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APA

Entire Web Site

The Web site of the Library of Congress connects users to content areas created by the Library’s many experts. In some cases, content can be posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including the URL and retrieval date for references when the content changes over time.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

“When citing an entire website of page, and not any document in particular on that website it is sufficient to give the address of the site in the text (no reference list entry is needed).

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Articles and Essays

Special presentations, articles, and essays include examples that illustrate collection themes. Many collections include specific items, such as timelines, family trees or scholarly essays, which are not primary source documents. Such content has been created to enhance understanding of the collection.

This timeline of the Wright Brothers can be found in The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers at the Library of Congress.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first initial, middle initial (if given).
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of item (italicized) with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  4. Description of format (in brackets) [timeline, collection, etc.].
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date) Title of work. [Format.] Retrieved by http://...

Example:
The Wilbur and Orville Wright timeline, 1867-1948 [Timeline]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/collections/wilbur-and-orville-wright-papers/articles-and-essays/the-wilbur-and-orville-wright-timeline-1846-to-1948/.

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Cartoons and Illustrations

Cartoons and illustrations included in newspapers, magazines or other periodicals often represent the historical perspectives and opinions of the time of publication. This illustration, Join or Die from the May 9, 1754 Pennsylvania Gazette, was published by Benjamin Franklin and expresses his views about the need for the colonies to join forces to confront their mutual concerns with England.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

  1. Author’s or creator’s last name, first initial, middle initial (if given).
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of document italicized if it is a stand-alone document no italics or quotations if it is part of a larger work, with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  4. Description of form (in brackets) [cartoon or illustration].
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial Middle initial. Title of work. [Description of format]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Franklin, B. (1754, May 9). Join or die [Illustration]. Retrieved from http://loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695523/.

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Films

Black-and-white actuality film collections from the turn of the century are included in the Library of Congress online collections.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

  1. Creator’s last name, first name, middle initial (or filmographer’s name if no director is specified, but indicate role).
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of film (in italics)
  4. Description of form (in brackets) [film, filmstrip, 35mm film].
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Title of work [Format]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Armitage, F. S., photographer. (1905). Bargain day, 14th Street, New York [35 mm film]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/item/00694373.

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Government Publications

An excerpt from pages 747 & 748 of the Annals of Congress

An excerpt from pages 747 & 748 of the Annals of Congress

Many government publications originate through executive departments, federal agencies, and the United States Congress. Many of the documents are chronicled records of government proceedings, which become part of the Congressional Record. These documents are often posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of document without italics or quotations.
  4. Description of format (in brackets).
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Title of work [Format]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Proceedings [Government publication]. (1792, December 17). Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ ampage?collId=llac&fileName=llac003.db&recNum=370.

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Manuscripts

The Library of Congress online collections include letters, diaries, recollections, and other written material. One example is this letter from Helen Keller to Mr. John Hitz. Helen describes her trip to Chicago to visit the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of document italicized if it is a stand-alone document no italics if it is part of a larger work, with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  4. Description of form (in brackets).
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial Middle initial. (Date) Title of work [Format]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Keller, H. (1893, 29 August). Helen Keller to John Hitz, August 29, 1893 [Letter.] Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/item/magbellbib004020.

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Maps and Charts

Maps are far more than just maps of cities and towns. They document historical places, events, and populations, as well as growth and changes over time. This map is from the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed. section 7.07.53)

Structure:

  1. Creator’s last name, first initial, middle initial. (if given)
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of map italicized if it is a stand-alone document, no italics or quotations if it is part of a larger work, with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  4. Format of document (in brackets).
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Title of work. [Format]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Ashmun, J. (1830). Map of the west coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the Colony of Liberia [Map]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/item/96680499.

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Newspapers

The Stars and Stripes

An excerpt from The Stars and Stripes

Historic newspapers provide a glimpse of historic time periods. The articles, as well as the advertising, are an appealing way to get a look at the regions of the country or the world and the issues of the day.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed., sections 7.01.9-10)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first initial, middle initial (if given; if no author is given, use title of article here instead with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized and without italics or quotation marks).
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of article (if not used above) with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  4. Title of newspaper in italics.
  5. Page number(s) preceded by p. or pp.
  6. URL (use bibliographic record URL).

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of article (if not used earlier). Title of Newspaper. Page number. Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Free Education While You Wait For Orders Home. (1918, December 6). The Stars and Stripes. p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/item/sn88075768/1918-12-06/ed-1/.

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Oral History Interviews

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

  1. Interviewee last name, first initial, middle initial.
  2. Date of interview (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of the interview (if any) with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  4. Format of item (in brackets) [video, transcript, etc.].
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). “Title of interview” [Video]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Patton, G. M. (2011, June 1). Gwendolyn M. Patton oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Montgomery, Alabama [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0020/.

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Photographs

Photographs and drawings appear in many of the Library of Congress digitized historical collections. This photograph from the Library's online collections shows casualties of war on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

  1. Photographer’s last name, first initial, middle initial (if given).
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. title of photograph italicized if it is a stand-alone document, no italics or quotations if it is part of a larger work, with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  4. Description of format (in brackets).
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of work (include brackets if the title does so) [Format description]. Retrieved from http://....

Example:
O’Sullivan, T. (1863, July). [Incidents of the war. A harvest of death, Gettysburg, July 1863] [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/cwp2003001110/PP.

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Sound Recordings

This recording of Mrs. Ben Scott and Myrtle B. Wilkinson performing Haste to the Wedding is an example of Anglo-American dance music on the fiddle and tenor banjo recorded on October 31, 1939.

APA Citation Format
(APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 6th ed.)

Structure:

  1. Creator’s or performer’s last name, first initial, middle initial (if given) (include composer, performer, lyricist, etc.).
  2. Date (in parentheses). (Year) or (Year, Month Day). Use n.d. for no date.
  3. Title of album (in italics) Title of a song is neither italicized nor uses quotations. Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns.
  4. Description of format (in brackets) [sound recording].
  5. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Title of work. [Format.] Retrieved from http://...

Example:
Scott, Mrs. B. and M. B. Wilkinson, performers. (31 October 1939). Haste to the wedding [Sound recording]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/item/afccc.a4227b4.

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