The Woman Suffrage Year Book 1917 (excerpt)
For Lesson Two
In publishing the Woman Suffrage Year Book for 1917, which the editor, Miss Martha Stapler, has compiled with great care, the National Woman Suffrage Publishing Company, Inc., believes that it is placing in the hands of suffrage workers and others an accurate, up-to-date reference book which has long been needed.
It is planned to issue the Year Book in January of each year with a calendar of events of the preceding year and with statistical information brought up to date. For a compilation of this kind a mass of material is available so that the task has been largely one of selection. Both editor and publishers are conscious of many omissions but it has been necessary to continually bear in mind that if the books is to serve its purpose it must be limited in bulk and moderate in price. The selection of material for this year's issue has been in the nature of an experiment, but it is hoped that constructive criticism and suggestions will be forthcoming so that the value of the book will be enhanced with every new edition. The present volume is offered in the confident hope that it will justify itself and lead the way for an annual publication that will eventually satisfy the need for a comprehensive record of the woman suffrage movement.
THE EXTENT OF WOMAN SUFFRAGE IN THE UNITED STATES
FULL SUFFRAGE STATES
Full suffrage granted all women:
- Wyoming .......... 1869
- Colorado .......... 1893
- Utah .......... 1896
- Idaho .......... 1896
- Washington .......... 1910
- California .......... 1911
- Kansas .......... 1912
- Oregon .......... 1912
- Arizona .......... 1912
- Territory of Alaska .......... 1913
- Montana .......... 1914
- Nevada .......... 1914
- Illinois .......... 1913
Granted certain classes of women subject to various restrictions:
- Kentucky .......... 1838
- Michigan .......... 1875
- Minnesota .......... 1875
- New Hampshire .......... 1878
- Massachusetts .......... 1879
- Vermont .......... 1880
- New York .......... 1880
- Mississippi .......... 1880
- Nebraska .......... 1883
- New Jersey .......... 1887
- North Dakota .......... 1887
- South Dakota .......... 1887
- Oklahoma .......... 1890
- Connecticut .......... 1893
- Ohio .......... 1894
- Delaware .......... 1898
- Wisconsin .......... 1900
- New Mexico .......... 1910
SUFFRAGE ON TAXATION AND BONDING PROPOSITIONS
Granted certain classes of women subject to various restrictions:
- Iowa .......... 1894
- Louisiana .......... 1898
- New York .......... 1901
- Michigan .......... 1908
WOMAN SUFFRAGE IN THE SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS THE FEDERAL SUFFRAGE AMENDMENT
(Known as Senate Joint Resolution No. 1 and as House Joint Resolution No. 1)
IN THE SENATE
Dec. 7, 1915 .......... Introduced by Senator Sutherland, of Utah, Senator Thomas, of Colorado, and Senator Thompson, of Kansas. Referred to the Committee on Woman Suffrage. This Committee was composed of Senators Thomas of Colorado, Owen of Oklahoma, Ransdell of Louisiana, Hollis of New Hampshire, Johnson of South Dakota, Sutherland of Utah, Jones of Washington, Clapp of Minnesota, Catron of New Mexico.
Jan. 8, 1916 .......... Reported in the Senate with a favorable recommendation.
IN THE HOUSE
Dec. 6, 1915 .......... Introduced by Representatives Raker of California, Mondell of Wyoming, Keating of Colorado, Taylor of Colorado, and Hayden of Arizona. Referred to the Judiciary Committee, and by it to sub-committee No. 1. This committee was composed of Representatives Carlin of Virginia, chairman; Gard of Ohio, Taggart of Kansas, Volstead of Minnesota and Morgan of Oklahoma.
Feb. 9, 1916 .......... Reported to the Judiciary Committee by sub-committee No. 1, without recommendation.
Feb. 15, 1916 .......... By a vote of 9 to 7 the Judiciary Committee returned the Amendment to sub-committee No. 1 with instructions to hold until December 14th. Those who voted against postponement were: Mr. Taggart of Kansas, Mr. Volstead of Minnesota, Mr. Nelson of Wisconsin, Mr. Chandler of New York, Mr. Thomas of Kentucky, Mr. Dale of New York, Mr. Graham of Pennsylvania. Those who voted in favor of postponement to December were: Mr. Whaley of South Carolina, Mr. Webb of North Carolina, Mr. Carlin of Virginia, Mr. Walker of Georgia, Mr. Igoe of Missouri, Mr. Gard of Ohio, Mr. Williams of Illinois, Mr. Steele of Pennsylvania, Mr. Caraway of Arkansas.
March 14, 1916 .......... The Judiciary Committee, by unanimous consent, agreed to take final committee action on the Amendment on March 28th.
March 28, 1916 .......... The Judiciary Committee, by a vote of 9 to 10, postponed indefinitely all Constitutional Amendments. Those who voted against postponement were: Mr. Taggart of Kansas, Mr. Thomas of Kentucky, Mr. Morgan of Oklahoma, Mr. Neely of West Virginia, Mr. Moss of West Virginia, Mr. Volstead of Minnesota, Mr. Nelson of Wisconsin, Mr. Dale of New York, Mr. Chandler of New York. Those who voted for postponement were: Mr. Webb of North Carolina, Mr. Carlin of Virginia, Mr. Igoe of Missouri, Mr. Dyer of Missouri, Mr. Gard of Ohio, Mr. Whaley of South Carolina, Mr. Caraway of Arkansas, Mr. Steele of Pennsylvania, Mr.Graham of Pennsylvania, Mr. Danforth of New York. From March 28th the Resolution remained in the Judiciary Committee. On December 14th it was reported from Committee without recommendation.
OTHER SUFFRAGE LEGISLATION IN THE SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS *
* Excerpts from the Report-see pages 89-91.
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION RESOLUTION
Jan. 24, 1916 .......... Senator Norris, of Nebraska, introduced in the Senate a resolution providing for the direct election of the President and Vice-President of the United States.
FEDERAL ELECTIONS BILL
Dec. 6, 1915 .......... Representative Raker, of California, introduced at the request of the Federal Suffrage Association a bill to protect the rights of women citizens of the United States to register and vote for Senators and Members of the House. The bill was referred to the Committee on the Election of the President, Vice-President, and Representatives in Congress.
Dec. 19, 1915 .......... The same bill was introduced in the Senate by Senator Lane, of Oregon. It was referred to the Committee on Woman suffrage.
Feb. 3, 1916 .......... The United States Elections Bill Introduced in the Senate by Senator Owen, at the request of Miss Laura Clay, of Kentucky. This bill aims to secure to women the right to vote for Senators and Representatives in Congress. It was referred to the Committee on Privileges and Elections.
March 3, 1916 .......... Senator Borah introduced an amendment to the Underwood amendment (to permit women as well as men to vote upon a District of Columbia prohibition measure).
May 15, 1916 .......... A favorable committee report was given in the Senate on the District Delegate Bill. This provides for the elections of one Delegate to the House of Representatives by the citizens of the District of Columbia and establishes a system of election.
May 22, 1916 .......... The House had under consideration the Porto Rican bill, part of which deals with the suffrage in Porto Rico.Representative Mann, of Illinois, offered an amendment giving the women of Porto Rico suffrage on the same terms as men. This amendment was carried by a vote of 60-37. The following day the bill was taken up in the House, and the women suffrage was lost by a vote of 59-80. (A detailed account of Woman Suffrage in the Sixty-fourth Congress is contained in the Report of the Congressional Committee submitted at the Forty-eighth Convention of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.) *
History of the recent movement:
In 1890 the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association united under the name of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. The object, as adopted in the Constitution, was "to secure protection in their right to vote to the women citizens of the United States by appropriate national and state legislation."
From that time on plans for constructive educational work throughout the nation, campaigns on behalf of amendments to state constitutions, and work for the submission by Congress to the several state legislatures of an amendment to the Federal Constitution, formed the program for the Association.
In 1890, Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was elected President and Miss Susan B. Anthony Vice-President. In 1892 Mrs. Stanton withdrew and Miss Anthony was elected President. Miss Anthony withdrew in 1900 and Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt was elected in her place. In 1904 Mrs. Catt withdrew and Dr. Anna Howard Shaw was elected President. In 1915 Dr. Shaw became Honorary President and Mrs. Catt was again elected to the Presidency.
In 1916 the Association is a federation of sixty-three suffrage organizations in forty-five states and has to its credit the enfranchisement of women in eleven states by constitutional amendment, full suffrage for women in Alaska, presidential and municipal suffrage for women in Illinois by legislative enactment, and minor suffrage for women in twenty states.
As a result of its unceasing educational work the sentiment throughout the nation favorable to the enfranchisement of women has now made the question a political issue and the most discussed question of the day. Campaigns have been conducted in the last twenty-five years in many states, and by common consent it is acknowledged that defeated amendments have left such an increased popular belief in the cause that later victorious campaigns are admitted as inevitable.
The National American Woman Suffrage Association is the American Auxiliary of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, which was organized in 1904. National conventions are held annually. Until 1895 the work of the Association was carried on principally from the home of Miss Anthony, in Rochester, New York. In that year small headquarters were opened in the World Building, New York, and occupied by the newly-formed Organization Committee under the supervision of Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt. In the same year Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, corresponding secretary for twenty-one years, under instruction of the National Board, opened a National Headquarters in Philadelphia. In 1900 these two headquarters were combined and established in the American Tract Society Building in New York. In 1903 they were removed to Warren, Ohio, and placed in charge of Mrs. Harriet Taylor Upton. National treasurer. In 1909 headquarters were again established in New York.
From time to time branch headquarters have been conducted in the city of Washington. From 1913 a permanent branch headquarters has been maintained there. In 1916 a large house, formerly occupied by Senator Elihu Root, became branch headquarters of the National Association. State headquarters have been founded in all the better organized states, and in many of the states additional city and county headquarters are permanently maintained.
The National American Woman Suffrage Association, since the union of the two societies in 1890, has published and distributed millions of leaflets, has maintained a National Press Department, has assisted in organization work in various states and has held thousands of meetings under its own direct auspices.
From 1890 till 1914 there was no division of forces or difference of policy among the suffragists of the United States.
In 1913 the Congressional Committee formed the Congressional Union for the purpose of supporting the Committee in its work for the Federal Amendment, and the Congressional Union was admitted as an auxiliary of the National Association.
In 1914 a break with the National Association occurred because the Congressional Union refused to accede to certain established rules, and thereafter the Congressional Union became an independent body.
In 1916 the Congressional Union caused a convention to be assembled in Chicago and formed a Woman's Party. The National Woman's Party in its platform pledges itself "to use its united vote to secure the passage of the Susan B. Anthony Amendment irrespective of the interests of any national political party, and pledges its unceasing opposition to all who oppose this amendment.
A rift in the organized suffrage forces of the nation was thus brought about, the National Association continuing its policy of working for both federal and state amendments, the Congressional Union and its outgrowth, the Woman's Party, working for the federal amendment only. The National continues to work on strictly non-partisan lines, while the Congressional Union holds "the party in power responsible," and as that party this year is the Democratic party, it has been the object of a western campaign which aimed to defeat Mr. Wilson and Democratic Congressmen.
ANSWERS TO SOME OBJECTIONS TO WOMAN SUFFRAGE
"The Woman's Protest," organ of the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage, published a list of questions inviting suffragists to explain certain facts and figures. The objections were answered by Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, in "The Woman Voter" (January and February, 1915).
Following are some of the questions and answers:
(Q) Suffragists say women should vote because they pay taxes. On this plea the foreign corporation or individual or non-resident who pays taxes should vote. The majority of women are not taxpayers, however, and their addition to the electorate would only increase the number of voters who do not pay taxes. Do Suffragists advocate further extension of irresponsibility?
(A) The difference between women and the foreign corporation or individual or non-resident is that when taxes become oppressive the foreign corporation or individual may become naturalized and the non-resident may become a resident and vote. There is nothing women can do to protect themselves against unjust taxation.
(Q) If women are competent to vote on every question, why not allow them to vote on their own enfranchisement?
(A) Suffragists would be very glad if the question could be settled by the vote of women. They oppose it because it is an unconstitutional proposition and it cannot be made constitutional.
(Q) In view of the fact that woman suffrage proposes another duty to woman, an unnecessary duty inconsistent with her highest natural duties and functions, and furthermore, involves great risk and additional expense to the State, we have a right to ask what it can do to improve civic conditions, and where it has done so. If Suffragists cannot prove "votes for women" are worth while, how can they show any reason why woman suffrage should not be rejected?
(A) The sole plea for woman suffrage is that women are human beings, citizens of a republic which makes its boast that its laws and institutions are based upon the will of the majority. Suffragists hold that the opinions of women are worth as much to them as men's opinions are worth to them. When it is made necessary for the vast numbers of foreigners pouring through our gates to prove that votes for foreigners are worth while; when it comes about that boys just turned twenty-one are forced to prove that votes for boys are worth while, then it will be an intelligent demand to put to women that they, too, must prove that votes for women are worth while. Meanwhile, although suffragists have proved over and over again that votes for women have accomplished great good for women, for children and for the community, yet they hold that this demand is illogical and outrageous.
(Q) An electorate, like a standing army, is a governmental instrument to carry out the will of the people. Its extension can only be advocated as a necessity or a service to the common good. Where and when have women proved their supreme moral influence as the mothers, wives, daughters, sisters and teachers of men as "inferior" to the ballots and bullets that men must sometimes use? What reason can Suffragists give for asking women to use the weapons of men in a vain attempt to exercise political power when the wishes of women and the wisdom of the centuries teach us to rely on the moral might that women wield in the church, the school and the home where our citizens are made and molded-by women?
(A) "An electorate is a governmental instrument to carry out the will of the people." Right, and because women from half of the people, it follows that the electorate cannot carry out the will of that people unless their voices are counted in the votes to be taken. If it be true that the wishes of women and the wisdom of the centuries teach us to rely on the moral might that women wield in the church, school and home, then it follows equally that the wishes of men and the wisdom of the centuries teach us to rely on their moral influence and not on votes. In other words, any argument, any excuse which can bar women from the electorate of this country, applies with equal wisdom and equal logic to the votes of men.
PERSONS EXCLUDED FROM SUFFRAGE IN EACH STATE
[Reprinted from the "Woman's Journal", Jan. 8, 1916.]
The World Almanac for 1916 has compiled the qualifications for voting-and for not being allowed to vote-in all of the States with the aid of the various State Attorneys-General. This compilation shows that the following classes of adult citizens are denied suffrage in the different States:
- Alabama-Men convicted of treason or other felonies, idiots, vagrants, insane, women.
- Alaska -Aliens and Indians.
- Arizona -Idiots, insane, felons, soldiers, sailors, and marines in U. S. service, persons unable to read and write in English.
- Arkansas-Idiots, insane, men convicted of felony or failing to pay poll tax, women.
- California -Idiots, insane, embezzlers of public moneys, those convicted of infamous crime, persons unable to read and write in English.
- Colorado -Felons and insane.
- Connecticut-Men convicted of heinous crime, women. (a)
- Delaware-Insane, paupers, felons, men unable to read and write in English, women.
- Florida-Idiots, duel lists, felons, women. (d)
- Georgia-Felons, idiots, insane, women.
- Hawaii-Idiots, insane, felons, those unable to speak, read and write the English or Hawaiian language, women.
- Idaho -Idiots, insane, felons, bigamists.
- Illinois-Men convicted of crime, women. (b)
- Indiana-Men convicted of infamous crime, soldiers, sailors, and marines in U. S. service, women.
- Iowa-Idiots, insane, felons, womwomenen. (c)
- Kansas -Persons convicted of treason or felony, insane.
- Kentucky-Felons, idiots, insane, women. (a)
- Louisiana-Idiots, insane, felons, men unable to read and write in English, women. (c)
- Maine-Paupers, insane, men unable to read and write in English, Indians who have not severed tribal relations, women.
- Maryland-Felons, lunatics, bribers, women.
- Massachusetts-Paupers, men unable to read and write in English, women. (a)
- Michigan-Indians with tribal relations, women. (a, c) (a) School suffrage granted certain classes of women subject to various restrictions. (b) Presidential and partial municipal and county suffrage granted to women. (c) Suffrage on taxation and bonding propositions granted certain classes of women subject to various restrictions. (d) Municipal suffrage in town of Fellsmere.
- Minnesota-Felons, insane, Indians who have not severed tribal relations, women. (a)
- Mississippi-Insane, idiots, Indians not taxed, felons, bigamists, men unable to read and write in English, women. (a)
- Missouri-Felons, soldiers, sailors, and marines in U. S. service, women.
- Montana -Felons, idiots, insane, Indians who have not severed tribal relations, soldiers, sailors, and marines, U. S. service.
- Nebraska-Felons, insane, women. (a)
- Nevada-Idiots, insane, felons.
- New Hampshire-Paupers, insane, idiots, felons, women. (a)
- New Jersey-Idiots, paupers, insane, felons, soldiers, sailors and marines in U. S. service, women. (a)
- New Mexico-Idiots, insane, felons, Indians who have not severed tribal relations, women. (a)
- New York-Offenders against elective franchise rights, guilty of bribery, betting on elections, men convicted of a felony and not restored to citizenship by the Executive, convicts in house of refuge or reformatory are not disqualified, women . (a,) (c)
- North Carolina-Idiots, lunatics, felons, women.
- North Dakota-Felons, insane, tribal Indians, women. (a)
- Ohio-Idiots, insane, felons, soldiers, sailors and marines in U. S. service, women. (a)
- Oklahoma-Felons, idiots, insane, men unable to read and write in English, Indians who have not severed tribal relations, women. (a)
- Oregon-Idiots, insane, convicted of felony, U. S. soldiers and sailors.
- Pennsylvania-Felons, non-tax-payers, women.
- Porto Rico-Felons, insane, soldiers, sailors and marines in U. S. service, women.
- Rhode Island-Paupers, lunatics, felons, women. *
- South Carolina-Felons, insane, paupers, men who have not paid taxes or cannot read and write, women.
- South Dakota-Insane, felons, U. S. soldiers, seamen and marines, women. (a)
- Tennessee-Felons, men failing to pay poll tax, women.
- Texas-Idiots, lunatics, felons, U. S. soldiers, marines and seamen women.
- Utah-Idiots, insane, felons, soldiers, sailors and marines in U. S. service.
- Vermont-Men lacking approbation of local board of civil authority, women. (a)
- Virginia-Idiots, lunatics, paupers, soldiers, sailors and marines in the U. S. service, men failing to pay poll tax, women.
- Washington -Idiots, lunatics, felons, Indians who have not severed tribal relations.
- West Virginia-Idiots, lunatics, felons, women.
- Wisconsin-Insane, felons, tribal Indians, women. (a)
- Wyoming -Idiots, insane, felons, persons unable to read State Constitution. (a) School suffrage granted certain classes of women subject to various restrictions. (c) Suffrage on taxation and bonding propositions granted certain classes of women subject to various restrictions. * Non-taxpayers are required to register yearly before June 30.
INFORMATION FOR SUFFRAGE WORKERS-HOW TO ORGANIZE
[Reprinted from Headquarters News Letter, Organ of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.]
1. HOW TO ORGANIZE A STATE............
2. HOW TO ORGANIZE A RURAL COUNTY ............
3. HOW TO ORGANIZE A VOTING PRECINCT ............
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION FOR SUFFRAGE WORKERS.......
LIST OF STATES WHICH HAVE THE INITIATIVE AND REFERENDUM ........
LIST OF PRO-SUFFRAGE PERIODICALS ...........