The two drums are made of metal and have tuneable skins stretched over the heads. The drums are played with dowel-like sticks but may also be played by the bare left hand.
Claves produce a bright clicking noise. They are sometimes hollow and carved in the middle to amplify the sound.
Bongos evolved from a set of drums used in religious ceremonies by certain tribes in Africa. They are played while held between the knees. They are traditionally played by striking with the fingers.
It is played by holding the güiro in the left hand with the thumb inserted into the back sound hole to keep the instrument in place. The right hand usually holds the scraper and plays the instrument. The Güiro produces a rhythmic, rasping sound.
The Conga was initially made from hollowed logs with cowhides nailed or strung on, and used by religious groups. They are usually played in sets of two to four with the fingers and palms of the hand.
Maracas are made from the fruit of the higuera tree so common throughout Puerto Rico. The fruit must be round and small. After taking out the pulp of the fruit through two holes that are bored through the dried shell, small pebbles are introduced into it.