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[Detail] A French officer and his British ally at the front read the New York Times.

Chronological Thinking: Putting Events in Temporal Order

To understand a historical account, the reader must be able to place events in the order in which they occurred. Doing so requires careful reading, paying attention to verb tenses, time-related words (e.g., previously, later) and descriptions of cause and effect relationships (a cause necessarily occurs before the effect). Of course, the reader’s existing knowledge of the historical events being discussed is also a useful tool.

In a special mid-week pictorial “War Extra” on December 31, 1914, the New York Times published a one-page article on “The War Situation: Up to and Including December 27, 1914.” Read this article carefully; while many events are mentioned, few dates are given. List at least eight events that are mentioned in the article. Use your knowledge of World War I and information in the article to place the events in the order in which occurred. After you have the events arranged in the order in which you think they occurred, try to confirm your work using other sources.