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Presentation Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History

Joining the Workforce

Irish immigrants often entered the workforce at the bottom of the occupational ladder and took on the menial and dangerous jobs that were often avoided by other workers. Many Irish American women became servants or domestic workers, while many Irish American men labored in coal mines and built railroads and canals. Railroad construction was so dangerous that it was said, "[there was] an Irishman buried under every tie."

Coal Mine

As Irish immigrants moved inland from eastern cities, they found themselves in heated competition for jobs. The audio recording, Immigrant Laborers in the Early 20th Century, describes how West Virginia coal operators fired union laborers and gave the jobs to Irish, Italian and African-American workers because, "[the] coal company owned them." This competition heightened class tensions and, at the turn of the century, Irish Americans were often antagonized by organizations such as the American Protective Association (APA) and the Ku Klux Klan.

The Irish often suffered blatant or subtle job discrimination. Furthermore, some businesses took advantage of Irish immigrants' willingness to work at unskilled jobs for low pay. Employers were known to replace (or threaten to replace) uncooperative workers and those demanding higher wages with Irish American laborers.

President John F. Kennedy

Over time, many Irish Americans climbed occupational and social ladders through politically appointed positions such as policeman, fireman, and teacher. Second and third generation Irish Americans were on average better educated and more affluent than were their parents, and some, such as the Kennedy family, entered the circles of power. The first Kennedy who arrived in the United States in 1848 was a laborer. His son had modest success in this country, but his grandson, college educated Joseph P. Kennedy, made a fortune that enabled the great grandsons (one of whom became President John F. Kennedy) to achieve great political success.

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