocabulary, or thesaurus.

valueURI

Definition
A URI uniquely identifying the term or controlled value from a vocabulary, as assigned by the body responsible for the maintenance of the vocabulary.
Application
URIs identifying terms may or may not be dereferenceable to human- or machine-readable records for the term.

usage

Definition
Use of the title in the resource description.
Application
This attribute is used with usage="primary" when when there are several titles in a record and for citation purposes one is to be selected. The "primary" title would be used for a citation to the resource.

supplied

Definition
An indication that the title information did not come from the resource itself.
Application
This attribute is used as supplied="yes" when the title information has been supplied from an external source, not from the resource.

nameTitleGroup

Definition
Provides an explicit link between a uniform title and a name when that is needed.
Application
The same value is assigned to this attribute for the two elements. This attribute is used to link names to uniform titles when the name-uniform title combination is an authority controlled heading. 

altRepGroup; altFormat; altContent; xlink; ID; lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration; displayLabel

See the Attributes used throughout the schema for description for each.

Subelements

The following subelements are described below:

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Subelement: <title>

Definition A word, phrase, character, or group of characters that constitutes the chief title of a resource, i.e., the title normally used when citing the resource.
Attributes lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

Each element should follow the subelement for which it is appropriate (e.g., a part name or number may follow the title or the subtitle depending upon the situation). <namePart> subelement includes all parts of a title not covered by the other subelements of <titleInfo>.

Dates may be recorded here only if considered part of the title (e.g., a date in a uniform title). (Publication dates are included under <originInfo>.)

For parallel titles (i.e., equivalent titles in different languages), use separate <titleInfo><title> elements with type attribute equal to "translated" for each parallel title.

For non-collective titles by the same author (i.e., separate titles with no inclusive title for the collection), use separate <titleInfo><title> elements with no type attribute.

Specific DLF/Aquifer Guidelines

The DLF/Aquifer Implementation Guidelines for Shareable MODS Records require at least one <titleInfo><title>.

Element Description

Attributes

lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

See the Attributes used throughout the schema for description for each.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <title>.

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Subelement: <subtitle>

Definition A word, phrase, character, or group of characters that contains the remainder of the title information after the title proper.
Attributes lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

<subTitle> is used when it is desired to include the information as a separate element. Alternatively, the subtitle may be included as part of <title>.

When using the <subTitle> element, do not include punctuation at the end of the <title> element intended to delineate the title from the subtitle.

Specific DLF/Aquifer Guidelines

The DLF/Aquifer guidelines recommend the use of this element when a subtitle is present, rather than including the subtitle in the text of the <title> element.

Element Description

Attributes

lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

See the Attributes used throughout the schema for description for each.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <subtitle>

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Subelement: <partNumber>

Definition A part or section number of a title.
Attributes lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

Use <partNumber> to describe the enumeration-type designation of a section of the object (for example, an episode number or an audio or video clip of a digital item).

<partNumber> may follow <title> or <subTitle> as appropriate.

When using the <partNumber> element, do not include punctuation at the end of the preceding element intended to delineate the part number from previous parts of the title.

Multiple parts of an item should appear in separate MODS records or <relatedItem> elements.

Specific DLF/Aquifer Guidelines

The DLF/Aquifer guidelines recommend the use of this subelement when a part number is present, rather than including the part number in the text of the <title> element.

Element Description

Attributes

lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

See the Attributes used throughout the schema for description for each.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <partNumber>

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Subelement: <partName>

Definition A part or section name of a title.
Attributes lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

Use <partName> to describe the section or division titles of an object (for example, a chapter title, episode name, or an audio or video clip).

Multiple <partName> elements may be used in a single <titleInfo> to describe a single part with multiple hierarchical levels (see the Bible example below). However, multiple parts of an item should appear in separate MODS records or <relatedItem> elements.

When using the <partName> element, do not include punctuation at the end of the preceding element intended to delineate the part name from previous parts of the title.

Specific DLF/Aquifer Guidelines

The DLF/Aquifer guidelines recommend the use of this subelement when a part name is present, rather than including the part name in the text of the <title> element.

Element Description

Attributes

lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

See the Attributes used throughout the schema for description for each.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <partName>.

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Subelement: <nonSort>

Definition Characters, including initial articles, punctuation, and spaces that appear at the beginning of a title that should be ignored for indexing of titles.
Attributes lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration
Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

<nonSort> begin and end tags surround the nonfiling text which should not be regarded in sorting. It is equivalent to the new technique in MARC 21 that uses control characters to surround data disregarded for sorting. It is used for the same purpose as the nonfiling indicator value that indicates the number of characters disregarded for sorting.

Punctuation may or may not be included within the non-sort value depending upon whether it is part of the sorting or non-sorting data. For instance, "The" as an initial article is input with space following the characters, while other data might not require a space (e.g. "L'").

<nonSort>The </nonSort><title>Trial</title>
<nonSort>L'</nonSort><title>Enfant</title>

Specific DLF/Aquifer Guidelines

The DLF/Aquifer guidelines strongly recommend the use of this element when non-sorting characters are present, rather than including them in the text of the <title> element.

Element Description

Attributes

lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

See the Attributes used throughout the schema for description for each.

Subelements

There are no subelements for <nonSort>

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EXAMPLES

<titleInfo>
<title>Bush Cheney</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo type="alternative" displayLabel="also known as">
<title >Bush-Cheney 2000</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo type="alternative">
<title>George W. Bush for President</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo>
<nonSort>The </nonSort>
<title>"wintermind"</title>
<subTitle>William Bonk and American letters</subTitle>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo xml:lang="en">
<nonSort>The </nonSort>
<title>man who would be king</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo xml:lang="fr" type="translated">
<nonSort>L'</nonSort>
<title>homme qui voulut être roi</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo>
<nonSort>The </nonSort>
<title>Olympics</title>
<subTitle>a history</subTitle>
<partNumber>Part 1</partNumber>
<partName>Ancient</partName>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo type="uniform" authority="naf">
<title>Bible</title>
<partName>O.T.</partName>
<partName>Exodus</partName>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo>
<title>Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionkrankheiten und Hygiene</title>
<partNumber>1. Abt. Originale</partNumber>
<partNumber>Reihe B</partNumber>
<partName>Hygiene. Krankenhaushygiene. Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin</partName>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo>
<title>Annual report of notifiable diseases</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo type="abbreviated" authority="dnlm">
<title>Annu. rep. notif. dis.</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo lang="rus" script="Latn" transliteration="ALA-LC Romanization Tables">
<title>Geodezja i urzadzenia roline</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo type="translated" lang="eng">
<title>Land surveying and agriculture equipment</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo type="uniform" authority="naf" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/n93028706">
<title>Missale Carnotense</title>
</titleInfo>
[Note: the value of xlink:href is purely illustrative; this link does not currently exist. It assumes establishing a namespace for Library of Congress Control Numbers (LCCN) and initiating a service to retrieve authority records.]
<titleInfo type="alternative" displayLabel="Spine title">
<title>Science and public affairs</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo>
<title>Canticum canticorum</title>
</titleInfo>
<titleInfo type="uniform" nameTitleGroup="1">
<title>Motets</title>
<partNumber>(1583)</partNumber>
</titleInfo>
<name type="personal" nameTitleGroup="1" usage="primary">
<namePart>Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da</namePart>
<namePart type="date">1525?-1594</namePart>
</name>
<name type="personal">
<namePart>Picotti, Livio.</namePart>
<role>
<roleTerm authority="marcrelator" type="code">prf</roleTerm>
</role>
</name>

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MAPPINGS

MARC Mapping (Bibliographic)

The <titleInfo> type attribute values are equivalent to the following MARC 21 fields:

The displayLabel attribute = MARC 21 field 246 subfield i.

<title> without the <titleInfo> type attribute ≈ MARC 21 field 245.
<title> includes only the data that make up the title and does not include the entire title area dictated by AACR2. The statement of responsibility in MARC 21 field 245 is included in the <note> element with type="statement of responsibility"—not in <title>.

Elements considered part of the title that are separately subfielded in MARC 21 are included in <title> unless they have a separate subelement. For instance, the General Material Designator (MARC 21 field 245 subfield h) and form (MARC 21 field 245 subfield k) may be included as part of <title>, but a part name or number is included in the subelements below.

<subTitle> = MARC 21 fields 242, 245, and 246 subfield b.

<partNumber> = MARC 21 fields 130, 240, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 730, and 740 subfield n.

<partName> = MARC 21 fields 130, 240, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 730, and 740 subfield p.

See also MARC Mapping to MODS for the <titleInfo> element.

Dublin Core Mapping

The MODS to Dublin Core Metadata Element Set Mapping recommends mapping the <titleInfo> element and all subelements to the <dc:title> element in simple Dublin Core. Since prescribed punctuation separating elements of the title is not included in MODS records prepared according to these guidelines, they would need to be inserted at the point of transformation.

MODS example expressed in Dublin Core:

<dc:title>The Olympics: a history. Part 1: Ancient</title>
<dc:title>Bible. O.T. Exodus</title>

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Last Updated: September 30, 2014