*                                       *
              *  ATTRIBUTE SET BIB-1 (Z39.50-1995):   *
              *             SEMANTICS                 *
              *                                       *

                           September 1995

Modified October 1997 to change the definition of Use attribute Documet
identifier (1032). 
      -     Old Definition: A persistent identifier, or Doc-ID, assigned by a
            server, that uniquely identifies a document on that server. 
      -     New Definition: An identifier or Doc-ID, assigned by a server, that
            uniquely identifies a document on that server. May or may not be
            persistent. May be, for example, a URL.


This document provides suggested interpretations for the semantics of the
bib-1 Attribute Set.

This document represents consensus among the members of the Z39.50
Implementors Group.  It will be maintained as an official document of
the Z39.50 Maintenance Agency, and will be revised periodically to
reflect the most pragmatic guidelines for interoperability agreed upon
by the Implementors Group.

This document contains references to certain definitions and
behaviors that are specific to the target.  These can be problem
areas for interoperability.  The specific definitions and behaviors
may be described in a "Profile" document.  In the absence of a
profile, one must contact the service provider and ask.  The
behavior may be UNIQUE to that target.  The expectation is that,
over time, more and more will be documented explicitly in the
standard and in profiles.


The attributes of Attribute Set bib-1 are used to indicate the
characteristics of a search term in a Type-1 query when the query is
of the form AttributeList+term (as described in section 3.7.1 of
Z39.50-1995).  The descriptions in this document apply when all
attributes within 'AttributeList' are from the bib-1 attribute set.
It does not define semantics when bib-1 is mixed with other
attribute sets.

There are six types of attributes:  Use, Relation, Position,
Structure, Truncation, and Completeness.  The Use attribute, if
provided, identifies a set of access points against which the term
is to be matched.  The Relation, Completeness, Truncation and
Position attributes, if provided, specify additional match criteria.
The Structure attribute, if provided, identifies the form in which
the term has been supplied.

Within an attribute list, each attribute type is optional.  However, if
a particular attribute type is not supplied, this document does not
address target behavior -- a given target might supply a default
attribute, dynamically select an appropriate attribute based on the
other attributes supplied, or fail the search because it requires that
the attribute type be supplied.

While Attribute Set bib-1 was originally established for use in the
retrieval of records that are representable using the MARC formats for
information interchange, it can also be used for the retrieval of records
or documents representable in other formats.

Within an attribute list, multiple instances of a given type of
attribute element are undefined and discouraged.  Use of version 3
semantic actions is encouraged.

The remainder of this section describes each of the six attribute
types, in order by the type number:

    Use attributes          (type = 1)
    Relation attributes     (type = 2)
    Position attributes     (type = 3)
    Structure attributes    (type = 4)
    Truncation attributes   (type = 5)
    Completeness attributes (type = 6)


A Use attribute specifies an access point (e.g., corporate name, personal
name, title, subject).

The Use attributes are given below in two separate tables.  Table 1 is
similar to the listing in Z39.50-1995, Appendix 3, ATR: Attribute Sets,
in that the attributes are in order by their values and the same names
that appear in the Appendix appear in the left column of Table 1.  The
right column of Table 1 contains a reference to the name of the
attribute that is used in Table 2.  Table 2 rearranges the Use
attributes alphabetically by group name in an attempt to bring
similar Use attributes together.  The groups are somewhat arbitrary;
no rigorous classification of the attributes has been attempted.

In Table 2, all attribute names are followed by their values, a brief
definition or description, and tag values of representative USMARC
bibliographic format fields that would contain data that could be
described in the search by using the attribute.  Whenever possible,
definitions are taken from the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules or the
USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data as these are the guidelines that
are used by a significant number of libraries for formulating data.  In
Table 2, the notation '$' following a USMARC tag refers to a
subfield of the named field.  The notation 'i' following a
USMARC tag refers to values of the second indicator in the named
field; when the second indicator of the field has the value
, the data in the field is associated with that Use


Use                          Value    Reference to Group Name Used in Table 2
---------------------------  -----    ---------------------------------------
Personal name                  1      Name-personal
Corporate name                 2      Name-corporate
Conference name                3      Name-conference
Title                          4      Title
Title series                   5      Title-series
Title uniform                  6      Title-uniform
ISBN                           7      Identifier-ISBN
ISSN                           8      Identifier-ISSN
LC card number                 9      Control number-LC
BNB card number                10     Control number-BNB
BGF(sic) number                11     Control number-BNF
Local number                   12     Control number-local
Dewey classification           13     Classification-Dewey
UDC classification             14     Classification-UDC
Bliss classification           15     Classification-Bliss
LC call number                 16     Classification-LC
NLM call number                17     Classification-NLM
NAL call number                18     Classification-NAL
MOS call number                19     Classification-MOS
Local classification           20     Classification-local
Subject heading                21     Subject
Subject Rameau                 22     Subject-RAMEAU
BDI index subject              23     Subject-BDI
INSPEC subject                 24     Subject-INSPEC
MESH subject                   25     Subject-MESH
PA subject                     26     Subject-PA
LC subject heading             27     Subject-LC
RVM subject heading            28     Subject-RVM
Local subject index            29     Subject-local
Date                           30     Date
Date of publication            31     Date-publication
Date of acquisition            32     Date-acquisition
Title-key                      33     Title-key
Title collective               34     Title-collective
Title parallel                 35     Title-parallel
Title cover                    36     Title-cover
Title added-title-page         37     Title-added-title-page
Title caption                  38     Title-caption
Title running                  39     Title-running
Title spine                    40     Title-spine
Title other variant            41     Title-other-variant
Title former                   42     Title-former
Title abbreviated              43     Title-abbreviated
Title expanded                 44     Title-expanded
Subject PRECIS                 45     Subject-PRECIS
Subject RSWK                   46     Subject-RSWK
Subject subdivision            47     Subject-subdivision
Number natl bibliography       48     Identifier-national-bibliography
Number legal deposit           49     Identifier-legal-deposit
Number govt publication        50     Classification-government-publication
Number publisher for music     51     Identifier-publisher-for-music
Number DB                      52     Control-number-DB
Number local call              53     Identifier-local-call
Code--language                 54     Code-language
Code--geographic area          55     Code-geographic-area
Code--institution              56     Code-institution
Name and title                 57     Name and title
Name geographic                58     Name-geographic
Place publication              59     Name-geographic-place-publication
CODEN                          60     Identifier-CODEN
Microform generation           61     Code-microform-generation
Abstract                       62     Abstract
Note                           63     Note
Author-title                 1000     Author-name-and-title
Record type                  1001     Code-record-type
Name                         1002     Name
Author                       1003     Author-name
Author-name personal         1004     Author-name-personal
Author-name corporate        1005     Author-name-corporate
Author-name conference       1006     Author-name-conference
Identifier--standard         1007     Identifier-standard
Subject--LC children's       1008     Subject-LC-children's
Subject name--personal       1009     Subject-name-personal
Body of text                 1010     Body of text
Date/time added to database  1011     Date/time added to database
Date/time last modified      1012     Date/time last modified
Authority/format identifier  1013     Identifier-authority/format
Concept-text                 1014     Concept-text
Concept-reference            1015     Concept-reference
Any                          1016     Any
Server choice                1017     Server-choice
Publisher                    1018     Name-publisher
Record source                1019     Record-source
Editor                       1020     Name-editor
Bib-level                    1021     Code-bib-level
Geographic class             1022     Code-geographic-class
Indexed by                   1023     Indexed-by
Map scale                    1024     Code-map-scale
Music key                    1025     Music-key
Related periodical           1026     Title-related-periodical
Report number                1027     Identifier-report
Stock number                 1028     Identifier-stock
Thematic number              1030     Identifier-thematic
Material type                1031     Material-type
Doc ID                       1032     Identifier-document
Host item                    1033     Title-host-item
Content type                 1034     Content-type
Anywhere                     1035     Anywhere
Author-Title-Subject         1036     Author-Title-Subject


Use                  Value Definition                      USMARC tag(s)
-------------------- ----- ------------------------------  ------------------
Abstract               62  An abbreviated, accurate        520
                           representation of a work,
                           usually without added
                           interpretation or criticism.

Any                  1016  The record is selected if there
                           exists a Use attribute that the
                           target supports (and considers
                           appropriate - see note 1) such
                           that the record would be
                           selected if the target were to
                           substitute that attribute.
        (1) When the origin uses 'any' the intent is that the target
            locate records via commonly used access points. The target
            may define 'any' to refer to a selected set of Use
            attributes corresponding to its commonly used access points.
        (2) In set terminology: when Any is the Use attribute, the set
            of records selected is the union of the sets of records
            selected by each of the (appropriate) Use attributes that
            the target supports.

Anywhere             1035  The record is selected if the
                           term value (as qualified by the
                           other attributes) occurs anywhere
                           in the record.

            Note: A target might choose to support 'Anywhere' only in
            combination with specific (non-Use) attributes. For example, a
            target might support 'Anywhere' only in combination with the
            Relation attribute 'AlwaysMatches' (see below), to locate all
            records in a database.

       Notes on relationship of Any and Anywhere:
        (1) A target may support Any but not Anywhere, or vice versa, or
            both.  However, if a target supports both, then it should
            exclude 'Anywhere' from the list of Use attributes
            corresponding to 'Any' (if it does not do so, then the set
            of records located by 'Any' will be a superset of those
            located by 'Anywhere').
        (2) A distinction between the two attributes may be informally
            expressed as follows: 'anywhere' might result in more
            expensive searching than 'any'; if the target (and origin)
            support both 'any' and 'anywhere', if the origin uses 'Any'
            (rather than 'Anywhere') it is asking the target to locate
            the term only if it can do so relatively inexpensively.

Author-name          1003  A personal or corporate author, 100, 110, 111, 400
                           or a conference or meeting      410, 411, 700, 710,
                           name.  (No subject name         711, 800, 810, 811
                           headings are included.)

Author-name-and-     1000  A personal or corporate author, 100/2XX, 110/2XX,
title                      or a conference or meeting      111/2XX, subfields
                           name, and the title of the      $a & $t in
                           item.  (No subject name         following: 400,410,
                           headings are included.)  The    411, 700, 710, 711,
                           syntax of the name-title        800, 810, 811
                           combination is up to the
                           target, unless used with the
                           Structure attribute Key (see

Author-name-         1005  An organization or a group      110, 410, 710, 810
corporate                  of persons that is identified
                           by a particular name. (Differs
                           from attribute "name-corporate
                           (2)" in that corporate name
                           subject headings are not

Author-name-         1006  A meeting of individuals or     111, 411, 711, 811
conference                 representatives of various
                           bodies for the purpose of
                           discussing topics of common
                           interest. (Differs from
                           attribute "name-conference
                           (3)" in that conference name
                           subject headings are not

Author-name-personal 1004  A person's real name,           100, 400, 700, 800
                           pseudonym, title of nobility
                           nickname, or initials.
                           (Differs from attribute
                           "name-personal (1)" in that
                           personal name subject headings
                           are not included.)

Author-Title-Subject 1036  An author or a title or a        1XX, 2XX, 4XX,
                           subject.                         6XX, 7XX, 8XX

            Note: When the Use attribute is Author-name-and-title (1000)
            the term contains both an author name and a title.  When the
            Use attribute is Author-Title-Subject (1036), the term
            contains an author name or a title or a subject.

Body of text         1010  Used in full-text searching to
                           indicate that the term is to
                           be searched only in that
                           portion of the record that the
                           target considers the body of
                           the text, as opposed to some
                           other discriminated part such
                           as a headline, title, or

Classification-Bliss   15  A classification number from
                           the Bliss Classification,
                           developed by Henry Evelyn

Classification-Dewey   13  A classification number from    082
                           the Dewey Decimal
                           Classification, developed by
                           Melvyl Dewey.

Classification-        50  A classification number         086
government-publication     assigned to a government
                           document by a government
                           agency at any level (e.g.,
                           state, national,

Classification-LC      16  A classification number from    050
                           the US Library of Congress

Classification-local   20  A local classification
                           number from a system not
                           specified elsewhere in this
                           list of attributes.

Classification-NAL     18  A classification number from    070
                           the US National Agriculture
                           Library Classification.

Classification-NLM     17  A classification number from    060
                           the US National Library of
                           Medicine Classification.

Classification-MOS     19  A classification number from
                           Mathematics Subject
                           Classification, compiled
                           in the Editorial Offices of
                           Mathematical Reviews and
                           Zentralblatt fur Mathematik.

Classification-UDC     14  A classification number from    080
                           Universal Decimal
                           Classification, a system based
                           on the Dewey Decimal

Code-bib-level       1021  A one-character alphabetic       Leader/07
                           code indicating the
                           bibliographic level such as
                           monograph, serial or collection
                           of the record.

Code-geographic-area   55  A code that indicates the       043
                           geographic area(s) that appear
                           or are implied in the headings
                           assigned to the item during

Code-geographic-     1022  A code that represents the      052
class                      geographic area and if
                           applicable the geographic
                           subarea covered by an item.
                           The codes are derived from
                           the LC Classification-Class G
                           and the expanded Cutter number

Code-institution       56  An authoritative-agency         040, 852$a
                           symbol for an institution
                           that is the source of the
                           record or the holding
                           location.  The code space is
                           defined by the target.

Code-language          54  A code that indicates the       008/35-37, 041
                           language of the item.
                           The codes are defined by the

Code-map-scale       1024  Coded form of cartographic      034
                           mathematical data, including
                           scale, projection and/or
                           coordinates related to the

Code-microform-        61  The code specifying the         007/11
generation                 generation of a microform.

Code-record-type     1001  A code that specifies the       Leader/06
                           characteristics and defines
                           the components of the record.
                           The codes are target-specific.

Concept-reference    1015  Used within Z39.50-1988;
                           included here for historical
                           reasons but its use is

Concept-text         1014  Used within Z39.50-1988;
                           included here for historical
                           reasons but its use is

Content-type         1034  The type of materials           derived value
                           contained in the item or        from 008/24-27
                           publication.  For example:
                           review, catalog, encyclopedia,

Control number-BNB     10  Character string that uniquely  015
                           identifies a record in the
                           British National Bibliography.

Control number-BNF     11  Character string that uniquely  015
                           identifies a record in the
                           Bibliotheque Nationale Francais.

Control number-DB      52  Character string that uniquely  015
                           identifies a record in the
                           Deutsche Bibliothek.

Control number-LC       9  Character string that uniquely  010, 011
                           identifies a record in the
                           Library of Congress database.

Control number-local   12  Character string that uniquely  001, 035
                           identifies a record in a local
                           system (i.e., any system that
                           is not one of the four listed

Date                   30  The point of time at which      005, 008/00-05,
                           a transaction or event          008/07-10, 260$c,
                           takes place.                    008/11-14, 033,etc.

Date-publication       31  The date (usually year) in      008/07-10, 260$c
                           which a document is published.  046, 533$d

Date-acquisition       32  The date when a document was    541$d

Date/time added to   1011  The date and time that a        008/00-05
database                   record was added to the

Date/time last       1012  The date and time a record      005
modified                   was last updated.

Identifier--         1013  Used in full-text searching
authority/format           to indicate to the target
                           system the format of the
                           document that should be
                           returned to the originating
                           system.  The attribute carries
                           not only the format code, but
                           also the authority (e.g.,
                           system) that assigned that

Identifier-CODEN       60  A six-character, unique,        030
                           alphanumeric code assigned
                           to serial and monographic
                           publications by the CODEN
                           section of the Chemical
                           Abstracts Service.

Identifier-document  1032  An identifier or Doc-ID,  
                           assigned by a server, that 
                           uniquely identifies a document 
                           on that server. May or may 
                           not be persistent. May be, 
                           for example, a URL.
            Note: this definition was modified October 1997.

Identifier-ISBN         7  International Standard Book     020
                           Number -- internationally
                           agreed upon number that
                           identifies a book uniquely.
                           Cf. ANSI/NISO Z39.21 and
                           ISO 2108.

Identifier-ISSN         8  International Standard Serial   022, 4XX$x,
                           Number -- internationally       7XX$x
                           agreed upon number that
                           identifies a serial uniquely.
                           Cf. ANSI/NISO z39.9 and
                           ISO 3297.

Identifier-legal-      49  The copyright registration      017
deposit                    number that is assigned to
                           an item when the item is
                           deposited for copyright.

Identifier-local-call  53  Call number (e.g., shelf location)
                           assigned by a local system
                           (not a classification number).

Identifier-national-   48  Character string that uniquely  015
bibliography               identifies a record in a
                           national bibliography.

Identifier-publisher-  51  A formatted number assigned     028
for-music                  by a publisher to a sound
                           recording or to printed music.

Identifier-report    1027  A report number assigned to     027, 088
                           the item. This number could be
                           the STRN (Standard Technical
                           Report Number) or another
                           report number.
                           Cf. ANSI/NISO Z39.23 and
                           ISO 10444.

Identifier-standard  1007  Standard numbers such as ISBN,  010, 011, 015, 017,
                           ISSN, music publishers          018, 020, 022, 023,
                           numbers, CODEN, etc., that      024, 025, 027, 028,
                           are indexed together in many    030, 035, 037
                           online public-access catalogs.

Identifier-stock     1028  A stock number that could be    037
                           used for ordering the item.

Identifier-thematic  1030  The numeric designation for a   $n in the following:
                           part/section of a work such as  130, 240, 243, 630,
                           the serial, opus or thematic    700, 730
                           index number.

Indexed-by           1023  For serials, a publication      510
                           in which the serial has been
                           indexed and/or abstracted.

Material-type        1031  A free-form string, more        derived value from
                           specific than the one-letter    Leader/06-07, 007,
                           code in Leader/06, that         008, and 502
                           describes the material type
                           of the item, e.g., cassette,
                           kit, computer database,
                           computer file.

Music-key            1025  A statement of the key in       $r in the following:
                           which the music is written.     130, 240, 243, 630,
                                                           700, 730

Name                 1002  The name of a person, corporate 100, 110, 111, 400,
                           body, conference, or meeting.   410, 411, 600, 610,
                           (Subject name headings are      611, 700, 710, 711,
                           included.)                      800, 810, 811

Name-and-title         57  The name of a person, corporate 100/2XX, 110/2XX,
                           body, conference, or meeting,   111/2XX, subfields
                           and the title of an item.       $a & $t in
                           (Subject name headings are      following: 400,410,
                           included.)  The syntax of the   411, 600, 610, 611,
                           name-title combination is up    700, 710, 711, 800,
                           to the target, unless used      810, 811
                           with the Structure attribute
                           Key (see below).

Name-corporate          2  An organization or a group      110, 410, 610, 710,
                           of persons that is identified   810
                           by a particular name. (Subject
                           name headings are included.)

Name-conference         3  A meeting of individuals or     111, 411, 611, 711
                           representatives of various      811
                           bodies for the purpose of
                           discussing topics of common
                           interest.  (Subject name
                           headings are included.)

Name-editor          1020  A person who prepared for       100 $a or 700 $a when
                           publication an item that is     the corresponding $e
                           not his or her own.             contains value 'ed.'

Name-geographic        58  Name of a country,              651
                           jurisdiction, region, or
                           geographic feature.

Name-geographic-place- 59  City or town where an item      008/15-17, 260$a
publication                was published.

Name-personal           1  A person's real name,           100, 400, 600, 700,
                           pseudonym, title of nobility    800
                           nickname, or initials.

Name-publisher       1018  The organization responsible    260$b
                           for the publication of the

Note                   63  A concise statement in which    5XX
                           such information as extended
                           physical description,
                           relationship to other works,
                           or contents may be recorded.

Record-source        1019  The USMARC code or name of the  008/39, 040
                           organization(s) that created
                           the original record, assigned
                           the USMARC content designation
                           and transcribed the record into
                           machine-readable form, or
                           modified the existing USMARC
                           record; the cataloging source.

Server-choice        1017  The target substitutes one or
                           more access points.  The origin
                           leaves the choice to the target.

       Notes on relationship of Any and Server-choice:
        (1) When the origin uses 'Server-choice' it is asking the target
            to select one or more access points, and to use its best
            judgment in making that selection.  When 'Any' is used,
            there is no selection process involved; the target is to
            apply all of the (appropriate) supported Use attributes.
            The origin is asking the target to make a choice of access
        (2) The target might support 'Any' and not 'Server-choice', or
            vice versa, or both.  If the target supports both, when the
            origin uses 'Server-choice', the target might choose 'Any';
            however, it might choose any other Use attribute.

Subject                21  The primary topic on which a    600, 610, 611, 630,
                           work is focused.                650, 651, 653, 654,
                                                           655, 656, 657, 69X

Subject-BDI            23  Subject headings from
                           Bibliotek Dokumentasjon
                           Informasjon -- a controlled
                           subject vocabulary used and
                           maintained by the five Nordic
                           countries (Denmark, Finland,
                           Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).

Subject-INSPEC         24  Subject headings from           600i2, 610i2,
                           Information Services for the    611i2, 630i2,
                           Physics and Engineering         650i2, 651i2
                           Communities -- the Information
                           Services Division of the
                           Institution of Electrical

Subject-LC             27  Subject headings from           600i0, 610i0,
                           US Library of Congress          611i0, 630i0,
                           Subject Headings.               650i0, 651i0

Subject-LC-          1008  Subject headings, for use       600i1, 610i1,
children's                 with children's literature,     611i1, 630i1,
                           that conform to the             650i1, 651i1
                           formulation guidelines in
                           the "AC Subject Headings"
                           section of the Library of
                           Congress Subject Headings.

Subject-local          29  Subjects headings defined

Subject-MESH           25  Subject headings from           600i2, 610i2,
                           Medical Subject Headings --     611i2, 630i2,
                           maintained by the US National   650i2, 651i2
                           Library of Medicine.

Subject-name-        1009  A person's real name,           600
personal                   pseudonym, title of nobility
                           nickname, or initials that
                           appears in a subject heading.

Subject-PA             26  Subject headings from           600i2, 610i2,
                           Thesaurus of Psychological      611i2, 630i2,
                           Index Terms -- maintained       650i2, 651i2
                           by the Retrieval Services Unit
                           of the American Psychological

Subject-PRECIS         45  Subject headings from
                           PREserved Context Index
                           System -- a string of indexing
                           terms set down in a prescribed
                           order, each term being preceded
                           by a manipulation code which
                           governs the production of
                           pre-coordinated subject index
                           entries under selected terms --
                           maintained by the British

Subject-RAMEAU         22  Subject headings from
                           Repertoire d'authorite de
                           matieres encyclopedique
                           unifie -- maintained by the
                           Bibliotheque Nationale

Subject-RSWK           46  Subject headings from
                           Regeln fur den
                           Schlagwortkatalog --
                           maintained by the Deutsches

Subject-RVM            28  Subject headings from           600i6, 610i6,
                           Repertoire des vedettes-        611i6, 630i6,
                           matiere -- maintained by the    650i6, 651i6
                           Bibliotheque de l'Universite
                           de Laval.

Subject-subdivision    47  An extension to a subject       6XX$x, 6XX$y,
                           heading indicating the form,    6XX$z
                           place, period of time treated,
                           or aspect of the subject

Title                   4  A word, phrase, character,      130, 21X-24X, 440,
                           or group of characters,         490, 730, 740, 830,
                           normally appearing in an item,  840, subfield $t
                           that names the item or the      in the following:
                           work contained in it.           400, 410, 410, 600,
                                                           610, 611, 700, 710,
                                                           711, 800, 810, 811

Title-abbreviated      43  Shortened form of the title;    210, 211 (obs.),
                           either assigned by national     246
                           centers under the auspices of
                           the International Serials Data
                           System, or a title (such as an
                           acronym) that is popularly
                           associated with the item.

Title-added-title-page 37  A title on a title page         246i5
                           preceding or following the
                           title page chosen as the basis
                           for the description of the
                           item.  It may be more general
                           (e.g., a series title page),
                           or equally general (e.g., a
                           title page in another

Title-caption          38  A title given at the beginning  246i6
                           of the first page of the text.

Title-collective       34  A title proper that is an       243
                           inclusive title for an item
                           containing several works.

Title-cover            36  The title printed on the        246i4
                           cover of an item as issued.

Title-expanded         44  An expanded (or augmented)      214 (obs.), 246
                           title has been enlarged with
                           descriptive words by the
                           cataloger to provide
                           additional indexing and
                           searching capabilities.

Title-former           42  A former title or title         247, 780
                           variation when one
                           bibliographic record
                           represents all issues of
                           a serial that has changed

Title-host-item      1033  The title of the item            773$t
                           containing the part
                           described in the record, for
                           example, a journal title
                           when the record describes an
                           article in the journal.

Title-key              33  The unique name assigned to     222
                           a serial by the International
                           Serials Data System (ISDS).

Title-other-variant    41  A variation from the title      212 (obs.), 246i3,
                           page title appearing elsewhere  247, 740
                           in the item (e.g., a variant
                           cover title, caption title,
                           running title, or title from
                           another volume) or in another

Title-parallel         35  The title proper in another     246i1
                           language and/or script.

Title-related-       1026  Serial titles related to this   247, 780, 785
periodical                 item, either the immediate
                           predecessor or the immediate

Title-running          39  A title, or abbreviated title,  246i7
                           that is repeated at the head
                           or foot of each page or leaf.

Title-series            5  Collective title applying to    440, 490, 830, 840,
                           a group of separate, but        subfield $t in the
                           related, items.                 following: 400,410,
                                                           411, 800, 810, 811

Title-spine            40  A title appearing on the        246i8
                           spine of an item.

Title-uniform           6  The particular title by which   130, 240, 730,
                           a work is to be identified      subfield $t in the
                           for cataloging purposes.        following: 700,710,


Relation attributes describe the relationship of the access point (left side
of the relation) to the search term as qualified by the attributes (right
side of the relation), e.g., Date-publication <= 1975.

The Relation attributes are the following:

                 Relation                          Value
                 -------------------               ------
                 Less than                           1
                 Less than or equal                  2
                 Equal                               3
                 Greater or equal                    4
                 Greater than                        5
                 Not equal                           6
                 Phonetic                            100
                 Stem                                101
                 Relevance                           102
                 AlwaysMatches                       103

Relation attribute Equal -- specifies an exact match (subject to
possible qualification by the truncation or structure attributes).

Relation attributes Less than, Less than or equal, Greater than or
equal, and Greater than -- meaningful only when both the term value as
qualified by the attributes and the access point can be realized as
elements of a set that has an inherent implied order.

Relation attributes Stem and Phonetic -- Stem refers to a lexical or
linguistic match; the term is to be compared with words in a record to
find those with the same stem.  Phonetic refers to a match based on
aural similarity such as Soundex.  In both cases, the match algorithms
are defined by the target.

Relation attribute Relevance -- used to select records that are
relevant to the term.  When used, the Use attribute determines what
portion of a record is to be evaluated for relevance.  The relevance
algorithm is defined by the target.

Relation attribute AlwaysMatches -- when the Relation attribute
AlwaysMatches occurs:

       - The target ignores the supplied term.
       - If the Use attribute is Any or Anywhere, then all records
           are to be selected.
       - If a Use attribute other than Any or Anywhere is supplied,
           all records are selected for which the access point
           corresponding to the supplied Use attribute is
           meaningful.  For example: if the Use attribute is Title,
           all records that have a title field are selected.


The Position attribute specifies the location of the search term within the
field or subfield in which it appears.

For the purpose of describing the Position attributes, when the
expressions "field" or "subfield" do not have another understood meaning
(as prescribed, for example, by the schema in use), these two
expressions are used as follows:

       - "subfield" has no meaning, and the Position attribute "first in
           any subfield" is not to be used.
       - "field" refers to the portion of the record to which the access
           point refers.

The Position attributes are the following:

       Position                 Value   Definition
       ----------------------   -----   --------------------------------------
       First in field             1     Search term must be the first data in
                                        the field.

       First in subfield          2     Search term may appear in any subfield
                                        but must be the first data in the
                                        subfield in which it appears.

       Any position in field      3     Search term may appear any place in
                                        the field.


The Structure attribute specifies the type of search term (e.g., a single
word, a phrase, several words to be treated as multiple single terms, etc.).

The Structure attributes are the following:

        Structure        Value  Definition
        ---------------  -----  -------------------------------------------
        Phrase             1    A phrase consists of one or more groups of
                                characters separated by blanks (for example,
                                ASCII hex "20").  The value to be searched
                                is exactly as it appears in the search term
                                with respect to order and adjacency.  Word(s)
                                in the phrase may be explicitly truncated.
                                (See "Truncation" -- section 2.5 below.)  To
                                indicate that additional words may appear in
                                the access point, use the completeness

        Word               2    A word consists of a group of non-blank
                                characters.  It specifies the exact text of
                                the value to be searched, unless the word is
                                explicitly truncated.  (See "Truncation" --
                                section 2.5 below.)  A word search term
                                contains no blanks.

        Key                3    A key specifies a sequence of characters
                                extracted from those characters contained
                                in an indexed word but not necessarily
                                representing complete words.  In the term,
                                key segments should be separated by a
                                blank (ASCII hex "20").  Each key segment
                                should be the length of a key segment in
                                the origin system or the length of the
                                word, to a maximum of 6 characters.  (For
                                example, an name/title derived key search
                                term for "Copland, Aaron, 1900- Rodeo"
                                could be "coplan rodeo".)   A segment may
                                be adjusted by the target to the length
                                required for the target's indexes.  For
                                example, the following derived key
                                searches are in use at LC and at OCLC (in
                                Online System):

                                Site  Index       Letters taken Source Data
                                ----- ----------  ------------- --------------
                                OCLC  TITLE       3,2,2,1       title keywords
                                      NAME/TITLE  4,4           name, title
                                      NAME        4,3,1         personal name
                                      CNAME       4,3,1         corporate name
                                LC    PTK         3,1,1,1       title keywords
                                      PATK        3,3           name, title
                                      PPNK        5,1 or 6      personal name

        Year               4    A year search term is numeric and contains
                                four digits.

        Date               5    The day, month, year and time when a
        (normalized)            transaction or event takes place.  The
                                date search term structure is as defined
                                for Generalized Time in ASN.1 (ISO 8824)
                                except that the only mandatory portion of
                                the string is the four-digit representation
                                of the year.

        Word list          6    A word list consists of one or more words
                                separated by blanks (for example, ASCII
                                hex "20").  No order of the words is
                                implied.  The attributes (other than
                                structure) that are associated with the
                                search term apply to each word in the
                                word list.  Any words in a word list may
                                be explicitly truncated.  (See
                                "Truncation" -- section 2.5 below.)  The
                                relationship between the words in a word list
                                is target-specific.

        Date             100    The day, month, and year when a transaction or
        (un-normalized)         event takes place.  The un-normalized search
                                term is unstructured.

        Name             101    A name search term that is structured in a
        (normalized)            particular order (e.g., last_name,
                                first_name).  The resulting term is subject to
                                special matching rules on the target system
                                that differ from those applied to names
                                structured as phrases or unstructured names.

        Name             102    A name search term that is unstructured (e.g.,
        (un-normalized)         first_name last_name), however, the resulting
                                term is subject to matching rules on the
                                target system that differ from those applied
                                to phrases or structured names (e.g.,
                                the term "john smith" might be searched
                                by the target as "smith, j#").

        Structure        103    The term has a structure that is either
                                implied by the Use attribute or
                                defined by the target.

        Urx              104    The term is a document identifier, for
                                example, an identifier extracted from a
                                Z39.50 URL.

        Free-form-text   105    The term is text, input by the end user.
                                May be used, for example, for relevance

        Document-text    106    The term is text, extracted from a document.
                                May be used, for example, for relevance

        Local-number     107    A number significant to the target.

        String           108    The entire term is to be treated as a string,
                                rather than a sequence or set of individual

        Numeric string   109    The term is a character string that represents
                                a number.


The Truncation attribute specifies whether one or more characters may be
omitted in matching the search term in the target system at the position
specified by the Truncation attribute.  For example, a word in a search
term may be 1) right truncated, in which case the word is treated both
as a complete word and as the beginning of a longer word; 2) left
truncated in which case the word is treated both as a complete word and
the ending of a longer word; 3) left and right truncated, in which case
the word is treated as a complete word and the beginning or ending of a
longer word; 4) and embedded truncation, in which case the word is
treated as a complete word and as a longer word with additional
characters at the point where the truncation symbol, "#", appears in the
search term.

For Right truncation, left truncation, and Left and right truncation, the
characters affected by the truncation are determined by the value of the
structure attribute.

The Truncation attributes are the following:

        Truncation                Value   Attribute     Definition
        ----------------------    -----   ---------     ----------------------
        Right truncation            1     Word or       Last word of term is
                                          Phrase        right truncated.

                                          String        Entire term is right

                                          Word list     Each word is right

        Left truncation             2     Word or       First word of term is
                                          Phrase        left truncated.

                                          String        Entire term is left

                                          Word list     Each word is left

         Left and right truncation   3    Word or       First word of term is
                                          Phrase        left truncated and
                                                        last word of term is
                                                        right truncated.

                                          String        Entire term is left
                                                        and right truncated.

                                          Word list     Each word is left
                                                        and right truncated.

        Do not truncate           100         No truncation is to be applied.

        Process # in search term  101         The search term contains the
                                              symbol "#" (ASCII hex "23")
                                              to show where truncation
                                              will take place (e.g.,
                                              "National H# Institute",
                                              or "d#on").

        RegExpr-1                 102         The term is in the form of a
                                              regular expression as prescribed
                                              by IEEE 1003.2 Volume 1,
                                              Section 2.8 "Regular Expression

        RegExpr-2                 103         The term is in the form of a
                                              regular expression whose format
                                              is target-defined.


The Completeness attribute specifies that the contents of the search
term represent a complete or incomplete subfield or a complete field.
Completeness indicates whether additional words should appear in a field
or subfield with the search term.  Note the difference from Truncation
(Section 2.5 above), which handles characters added to words, phrases,
or strings.

For the purpose of describing the Completeness attributes, when the
expressions "field" or "subfield" do not have another understood meaning
(as prescribed, for example, by the schema in use) these two expressions
are used as follows:

       - "subfield" has no meaning, and the Completeness attribute
           incomplete subfield is used to mean "incomplete field".
       - "field" refers to the portion of the record to which the access
           point refers.

The Completeness attributes are the following:

        Completeness             Value   Definition
        ----------------------   -----   ---------------------------------
        Incomplete subfield        1     Words other than those in the search
                                         term may appear in the subfield
                                         or field in which the term appears.

        Complete subfield          2     No words other than those in the
                                         search term should appear in the
                                         entire subfield in which the term
                                         appears, but additional words may
                                         appear in other subfields in the

        Complete field             3     No words other than those in the
                                         search term should appear in the
                                         entire field in which the term



If supplied, the following attribute values would be used for a derived key

       -  Position should always be 'first in field', even for
            author/title or name/title use attributes.
       -  Completeness should always be 'incomplete'.
       -  Truncation should always be 'right truncation'.
       -  Relation is always 'equal'.

3.2  NUMBER SEARCHES (e.g., LCCN, ISBN, ISSN, Control Numbers)

       -  Structure is 'word' or 'phrase' depending on whether the
            number contains internal blanks.
       -  Position and Completeness attributes are determined for number
            arguments as they are for textual arguments.
       -  all naturally occurring blanks, hyphens, slashes, etc., should be in
            the number search term if possible because different systems
            handle numbers in different ways in their indexes.  The target
            system should apply normalization to the number according to its
            requirements, or return appropriate messages to allow the user to
            reformat the number.


       -  search arguments generally should not be normalized by the origin
            system.  They should be normalized by the target system.
       -  Position attribute 'any position in field' is compatible
            only with the 'incomplete subfield' Completeness attribute.


The Z39.50 Maintenance Agency manages the addition of attributes to the
bib-1 attribute set.  Generally, suggestions for new attributes are
posted to the Z39.50 Implementors Group list and discussed at a
subsequent ZIG meeting before being included in the attribute set.