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[Detail] Memoirs of mammoth...Thomas Ashe 1806.

Indian Removal

Jeremiah Evarts, a missionary and reformer, wrote a monograph in defense of the Cherokee during the conflict between Georgia and the Cherokee Nation and the early discussion of Indian removal.  Originally published in 1829 under the pseudonym William Penn, “Essays on the Present Crisis in the Condition of the American Indians” includes an exhaustive study of early treaties with the Cherokee Nation and a critical appraisal of President Andrew Jackson’s policy as stated in his first inaugural address.  Evarts posed several questions:

…I would observe, that the people of the United States owe it to themselves, and to mankind, to form a correct judgment in this matter.  The questions have forced themselves upon us, as a nation:--What is to become of the Indians?  Have they any rights?  If they have, What are these rights? And how are they to be secured?

From “Essays on the Present Crisis in the Condition of the American Indians,” image 5

  • Summarize the outcome of the various treaties reviewed by Evarts. What point is Evarts making by reviewing these treaties?
  • How does Evarts recommend the nation answer the questions he posed?
  • What solutions does Evarts offer to meet the crisis?
  • Why do you think Evarts used the pen name William Penn in writing the essays?