Library of Congress


The Library of Congress > Teachers > Classroom Materials > Lesson Plans > To Kill a Mockingbird

Back to Lesson Plans

Greensboro, Alabama

[Detail] Greensboro, Alabama

The Blood Red Record

NOTE: This is an excerpt. The full text of The blood red record : review of the horrible lynchings and burning of Negroes by civilized white men in the United States : as taken from the records : with comments by John Edward Bruce ... can be found in African American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel A.P.Murray Collection, 1818-1907

Excerpt begins ...

{Begin page no. 7}

According to the Chicago Tribune, which kept a daily record of lynchings for the year 1900, 117 persons were lynched, of whom only eighteen were charged with rape--the only crime which white men at the South say for which Negroes are lynched. The Chicago Conservator, another influential newspaper, has rearranged the record given by the Tribune in the following order:

Charge of Murder.
January 9, Henry Giveney, Ripley, Tenn.
January 9, Roger Giveney, Ripley, Tenn.
March 11, Unknown Negro, Jennings, Neb.
March 24, Walter Cotton Emporia, Va.
March 27, William Edward, Deer Creek Bridge, Miss.
April 16, Moses York, near Tunica, Miss.
April 28, Mindee Chowgee, Marshall, Mo.
May 4, Marshall Jones, Douglas, Ga.
May 13, Alexander Whitney, Harlem, Ga.
May 14, William Willis, Grovetown, Ga.
May 14, Unknown Negro, Brooksville, Fla.
May 14, Unknown Negro, Brooksville, Fla.
May 22, Calvin Hilburn, Pueblo, Colorado.
June 10, Unknown Negro, Snead, Fla.
June 17, Nat Mullins, Earl, Ark.
June 21, Robert Davis, Mulberry, Fla.
July 12, John Jennings, Creswell, Ga.
July 26, Robert Charles, New Orleans, La.
September 11, Unknown Negro, Forest City, N.C.

{Begin page no. 8}

September 11, Thomas J. Amos, Cheneyville, La.
September 7, Frank Brown, Tunica, Miss.
September 14, David Moore, Tunica, Miss.
September 14, William Brown, Tunica, Miss.
October 9, Wiley Johnson, Baton Rouge, La.
October 23, Gloster Barnes, near Vicksburg, Miss.
November 16, Preston Porter, Lymon, Col.
December 16, Bud Rowland, Rockford, Ind.
December 16, Thomas Henderson, Rockford, Ind.
December 19, Unknown Negro, Arcadia, Miss.
December 20,--Lewis, Gulf Port, Miss.

Plot to Kill Whites.
April 22, John Hughley, Allentown, Fla.

Suspected Robbery. June 17, S.A. Jenkins, Searcy, Ark.


June 5, W.W. Watts, Newport News, Va.
March 4, George Ratliffe, Clyde, N.C.
March 10, Thomas Clayton, Hernando, Miss.
March 26, Lewis Harris, Belair, Md.
April 3, Allen Brooks, Berryville, Ga.
April 20, John Peters, Tazewell, W. Va.
May 4, Henry Darley, Liberty, Md.
May 7, Unknown Negro, Geneva, Ala.
June 3, Dago Pete, Tutwiler, Miss.
June 23, Frank Gilmore, Livingstone Parish, La.
July 23, Elijah Clark, Huntsville, Ala.
July 24, Jack Hillsman, Knoxville, Ga.
August 13, Jack Betts, Corinth, Miss.
August 19, Unknown Negro, Arrington, Va.
August 26, Unknown Negro, S. Pittsburg, Tenn.
October 19, Frank Hardeneman, Wellaston, Ga.

{Begin page no. 9}

December 8, Daniel Long, Wythe county, Va.
December 21, Unknown Negro, Arkadelphia, Ark.

Attempted Assault.
March 18, John Bailey, Marietta, Ga.
March 18, Charles Humphries, Lee county, Ala.
April 19, Henry McAfee, Brownsville, Miss.
May 11, William Lee, Hinton, W. Va.
May 15, Henry Harris, Lena, La.
June 9, Simon Adams, near Columbia, Ga.
June 11, Senny Jefferson, Metcalf, Ga.
June 27, Jock Thomas, Live Oak, Fla.
July 6, John Roe, Columbia, Ala.
September 10, Logan Reoms, Duplex, Tenn.
September 12, Zed Floyd, Wetumpka, Kan.
October 2, Winfield Thomas, Eclectic, Ala.
October 18, Fratur Warfield, Elkton, Ky.

Race Prejudice. July 25, Unknown Negro, New Orleans, La.
July 25, August Thomas, New Orleans, La.
July 25, Baptiste Fileau, New Orleans, La.
July 25, Louis Taylor, New Orleans, La.
July 25, Anna Mabry, New Orleans, La.
July 25, Unknown Negro, New Orleans, La.
July 25, Silas Jackson, New Orleans, La.
October 24, James Suer, Liberty Hill, Ga.
October 24, James Calaway, Liberty Hill, Ga.

Giving Testimony.
March 23, Luis Rice, Ripley, Tenn.

Attacking a White Man.
May 1, Henry Ratcliff, Gloucester, Miss.
May 1, George Gordon, Albin, Miss.
September 8, Grant Weley, Thomasville, Ga.


{Begin page no. 10}

Suspicion of Murder.
June 10, Askew, Mississippi City, Miss.
June 10, Reese, Mississippi City, Miss.

Complicity of Murder.
June 10, John Sanders, Snead, Fla.
December 17, John Rolla, Booneville, Ind.

Unknown Offenses.
June 27, Jordan Hines, Molina, Ga.
June 20, James Barco, Panasoffkee, Fla.

No Offense.
May 7, Unknown Negro, Amite, Miss.

April 5, Unknown Negro, Southampton county, Va.
December 28, George Faller, Marion, Ga.

Suspicion of Arson.
January 11, Rufus Salter, West Spring, S.C.
Aiding Escape of Murderers.
January 16, Anderson Gause, Henning, Tenn.

July 9, Jefferson Henry, Greene's Bayou, La.

Making Threats.
March 4, James Crosby, Selo Hatchel, Ala.
June 12, Seth Cobb Deyall's Bluffs, La.

March 22, George Ritter, Canhaft, N.C.

{Begin page no. 11}

May 26, Unknown Negro, West Point, Ark.
October 8,--Williams, Tiponville, Tenn.

September 21, George Bickham, Ponchatoula, La.
September 21, Charles Elliott, Ponchatoula, La.
September 21, Nathaniel Bowman, Ponchatoula, La.
September 11, Charles Elliot, Ponchatoula, La.
September 21, Isaiah Rollins, Ponchatoula, La.

Attempt to Murder.
June 12, John Brodie, Lee county, Ark.
November 15, Unknown Negro, Jefferson, Texas.
November 15, Unknown Negro, Jefferson, Texas.
November 15, Unknown Negro, Jefferson, Texas.

Threats to Kill.
February 17, William Burts, Basket Mills, S.C.


May 16, Samuel Hinson, Cushtusha, Miss.
October 30,--Abernathy, Duke, Ala.

It should be borne in mind that this list represents the number of Negroes killed by mobs of white men for alleged crimes, and not by any legal process of law, which a white man charged with crime would demand as his right under the Constitution. Trial by jury is never denied any white criminal, even though he should assassinate the President of the United States. The disposition to be fair to white men who go wrong, even when they steal $620,000, or when, like brute beasts, three or four of them unite in outraging a helpless mill girl, and after violating her person murder her--is an American characteristic. The Alvord defalcation and the Paterson scandal are cases in point. Has any Negro, living or dead, committed

{Begin page no. 12}

a greater robbery than Alvord, or a more fiendish, brutal or cowardly murder, combined with rape, than the young white men at Paterson, N.J., who have recently been convicted by a jury of their peers for the outrage upon and murder of Jennie Bosschieter? Have any of the Negroes who have been lynched and roasted by white mobs in various parts of the country, North and South, had the advantages of social culture and refinement--of educating themselves and improving their opportunities that were possessed by either Alvord or the four highly-respectable young white men who have just been convicted of the brutal crimes charged against them? We do not offer in extenuation of crime the ignorance of Negroes who commit crime. Nor do we seek to palliate or condone their offenses against society and against the law of the land. We have merely referred to these cases to show that crimes of the character described are not confined to a particular race or class that the educated and refined criminal can be more brutal and vicious than the ignorant criminal, or, at least, equally so. He has the advantage of the ignorant man in mental resources and low cunning, and when once the sleeping devil within him is aroused he is just as human, just as fiendish and blood-thirsty as the most depraved criminal that ever expiated his crime on the gallows or suffered martyrdom at the hands of a civilized and christianized mob of the best citizens.

... Excerpt ends.