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Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763
Establishing the Georgia Colony, 1732-1750
The Province of Georgia in 1740: Economic Progress and Indians

The following description of Georgia colony was published in a pamphlet titled "A State of the Province of Georgia." What are some of the economic accomplishments to which to author refers? How does author describe the towns in Georgia? What is the author's attitude toward the Indians in the region?

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THE Province of Georgia lies from the most Northern Stream of the River Savannah (the Mouth of which is in the Latitude of 32 Deg.) along the Sea-coast, to the most Southern Stream of the Alatamha (the Mouth of which is 301/2 Deg.) and Westward from the Heads of the said Rivers, respectively in direct Lines to the South Seas.

This Province was Part of South-Carolina; but the Eastern and Southern Parts of it, inhabited by the Creek-Indians; the Northern by the Cherokees and Chickesaws; the Western by the Chactaws; the Blewmouths, and other Indian Nations, to the South-Sea. The Creek-Indians, who always acknowledged the King of England for their Sovereign, yet made War with the People of Carolina, to obtain Satisfaction for Injuries done by their pedling Traders: The War was concluded by a Peace, which obliged the People of Carolina not to settle beyond the River Savannah; and no Englishman was settled within this District, that we know of, when the first Colony of Georgia arrived. The Country was then all covered with Woods. Mr. Oglethorpe agreed with the Indians, and purchased of them the Limits mentioned in the Treaty.

The Town of Savannah was laid out, and began to be built, in which are now 142 Houses, and good habitable Huts. The Soil in general, when cleared, is productive of Indian Corn, Rice, Peas, Potatoes, Pumpions, Melons, and many other Kinds of Gourds, in great Quantities; Wheat, Oats, Barley, and other European Grains, 'tis found by divers Experiments, may be propagated in many Parts (more especially in the Uplands toward Augusta) with Success. Mulberry-Trees and Vines agree exceeding well with the Soil and Climate, and so does the Annual Cotton, whereof large Quantities have been raised; and it is much planted: But the Cotton, which in some Parts is perennial, dies here in the Winter; which nevertheless the Annual is not inferior to in Goodness, but requires more Trouble in cleansing from the Seed. Cattle, Hogs, Poultry, and Fruit-Trees of most Kinds, have increased even beyond Imagination.

Ships of about three hundred Tons can come up to the Town, where the Worm (which is the Plague of the American Seas) does not eat; and the River is navigable for large Boats, as far as the Town of Augusta, which lies in the Latitude of 33 D. 5 M. and is 250 Miles distant from Savannah by Water; small Boats can go 300 Miles further, to the Cherokees.

There is already a considerable Trade in the River; and there is in this Town a Court-House, a Goal, a Store-House, a large House for receiving the Indians, a Wharf or Bridge, a Guard-House, and some other publick Buildings; a publick Garden of ten Acres cleared, fenced, and planted with Orange-Trees, Mulberry-Trees, Vines, some Olives, which thrive very well, Peaches, Apples, &c. . . .

Three Miles up the River there is an Indian Town, and at six Miles Distance are several considerable Plantations: At ten Miles Distance are some more, and at fifteen Miles Distance is a little Village, called Abercorn.

Above that, on the Carolina Side, is the Town of Purysburgh, twenty-two Miles from Savannah; and on the Georgia Side, twelve Miles from Purysburgh, is the Town of Ebenezer, which thrives very much; there are very good Houses built for each of the Ministers, and an Orphan-House; and they have partly framed Houses and partly Huts, neatly built, and formed into regular Streets; they have a great deal of Cattle and Corn-Ground, so that they sell Provisions at Savannah; for they raise much more than they can consume.

Thirty Miles above Ebenezer, on the Carolina Side, lies the Palachocolas Fort: Five Miles above the Palachocolas, on the Georgia Side, lies the Euchee Town (or Mount Pleasant) to which about a hundred Indians belong; but few of them stay now in the Town, they chusing rather to live dispersed. All the Land from Ebenezer to the River Briers, belongs to those Indians, who will not part with the same, therefore it cannot be planted. . . .

Seven Miles above New Windsor, on the Georgia Side, lies the Town of Augusta, just below the Falls; this was laid out by the Trustees Orders in the Year 1735, which has thriven prodigiously; there are several Warehouses thoroughly well furnished with Goods for the Indian Trade, and five large Boats belonging to the different Inhabitants of the Town, which can carry about nine or ten thousand Weight of Deer-Skins each, making four or five Voyages at least in a Year to Charles-Town, for exporting to England; and the Value of each Cargo is computed to be from 12 to 1500l. Sterling. Hither all the English Traders, with their Servants, resort in the Spring; and 'tis computed above two thousand Horses come thither at that Season; and the Traders, Packhorse-men, Servants, Townsmen, and others, depending upon that Business, are moderately computed to be six hundred white Men, who live by their Trade, carrying upon Packhorses all Kinds of proper English Goods; for which the Indians pay in Deer-Skins, Beaver, and other Furs; each Indian Hunter is reckoned to get three hundred Weight of Deer-Skins in a Year. This is a very advantageous Trade to England, since it is mostly paid for in Woollen and Iron.

Above this Town to the North-West, and on the Georgia Side of the River, the Cherokees live, in the Valley of the Appelachin Mountains; they were about five thousand Warriors; but last Year it is computed they lost a thousand, partly by the SmallPox, and partly (as they themselves say) by too much Rum brought from Carolina. The French are striving to get this Nation from us, which if they do, Carolina must be supported by a vast Number of Troops, or lost: But as long as we keep the Town of Augusta, our Party in the Cherokees can be so easily furnished with Arms, Ammunition and Necessaries, that the French will not be able to gain any Ground there.

The Creek Indians live to the Westward of this Town. Their chief Town is the Cowetas, two hundred Miles from Augusta and one hundred and twenty Miles from the nearest French Fort. The Lower Creeks consist of about a thousand, and the Upper Creeks of about seven hundred Warriors, upon the Edge of whose Country, the French Fort of Albamahs lies: They are esteemed to be sincerely attached to his Majesty's Interest.

Beyond the Creeks lie the brave Chikesaws, who inhabit near the Mississippi River, and possess the Banks of it; these have resisted both the Bribes and Arms of the French; and Traders sent by us live amongst them.

At Augusta there is a handsome Fort, where there is a small Garrison of about twelve or fifteen Men, besides Officers; and one Reason that drew the Traders to settle the Town of Augusta, was the Safety they received from this Fort, which stands upon high Ground on the Side of the River Savannah, which is there one hundred and forty Yards wide, and very deep; another Reason was the Richness and Fertility of the Land. The great Value of this Town of Augusta occasioned the General to have a Path marked out, through the Woods, from thence to Old Ebenezer; and the Cherokee Indians have marked out one from thence to their Nation, so that Horsemen now can ride from the Town of Savannah to the Nation of Cherokees, and any other of the Indian Nations, all on the Georgia Side of the River; but there are some bad Places which ought to be causewayed and made good, and which the General says he has not yet Capacity to do. This Road begins to be frequented, and will every Day be more and more so, and by it the Cherokee Indians can at any Time come down to our Assistance.
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