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[Detail] An advertisement from The Minnesota guide. 1869

3) Expansion and Reform, 1801-1861

Thomas Jefferson's purchase of the Louisiana territory in 1803 extended America's empire, its government, and its espoused ideals. A paper by Nathaniel Pitt Langford brings the importance of this expansion into relief against the background of the geographical obstacles and Spanish intrigues that might have prevented it.

The federal government sought to make its new lands available to its people through the forced removal of Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi. Read "A Brief History of the War with the Sac and Fox Indians in Illinois and Michigan" to learn about one incident of violence incurred by this removal.

A search on names of individual tribes such as Six Nations, Ottawa, Chippewa or Obibwe, Sac, Fox, Sioux, or Dakota will yield many of texts describing the history and culture of the quickly disappearing Native-American nations, though they are nearly all written from a white perspective.

This collection may be used to study reform movements by searching on temperance and anti-slavery. Search on women for chapters from texts such as Lucinda Hinsdale Stone Her Life Story and Reminiscences and Bertha Van Hoosen's autobiography, Petticoat Surgeon, that deal with establishing a place for women in academia and medicine respectively.