The 14th Amendment to the Constitution endows African American with citizenship.
The 15th Amendment of the Constitution provides African-American males with the right to vote.
Congress bans the admission of contract laborers.
Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court ruling that separate but equal accommodations for African Americans and whites were Constitutional; decision allows legalized segregation.
Congress makes annual immigration quotas permanent.
President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 8802: forbids discrimination in federal hiring, job-training programs, and defense industries.
The United States admits persons fleeing persecution in their native lands; allowing 205,000 refugees to enter within two years.
Immigration and Nationality Act: individuals of all races eligible for naturalization; reaffirms national origins quota system, limits immigration from Eastern Hemisphere; establishes preferences for skilled workers and relatives of U.S. citizens and permanent resident aliens; and tightens security and screening standards and procedures
Congress amends 1948 refugee policy to allow for the admission of 200,000 more refugees
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education: Supreme Court rules that separate but equal educational facilities were unconstitutional.
The Civil Rights Acts ensures voting rights; prohibits housing discrimination.
The Refugee Act redefines criteria and procedures for admitting refugees.
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) legalizes illegal aliens residing in the U.S. unlawfully since 1982
Congress bans the importation of slaves but slavery in the United States continues to grow.
Congress establishes reporting on immigration.
The Compromise of 1820 admits Maine and Missouri into the Union as a free and a slave state, respectively. This legislation also prohibited slavery in territories north of Missouri.
Abraham Lincoln takes the presidential oath of office; Southern Confederacy ratifies a new Constitution, elects Jefferson Davis as first Confederate president; Civil War begins.
The Union Army permits black men to enlist as laborers, cooks, teamsters, and servants.
The Emancipation Proclamation abolishes slavery, permits African American men to join the Union Army.
Congress legalizes the importation of contract laborers.