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Utah Core Standards, Grade 11

Library of Congress Classroom Materials
UT.UT. STANDARD / AREA OF LEARNING
UTAH STUDIES
UT.2. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
UTAH’S DIVERSE PEOPLES (Ca. 1847–1896)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The arrival of European immigrants in Utah launched a period of immigration, dramatic cultural change, and conflict among Utah’s many diverse peoples. This period begins with the Mormon migration, expansion of settlement in the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau, and accompanying political conflict, wars, and violence. After 1860 the development of mining and other industries created a complex economy and drew new immigrants to the state, increasing Utah’s religious and cultural diversity. Railroads became an important engine of social, cultural, political, and economic change. Utah’s transition from territory to state was long and difficult. By 1896 Utah had become deeply and increasingly interconnected with the nation and the world.
UT.2.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compare the causes and lasting effects of various non-Mormon groups’ migrations to Utah. (history) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.2.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use geographic inquiry to explain patterns in the settlement of Utah and the subsequent trends in urbanization, referring to a range of communities as case studies. (geography) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.2.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will research multiple perspectives to explain one or more of the political, social, cultural, religious conflicts of this period, including the U.S. Civil War and more localized conflicts such as the Utah War, the Mountain Meadows Massacre, the Bear River Massacre, the Black Hawk War, or other Federal-Mormon conflicts. (history) 2 Classroom materials:

UT.2.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will construct an evidence-based argument to explain how the development of transportation and communication networks across the state changed Utah’s economy and human geography. (economics, geography) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.2.6. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how agriculture, railroads, mining, and industrialization created new communities and new economies throughout the state. (economics, geography,) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.2.7. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the political challenges that delayed Utah’s statehood and explain how these challenges were overcome. (civics) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.2.8. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how their own connection to Utah is a reflection of the complex history of the state. (history) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.3. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
UTAH IN THE UNION (Ca. 1896–1945)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
In 1896, Utah became the forty-fifth state, with a newly ratified constitution and a mandate to create a state government. During the next half century, the interplay of national and global forces on Utah increased, from economic crises and industrialization to progressive reforms and two global wars. Utah’s human and physical geography influenced everything from the mining industry and labor movements to the placement of wartime infrastructure, including military bases and internment camps for Japanese Americans.
UT.3.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use primary sources and/or oral histories to analyze the impact of a national/global event such as World War I, the Spanish flu epidemic, the Great Depression, World War II, and Japanese American internment on an individual or community in Utah. (history) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.3.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will describe the effects of events, movements, and innovations on Utah’s economic development, such as the organized labor movement, farming and industrial improvements, the World Wars, and the Great Depression. (economics) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.3.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the causes and effects of the Progressive movement using examples from community or state history, such as the organized labor movement, tax reform, the Scofield mine disaster, and education and child labor reforms. (civics) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.4. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
UTAH IN THE WORLD (Ca. 1945–2002)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The post-war era saw massive cultural and economic changes. By the time Utah hosted the 2002 Olympics, the state was globally interconnected as never before. Utah’s economy and world-famous geography became inextricably linked with one another as the snow-sport and tourism industries developed. Industries including mining, agriculture, and technology continued to evolve and expand. Conversations and controversies continued regarding the best ways forward for economic growth, community development, and natural resource management. Additionally, Utah’s cultural landscape continued to evolve and diversify.
UT.4.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will evaluate the impact of the Cold War on Utah, such as the uranium boom, nuclear testing, nuclear waste storage and disposal, and the MX missile controversy. (history) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.4.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will make an evidence-based argument regarding the appropriate roles of local, state, and federal governments in resolving a current and/or historical issue. (civics) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.5. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
LOOKING TOWARDS UTAH’S FUTURE (Ca. 2003–Present)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
In the 21st century, central themes endure: the diffusion of cultures, global interconnectedness, the importance of creating and sustaining community, and the need for a strong economy. Most current events—whether they involve interactions between sovereign American Indian tribal communities and state and federal governments; concerns about water; tensions and questions about the proper role and jurisdiction of local, state, and federal governments; or ideas about how best to grow Utah’s economy—have their roots deeply embedded in the rich history of Utah. Students will now have an opportunity to synthesize their study of Utah with capstone academic work.
UT.5.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will select a recent event they think will be worthy of remembering, recording, or interpreting, and make an argument for its potential historical significance. (history) 1 Classroom materials:

UT.USI. STANDARD / AREA OF LEARNING
UNITED STATES HISTORY I
USI.1. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THREE WORLDS MEET (Prehistory–Ca. 1650)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Europe’s exploration of America had a profound impact on the world. For thousands of years, complex and sophisticated American Indian civilizations had flourished in the Americas, separated from other parts of the world by vast bodies of water. After Columbus’ arrival, the lands of the Western Hemisphere were forever connected to the rest of the world. The international slave trade forced millions of Africans to the Americas, bringing these “three worlds” together in unprecedented ways. Patterns of trade, exploration, conquest, and settlement have ramifications that continue to the present day.
USI.1.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will analyze evidence, including artifacts and other primary sources to make evidence-based inferences about life among several American Indian nations prior to European exploration of the Americas. 1 Classroom materials:

USI.1.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compare and evaluate historians’ interpretations of the motivations and conditions that led to European exploration. 10 Classroom materials:

USI.1.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will draw from multiple perspectives and cite evidence to explain the effects of European exploration, specifically on Africa, the Caribbean, and North and South America. 15 Classroom materials:

USI.1.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify how the period of exploration has affected the current human geography of the Americas, and in particular the role their own cultural background has played. 5 Classroom materials:

USI.2. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
COLONIZATION (Ca. 1565–1776)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Driven by economic, religious, and political opportunities, colonial powers from Europe established footholds, then empires in North America. Many colonists fled poverty or persecution to start new lives in an unfamiliar land. Africans were enslaved and brought to the Americas against their will. Interactions between colonists and the indigenous peoples living in North America added complexity to the colonies. Geographic and cultural factors influenced where colonists settled and how they lived. Sectional and regional differences emerged that would affect American history. Patterns established within the English colonies on the Eastern seaboard would shape many of the dominant political, economic, linguistic, and religious traditions of the United States.
USI.2.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the economic, social, and geographic factors that influenced the colonization efforts of the Dutch, English, French, and Spanish. 19 Classroom materials:

USI.2.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compare and contrast the economic, political, and social patterns evident in the development of the 13 English colonies. 15 Classroom materials:

USI.2.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use primary sources as evidence to contrast the daily life and contexts of individuals of various classes and conditions in and near the English colonies, such as gentry, planters, women, indentured servants, African slaves, landowners, and American Indians. 3 Classroom materials:

USI.2.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain historic and modern regional differences that had their origins in the colonial period, such as the institution of slavery; patterns of life in urban and rural areas; differences between the French continental interior, Spanish southwest, and English northeast; and the location of manufacturing centers. 23 Classroom materials:

USI.3. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (Ca. 1754–1787)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Enlightened ideas from both sides of the Atlantic, coupled with world events and British policies, led many to question the common sense of the relationship between the American colonies and Britain. Over time, many colonists who had viewed themselves as loyal subjects of the king began to support an independence movement that would result in war, the formation of the United States of America, and the ratification of a unique Constitution. The contributions of Adams, Jefferson, Washington, Hamilton, Madison, and other Founding Fathers, as well as those of men and women of all social classes and conditions, were vital in achieving independence and creating a new nation.
USI.3.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use primary sources to identify the significant events, ideas, people, and methods used to justify or resist the Revolutionary movement. 16 Classroom materials:

USI.3.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compare and evaluate historians’ interpretations of the significant historical events and factors affecting the course of the war and contributing to American victory. 15 Classroom materials:

USI.3.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use primary sources to compare the contributions of key people and groups to the Revolution, such as Paul Revere, Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, the Sons and Daughters of Liberty, and Thomas Jefferson. 1 Classroom materials:

USI.3.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how the ideas and events of the American Revolution continue to shape American identity. 14 Classroom materials:

USI.4. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE U. S. CONSTITUTION (Ca. 1781–1789)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
American independence brought with it the need for self-government. Dissatisfaction with inadequate early political structures led to the creation of the Constitution. The Constitutional Convention brought together the greatest political minds of the fledgling nation. Through debate and compromise, the Founding Fathers brought together in a unique way the principles and philosophies that had been theorized and tested for centuries. The Bill of Rights was then added, enumerating the rights of American citizens. In the end, the Constitution and Bill of Rights created the structure of a government that has functioned, survived crises, and evolved for over two centuries, affecting the life of every citizen today.
USI.4.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how the ideas, events, and compromises which led to the development and ratification of the Constitution are reflected in the document itself. 14 Classroom materials:

USI.4.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will describe the structure and function of the government that the Constitution creates. 7 Classroom materials:

USI.4.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use historic case studies and current events to trace how and explain why the rights, liberties, and responsibilities of citizens have changed over time. 2 Classroom materials:

USI.4.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use evidence to explain how the Constitution is a transformative document that contributed to American exceptionalism. 9 Classroom materials:

USI.5. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND PROCESSES (Ca. 1783–1861)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The United States’ constitutional republic and the political systems that Americans are familiar with took shape as the Constitution was interpreted and applied. Reformers have worked to ensure that increasing numbers and classes of people enjoy the rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. Opposing political parties have worked to mold the leadership, laws, and policies of the new nation in order to fit their vision of America. The first half of the nineteenth century was rich with examples of these organizing efforts that have set precedents still followed in the 21st century.
USI.5.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use evidence to document the development and evolution of the American political party system and explain the historic and current roles of political parties. 4 Classroom materials:

USI.5.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the conditions that gave rise to, and evaluate the impact of, social and political reform movements such as Jacksonian Democracy, the women’s rights movement, the Abolitionist movement, and anti-immigration reform. 67 Classroom materials:

USI.5.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use case studies to document the expansion of democratic principles and rights over time. 1 Classroom materials:

USI.6. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
EXPANSION (Ca. 1783–1890)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The territorial expansion of the United States created challenges and opportunities for the young nation. Significant advances in industrial technology, discoveries of vast natural resources, a series of gold rushes, visions of the destiny of the nation, continuing conflicts between American Indians and settlers, disagreements between slave states and free states, and a number of push and pull factors influenced territorial expansion. The physical, political, and human geography of the United States today reflects, in part, the 19th century expansion of the nation.
USI.6.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compare and contrast historians’ interpretations of the ideas, resources, and events that motivated the territorial expansion of the United States. 19 Classroom materials:

USI.6.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use primary sources representing multiple perspectives to interpret conflicts that arose during American expansion, especially as American Indians were forced from their traditional lands and as tensions grew over free and slave holding territory. 35 Classroom materials:

USI.6.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the economic and geographic impact of the early Industrial Revolution’s new inventions and transportation methods, such as the Erie Canal, the transcontinental railroad, steam engines, the telegraph, the cotton gin, and interchangeable parts. 4 Classroom materials:

USI.6.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will make a case for the most significant cultural, political, and economic impacts of territorial and/or industrial expansion. 41 Classroom materials:

USI.7. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (Ca. 1820–1877)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Trends that started with the earliest colonization of America grew into sectional conflicts, and by the election of Lincoln in 1860 the nation was on the brink of civil war. The war had a profound impact on American society and American identity. Events leading to the war and the heavy toll of the war created a severely fractured America. The period of Reconstruction started the process of mending, but created new controversies as concepts of equality, democracy, and citizenship were redefined. The Civil War era and Reconstruction are important aspects of U.S. history, essential to understanding modern America, including race relations and inequality.
USI.7.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how slavery and other geographic, social, economic, and political differences between the North, South, and West led to the Civil War. 24 Classroom materials:

USI.7.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use evidence to interpret the factors that were most significant in shaping the course of the war and the Union victory, such as the leadership of Lincoln, Grant, and Lee; the role of industry; demographics; and military strategies. 38 Classroom materials:

USI.7.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compare historians’ interpretations of the competing goals of Reconstruction and why many of those goals were left unrealized. 24 Classroom materials:

USI.7.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use current events to evaluate the implications of the Civil War and Reconstruction for contemporary American life. 43 Classroom materials:

UT.WG. STANDARD / AREA OF LEARNING
WORLD GEOGRAPHY
WG.1. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
HUMANS AND THEIR PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The earth’s physical environment varies greatly from place to place. The interactions between physical systems and human systems create opportunities and challenges for people and places. The implications of these interactions affect both physical systems and human systems.
WG.1.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will cite evidence of how the distribution of natural resources affects physical and human systems. 1 Classroom materials:

WG.1.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use geographic reasoning to propose actions that mitigate or solve issues, such as natural disasters, pollution, climate change, and habitat loss. 2 Classroom materials:

WG.2. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND MIGRATION
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The movement and distribution of people is influenced by many factors, including environmental, cultural, economic, and geopolitical forces. These migration trends alter geographic conditions. Geographers use data to understand population distribution and migration by looking at population characteristics, push and pull factors, and numerous other variables. Analyzing this data offers an opportunity to examine complex and challenging real-world issues.
WG.2.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will evaluate the impact of population distribution patterns at various scales by analyzing and comparing demographic characteristics such as gender, age, ethnicity, and population density using maps, population pyramids, and other geographic data. 2 Classroom materials:

WG.2.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain push and pull factors causing voluntary and involuntary migration and the consequences created by the movement of people. 20 Classroom materials:

WG.2.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will investigate the effects of significant patterns of human movement that shape urban and rural environments over time, such as mass urbanization, immigration, and the movement of refugees. 21 Classroom materials:

WG.3. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
CULTURE
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Culture is the total sum of human expression. A culture’s purpose, as well as how and where cultures originate, diffuse, and change, are all topics worth studying. Students will explore religion, language, ethnicity and other cultural characteristics by looking at patterns and processes. As students explore what people care about and care for, they can learn not only about other cultures but also about the unique attributes of their own culture.
WG.3.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify and describe the essential defining characteristics and functions of culture. 13 Classroom materials:

WG.3.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how the physical environment influences and is influenced by culture. 5 Classroom materials:

WG.3.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify how culture influences sense of place, point of view and perspective, and the relative value placed upon people and places. 9 Classroom materials:

WG.3.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the causes, methods, and effects for the diffusion and distribution of cultural characteristics among different places and regions. 5 Classroom materials:

WG.3.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how the basic tenets of world religions affect the daily lives of people. 2 Classroom materials:

WG.4. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
POLITICAL SYSTEMS
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
People organize themselves into distinctive groups. Geographers examine how the interactions between these groups influence the division and control of the earth’s surface. Political systems have profound influences on the lives of people, including their access to resources, economic opportunities, and basic rights.
WG.4.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will describe and explain the role physical and human characteristics play in establishing political boundaries. 7 Classroom materials:

WG.4.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how cooperation and conflict have many causes, such as differing ideas regarding boundaries, resource control, and land use, as well as ethnic, tribal, and national identities. 4 Classroom materials:

WG.5. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Humans have created complex and varied economic systems. These systems, whether based on free markets or other structures, have various levels of development, infrastructure, and divisions of labor. Economic systems are influenced by their unique landscapes and resources, and their locations influence patterns of interconnections with other economic systems. Geographers can use the insights they learn about economic development to identify patterns or propose solutions to complex issues.
WG.5.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain key economic concepts and their implications for the production, exchange, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. 2 Classroom materials:

WG.5.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will describe the costs, benefits, and sustainability of development in terms of poverty rates, standards of living, the impact on indigenous people, environmental changes, gender equality, and access to education. 2 Classroom materials:

UT.WH. STANDARD / AREA OF LEARNING
WORLD HISTORY
WH.1. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
PREHISTORY TO THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION (Ca. 150,000 B.C.E.–1,000 B.C.E.)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The advent of farming, sometimes referred to as the Neolithic Revolution, changed the world in profound ways. The transition from procuring to producing food altered the genetic structure of plants and animals. Some societies became sedentary. Inequalities between individuals and societies grew. Land ownership became more important. Specialization and trade became possible. Large-scale warfare became more common. Written records were needed. The changes that resulted from farming created a substantially different world, leading to the formation of the first civilizations and shaping world history.
WH.1.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use artifacts and early written records to make inferences about the significance of technological development and diffusion, including writing, in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River civilization, and the Huang He (Yellow) River civilization. 2 Classroom materials:

WH.2. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE RISE OF CLASSICAL SOCIETIES (Ca. 1000 B.C.E.–900 C.E.)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The classical civilizations of the Mediterranean (Egypt, ancient Israel, Greece, and Rome), Persia, China, India, and other regions have had a significant impact on global belief systems, legal systems, governments, culture, and social systems. Some developed vast empires, consolidating government power in revolutionary and influential structures. Emerging contacts between civilization centers began the diffusion of ideas and technologies. Classical civilizations rose and fell under remarkably similar circumstances, exhibiting global patterns.
WH.2.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify and explain patterns in the development and diffusion and syncretism of world religions and philosophies, including Judaism, Hinduism, Greek philosophy, Confucianism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. 2 Classroom materials:

WH.2.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain the impact of early trans-regional trade on the diffusion of religion, ideas, technology, and other aspects of culture. 1 Classroom materials:

WH.2.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will construct an argument for the significant and enduring political, economic, technological, social, or other cultural contributions of classical civilizations. 1 Classroom materials:

WH.3. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
AN AGE OF EXPANDING CONNECTIONS (Ca. 500 C.E.–1450 C.E.)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The collapse of classical civilizations ushered in an era of unprecedented connection, sometimes referred to as the post-classical period. The fall of some civilizations opened opportunities for the growth of others, most notably the Islamic world. This era brought increasing oceanic and land trade in trans-regional networks. Civilization spread from its traditional centers as powerful states emerged in Japan, the Asian steppes, Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia, and other locations. In spite of their relative isolations, civilizations flourished in the Americas.
WH.3.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use patterns in trade and settlement to explain how geographic features such as the Indian Ocean, the Saharan Desert, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Strait of Malacca, and the Mediterranean Sea supported or impeded trade. 1 Classroom materials:

WH.4. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
GLOBAL INTERACTIONS (Ca. 1400 C.E.–1750 C.E.)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
During what is sometimes referred to as the early modern period, the balance of global power shifted toward Europe. Europeans gained increasing control of international trade routes. European exploration led to the inclusion of the formerly isolated Americas and Oceanic regions in global systems. Global connections brought drastic environmental and social changes.
WH.4.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compare the development of Europe’s maritime empires with land-based empires such as those of the Ottoman Turks, Chinese, and Russians. 1 Classroom materials:

WH.4.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will describe the complex cultures of indigenous societies, such as those in Polynesia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Australia, and the Americas. 7 Classroom materials:

WH.4.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compile and corroborate primary sources as evidence to explain the impact of global exchange and colonization. 4 Classroom materials:

WH.5. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
REVOLUTIONS, INDUSTRIALIZATION, AND EMPIRES (Ca. 1750 C.E.–1914 C.E.)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The era between 1750 and 1914 was filled with scientific, industrial, intellectual, cultural, technological, and political revolutions. The Industrial Revolution raised the standard of living for many, but also expanded inequalities between and within nations. New ideas about the role of government and national identities led to political innovation, with revolutions and independence movements occurring in North America, Latin America, and France. Elsewhere, earlier trends in colonization continued and intensified, with colonial empires integrating nearly all societies. Human migration occurred on a massive scale as demographic trends shifted, slavery declined, and industrialized centers demanded workers.
WH.5.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the cause-and-effect relationships between absolutism, nationalism, and the political and social revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. 2 Classroom materials:

WH.5.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will analyze the underlying and immediate causes and the immediate and long-term effects of the Industrial Revolution on nations that industrialized versus those that did not. 26 Classroom materials:

WH.5.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use a variety of data to identify push and pull factors affecting migration during the Industrial Revolution. 47 Classroom materials:

WH.5.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use primary sources and evidence to evaluate the influence of leading intellectual movements such as realism, romanticism, capitalism, nationalism, and Marxism. 1 Classroom materials:

WH.5.6. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the key ideas and characteristics of current political, economic, and intellectual revolutions such as a contemporary revolution, a social movement, or an independence movement. 51 Classroom materials:

WH.6. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
GLOBAL CONFLICTS (Ca. 1914 C.E.–1989 C.E.)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Conditions introduced in earlier centuries led to total and industrialized war on a global scale in the 20th century. A global economic depression demonstrated the interconnectedness of nations and their colonies. Extremism led to genocides on an unprecedented scale. Intellectuals and artists attempted to make sense of the changing world. European colonies in Africa and Asia took advantage of global trends to demand, and in many cases achieve, independence. Many African and Latin American nations struggled to free themselves from the legacies of imperialism within the context of the Cold War. The postwar era saw early shifts in power to two superpowers.
WH.6.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify cause and effect relationships between World War I, the global Great Depression, and World War II. 38 Classroom materials:

WH.6.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify and compare patterns and tactics of othering and demonization that are evident in selected genocides in the 20th century. 2 Classroom materials:

WH.6.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use case studies to identify the reach and implications of the Cold War for daily life, such as the Vietnam War, the Great Leap Forward, the Berlin Wall, East and West Germany, NATO, the Warsaw Pact, proxy wars, music, culture, and the Olympics. 5 Classroom materials:

WH.6.6. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will make a case for the most significant social, political, and economic consequences of 20th century global conflicts and crises, such as human migration, genocide, poverty, epidemics, the creation of social welfare systems, the rise of dictators, the nuclear arms race, and human rights violations. 12 Classroom materials:

WH.7. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD (Ca. 1990 C.E.–Present)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The proximity of the recent past can make it difficult to see patterns or to identify the most significant events; however, many of the trends evident throughout history continue in the contemporary world. Recent history has seen greater globalization with the formation of worldwide organizations, multinational corporations and a global culture. New threats such as terrorism, compounded by the struggles of unstable governments, demographic trends, and environmental catastrophes create humanitarian crises. Technological development, industrialization in new areas, and new farming technologies (i.e., the Green Revolution) provide hope for solutions to pressing global problems.
WH.7.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will evaluate the role of global organizations, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), multi-national corporations, military alliances, and other international civic and political institutions within the increasingly global culture of the world. 2 Classroom materials:

WH.7.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use a variety of evidence, including quantitative data, to evaluate the social and environmental impacts of modern demographic trends, particularly population changes, urbanization, and migration. 1 Classroom materials:

WH.7.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify a pressing global problem and select the most promising political, technological, medical, or scientific advances being created to address those problems. 1 Classroom materials:

UT.USII. STANDARD / AREA OF LEARNING
UNITED STATES HISTORY II
USII.1. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
INDUSTRIALIZATION (Ca. 1880–1920)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The Industrial Revolution radically changed the daily lives of Americans. The immense industrial growth in the 19th century was fueled by technological innovations, abundant natural resources, and a large unskilled labor force. Migration, urbanization, and immigration are trends that continue into contemporary times.
USII.1.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will assess how innovations in transportation, science, agriculture, manufacturing, technology, communication, and marketing transformed America in the 19th and early 20th centuries. 39 Classroom materials:

USII.1.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain the connections between the growth of industry, mining, and agriculture and the movement of people into and within the United States. 54 Classroom materials:

USII.1.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will analyze the causal relationships between industrialization and the challenges faced by the growing working classes in urban settings. 37 Classroom materials:

USII.1.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use historical evidence to compare how industrial capitalist leaders used entrepreneurship, free markets, and strategies to build their businesses. 3 Classroom materials:

USII.2. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
REFORM MOVEMENTS (Ca. 1880–1920)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Industrialization and urbanization changed American society in fundamental ways. Reform movements grew in response to these new realities. Urban settings made it easier for people to organize reform movements and recruit new members. The women’s suffrage movement, the Progressive movement, the rise of the temperance movement, and the growth of a number of additional labor, health, and educational reform movements developed as individuals and groups worked to solve society’s new challenges.
USII.2.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use primary and secondary sources to identify and explain the conditions that led to the rise of reform movements, such as organized labor, suffrage, and temperance. 32 Classroom materials:

USII.2.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how social reform movements influenced Constitutional amendments and changes to laws and democratic processes. 12 Classroom materials:

USII.2.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will evaluate the methods reformers used to bring about change, such as imagery, unions, associations, writings, ballot initiatives, recalls, and referendums. 27 Classroom materials:

USII.2.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will evaluate the short- and long-term accomplishments and effectiveness of social, economic, and political reform movements. 27 Classroom materials:

USII.3. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
AMERICA ON THE GLOBAL STAGE (Ca. 1890–1920)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
By the end of the 19th century, global and domestic events led the U.S. to reconsider the advantages of isolation versus intervention in world affairs. The U.S. increased its role in the world and became enmeshed in global conflicts. Decisions related to isolationism and interventionism continue to be made today.
USII.3.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will describe how the role of the U.S. in world affairs changed at the turn of the 20th century, and evaluate the arguments used to promote or discourage involvement in world affairs, such as those of the “big stick,” Mahan, the Roosevelt Corollary, and the Antiimperialist League. 12 Classroom materials:

USII.3.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will examine and evaluate the role of the media and propaganda in promoting involvement in foreign affairs, using events such as the Spanish American War and World War I. 31 Classroom materials:

USII.3.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will evaluate the positive and negative impacts of imperialism on the U.S. and the U.S. territorial interests, such as the Philippines, Cuba, Guam, Hawaii, Panama, and Puerto Rico. 6 Classroom materials:

USII.3.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain the causes for U.S. involvement in World War I and the effects of the war on the home front, such as migration, trade, sedition act, shortages, voluntary rationing, and the Spanish flu. 22 Classroom materials:

USII.4. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
TRADITIONS AND SOCIAL CHANGE (Ca. 1920–1970)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Traditions and cultural norms help bind people and nations together; sometimes, those holding fast to traditions find themselves in tension with others who push for reform. The 20th century was a time when these tensions were evident in many aspects of American culture, including the changes in social mores in the “roaring ‘20s” and the subsequent emergence and ascendency of social change and civil rights movements. Various counter-cultural movements have similarly questioned traditional values and governmental policies. Balancing tradition and reform continues to challenge Americans into the 21st century.
USII.4.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will develop and defend an interpretation of why cultural clashes occurred in the 1920s, citing examples such as science vs. religion, rural vs. urban, Prohibition proponents vs. opponents, and nativism vs. immigration. 4 Classroom materials:

USII.4.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use case studies involving African-American civil rights leaders and events to compare, contrast, and evaluate the effectiveness of various methods used to achieve reform, such as civil disobedience, legal strategies, and political organizing. 4 Classroom materials:

USII.4.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will identify the civil rights objectives held by various groups, assess the strategies used, and evaluate the success of the various civil rights movements in reaching their objectives, paying specific attention to American Indian, women, and other racial and ethnic minorities. 15 Classroom materials:

USII.5. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
ECONOMIC BOOM, BUST, AND THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT (Ca. 1920–1940)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Economic cycles of expansion and contraction have had a profound impact on the lives of Americans. There have been a number of economic crises throughout U.S. history, but the Great Depression and the New Deal have had the most significant impact on redefining the role of the government in economic and social policy. The arguments for and against intervention continue to reverberate to the current day.
USII.5.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will investigate how individual and institutional decisions made during the 1920s, such as over-production, buying on credit, poor banking policies, and stock market speculation helped lead to the boom of the 1920s and then the Great Depression. 20 Classroom materials:

USII.5.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use evidence to investigate the effectiveness of the New Deal as a response to economic crises. 21 Classroom materials:

USII.5.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how economic and environmental conditions, including the Dust Bowl, affected daily life and demographic trends during the Great Depression. 16 Classroom materials:

USII.5.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will craft an argument regarding the role of government in responding to economic conditions after learning about capitalism and other economic systems, historic cycles of boom and bust, and the New Deal. 21 Classroom materials:

USII.6. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
ANOTHER GLOBAL CONFLICT AND THE BEGINNINGS OF THE COLD WAR (Ca. 1930–1950)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
World War II transformed American society and redefined the United States’ role in global affairs. The war produced unprecedented levels of violence and human suffering. On the home front, trends both during and after the war would shape American society into the 21st century. The post-war era saw America emerge as one of two superpowers, engaged in a global “cold war” with the Soviet Union. This Cold War had implications for America both at home and abroad.
USII.6.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will assess the causes and consequences of America’s shift from isolationism to interventionism in the years leading up to World War II. 18 Classroom materials:

USII.6.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use primary sources to describe the impact of World War II on the home front and the long-term social changes that resulted from the war, such as the baby boom, women in the workplace, and teenage culture. 18 Classroom materials:

USII.6.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will cite and compare historical arguments from multiple perspectives regarding the use of “total war” in World War II, focusing on the changing objectives, weapons, tactics, and rules of war, such as carpet bombing, civilian targets, the Holocaust, and the development and use of the atom bomb. 16 Classroom materials:

USII.6.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will research and prioritize the most significant events in the United States and the USSR’s transition from World War II allies to Cold War enemies and superpowers. 5 Classroom materials:

USII.6.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will evaluate the impact of using international economic aid and diplomacy to secure national interests, specifically citing case studies of America’s investment in war-torn nations following the war, such as the Marshall Plan and the Berlin Airlift. 2 Classroom materials:

USII.7. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE COLD WAR ERA AND A CHANGING AMERICA (Ca. 1950–2000)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Cold War ideologies have shaped American life and influenced foreign policy since the middle of the 20th century. Cold War rivalries escalated into hot wars in Korea and Vietnam. Alliances led to proxy wars in a number of contested areas. An arms race escalated fears. Eventually, American and Soviet leaders eased Cold War tensions, and the Soviet Union dissolved, ushering in a period of uncertainty in global affairs. American interests in the Middle East have complicated international policies. Differing political philosophies spurred debates over the size and role of government. Throughout the era, American society, education, culture, and politics were shaped by Cold War tensions, technological developments, and changing demographics.
USII.7.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will compare the causes, major events, military tactics, and outcomes of the Korean and Vietnam Wars. 5 Classroom materials:

USII.7.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use government documents and other primary sources to investigate the motives behind a Cold War policy, event, or foreign operation, such as Truman Doctrine, containment, the domino theory, the Korean conflict, the Bay of Pigs invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, and Olympic boycotts. 8 Classroom materials:

USII.7.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will develop interpretations of the impact of the Cold War on American society and culture using evidence such as cultural artifacts from the Cold War era, oral histories, and primary sources. 3 Classroom materials:

USII.7.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how Reagan’s neo-conservatism differed from the policies of previous presidential administrations of this era, most notably Johnson’s Great Society. 6 Classroom materials:

USII.7.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use evidence to demonstrate how technological developments (such as television and social media), government policies (such as Supreme Court decisions), trends (such as rock ‘n’ roll or environmental conservation), and/or demographic changes (such as the growth of suburbs and modern immigration) have influenced American culture. 15 Classroom materials:

USII.7.6. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use historical events and trends associated with American policies toward Israel and Middle Eastern nations and groups to make suggestions for current policies. 1 Classroom materials:

USII.8. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE 21ST CENTURY UNITED STATES (Ca. 2000–Present)
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The United States continues to confront social, political, and economic changes. The “War on Terror,” new threats from old rivals, and international humanitarian needs dominate foreign affairs. Continuing political themes surface in current events. Economic inequalities, racial tensions, environmental issues, and immigration and social reforms dominate domestic concerns. In addition, emerging technologies and innovations hold great promise, and the creativity and civic engagement of Americans continues to thrive. The next chapter in the story of the United States awaits.
USII.8.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will select the most historically significant events of the 21st century and defend their selection. 3 Classroom materials:

USII.8.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will apply historical perspective and historical thinking skills to propose a viable solution to a pressing economic, environmental, or social issue, such as failing social security, economic inequalities, the national debt, oil dependence, water shortages, global climate change, pandemics, pollution, global terrorism, poverty, and immigration. 7 Classroom materials:

USII.8.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use evidence from recent events and historical precedents to make a case for the most significant opportunities the country will have in the future. 3 Classroom materials:

UT.USG. STANDARD / AREA OF LEARNING
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND CITIZENSHIP
USG.1. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
FOUNDATIONAL PRINCIPLES
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The framework of the United States Constitution and the functions of government are guided by principles essential for our way of life. An understanding of how these principles are applied in the rule of law, government, and politics is vital in order to be a responsible and effective citizen. Students need to be able to see how the ideals found in the Constitution are present in many of the issues of the day.
USG.1.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how documents, challenges, events, and ideas such as the rule of law, the social contract, compromise, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, Shays’ Rebellion, and the Federalist Papers significantly influenced the United States Constitution. 22 Classroom materials:

USG.1.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will describe the structure of the United States’ form of government as a compound constitutional republic, including the ideas of federalism; checks and balances; separation of powers; commerce, elastic, and supremacy clauses; popular sovereignty; and limited government. 4 Classroom materials:

USG.1.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain the organization, functions, and processes of the United States government, such as the purpose of the President’s cabinet, the function of judicial review, and how a bill becomes a law, and apply that understanding to current issues. 3 Classroom materials:

USG.2. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
CIVIL LIBERTIES, CIVIL RIGHTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
American citizenship brings with it civil liberties, civil rights, and responsibilities. Students must know their rights and responsibilities and understand the extent of those rights. Students should be able to defend their own rights and the rights of others, understanding that the Constitution and its amendments extend protections to individuals who may not share their views. Our nation’s future rests on the ability and willingness of every generation to fulfill their civic responsibilities.
USG.2.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use historic and modern case studies, including Supreme Court cases, amendment initiatives, and legislation to trace the application of civil liberties, civil rights, and responsibilities spelled out in the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and other amendments. 6 Classroom materials:

USG.2.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will examine various perspectives on a current rights-related issue; take a position; defend that position using the Constitution and Bill of Rights, historical precedents, Supreme Court decisions, and other relevant resources; and share that position, when possible, with relevant stakeholders. 12 Classroom materials:

USG.2.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain the purpose and importance of fulfilling civic responsibilities, including serving on juries; voting; serving on boards, councils, and commissions; remaining well-informed; contacting elected officials; and other duties associated with active citizenship. 3 Classroom materials:

USG.3. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
DISTRIBUTION OF POWER
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
The Constitution distributes authority between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Additionally, power embedded in the federalist system, or compound constitutional republic, is distributed between the federal, state, and local governments. American Indian tribal governments maintain a unique relationship with other levels and branches of government, adding yet another dimension for consideration. Finally, individuals and groups use a range of strategies and methods for wielding their own political power.
USG.3.1. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain the distribution of power among national, state, tribal, and local governments in order to identify how needs are met by governance systems. 3 Classroom materials:

USG.3.3. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain the processes and motivations for how and why people organize to participate in civic society, such as developing political affiliations, joining political parties, and supporting special interest groups and other non-governmental or non-partisan civic organizations, and evaluate the political impact of those affiliations. 1 Classroom materials:

USG.3.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will use data to evaluate election results and explain election processes and strategies. 2 Classroom materials:

USG.3.5. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how the individual roles of the members of the President’s cabinet are designed to meet various purposes in government. 1 Classroom materials:

USG.3.6. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how the administrative rulemaking process functions within the federal system and the extent and impact of these rules. 1 Classroom materials:

USG.4. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
FISCAL POLICIES AND DECISIONS
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Fiscal policies can have profound implications in the daily lives of citizens. An essential component of understanding government and civics rests in deliberating government’s role in the economy. Informed citizens understand taxation, budgets, and debt as these concepts relate to the government. Students use this understanding of basic economic principles to make informed decisions, knowing that economic policies are a reflection of economic philosophies and values.
USG.4.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will explain how government services and other budget priorities are funded through various forms of revenue streams, such as fees, bonding, and regressive and progressive taxes, including property taxes, income taxes, and sales taxes. 1 Classroom materials:

USG.5. OBJECTIVE / STRAND
THE U.S. AND OUR RELATIONSHIP TO THE WORLD
INDICATOR / CLUSTER
As a global superpower with an enormous influence on other nations, it is vital to understand the ways in which the U.S. interacts with the world. Whether through negotiating trade agreements, protecting the security of this nation and its allies, cooperating in humanitarian campaigns, creating infrastructure to handle immigration and refugee demands, or any number of other initiatives, this nation has significant interrelationships with other countries and international bodies. These complex relationships deserve study if students are to understand the global implications of decisions made by leaders and policymakers.
USG.5.2. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will analyze the justification for, and effectiveness of, specific foreign policy positions, such as military intervention, isolationism, alliance formation, economic sanctions, or other security measures. 11 Classroom materials:

USG.5.4. EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Students will craft an argument for an appropriate role for the United States to take in addressing a global economic, environmental, or social issue such as humanitarian aid, migration, pandemics, or the loss of wildlife habitat. 7 Classroom materials:

UT.CC.RH.11-12. STANDARD / AREA OF LEARNING
Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies
OBJECTIVE / STRAND
Key Ideas and Details
RH.11-12.1. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole. 287 Classroom materials:

RH.11-12.2. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. 292 Classroom materials:

RH.11-12.3. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain. 176 Classroom materials:

OBJECTIVE / STRAND
Craft and Structure
RH.11-12.4. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10). 8 Classroom materials:

RH.11-12.5. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole. 286 Classroom materials:

RH.11-12.6. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Evaluate authors' differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors' claims, reasoning, and evidence. 13 Classroom materials:

OBJECTIVE / STRAND
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
RH.11-12.7. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem. 292 Classroom materials:

RH.11-12.8. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Evaluate an author's premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information. 13 Classroom materials:

RH.11-12.9. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources. 287 Classroom materials:

OBJECTIVE / STRAND
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
RH.11-12.10. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11-12 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 176 Classroom materials:

UT.CC.WHST.11-12. STANDARD / AREA OF LEARNING
Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies
OBJECTIVE / STRAND
Text Types and Purposes
WHST.11-12.1. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
WHST.11-12.1(c) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.1(d) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.1(e) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.2. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.11-12.2(a) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.2(b) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic. 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.2(c) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.2(d) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers. 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.2(e) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic). 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.3. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
(See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
WHST.11-12.3(a) EXPECTATION / STANDARD
Note: Students' narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into arguments and informative/explanatory texts. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of historical import. 14 Classroom materials:

OBJECTIVE / STRAND
Production and Distribution of Writing
WHST.11-12.4. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 14 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.5. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. 14 Classroom materials:

OBJECTIVE / STRAND
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
WHST.11-12.7. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 277 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.8. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. 278 Classroom materials:

WHST.11-12.9. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 291 Classroom materials:

OBJECTIVE / STRAND
Range of Writing
WHST.11-12.10. INDICATOR / CLUSTER
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 14 Classroom materials: