Pakistan is located in Southern Asia bordering the Arabian Sea, between India to the east and Iran and Afghanistan to the west and China to the north. It is slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of California. Pakistan has a diverse array of landscapes spread among nine major ecological zones, including some of the world's highest mountains.
The majority of Pakistan's population is concentrated in the Indus River Valley and the major cities are: Faisalabad, Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, and Reshawar. In July 2007, Pakistan's population was estimated at 164,741,924. Pakistan's population is 97% Muslim (77% Sunni, 20% Shi'a); the remaining 3% of the population is Christian and Hindu. Just under 50% speak Punjabi; other languages spoken in Pakistan include: Sindhi, Siraiki, Pashtu, Urdu, Balochi, and Hindko; English is the official language of the government. The capital of Pakistan is Islamabad. There are four provinces in Pakistan, one territory, the capital territory, and federally administered Tribal Areas.
The Pakistan constitution of August 1973 provides for a President (Chief of State) elected for a 5-year term and a Prime Minister (head of government) elected by the National Assembly in a special session. General Pervez Musharraf replaced Mohammad Rafiq Tarar as President in June 2001; a referendum in 2002 extended his presidency another five years.
Agriculture employs the greatest proportion of the working population, but accounts for less than 25% of gross domestic product. This is usually credited to the rapid growth of services and industry since the 1980s.
CIA World Factbook; LC Country Profiles, 11/2007; 2/2005;
This map has also been used:
- Pakistan, May 2005