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Presentation Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History

United States Citizenship for Native American

By 1900, the "Indian Wars" had been declared to be over, and large-scale relocations of Native American populations were no more. Thomas Edison produced films such as the Sham Battle at the Pan-American Exposition for the interest and amusement of moviegoers. Meanwhile, materials such as the 1898 film, Indian Day School, and the 1923 map of Indian Reservations West of the Mississippi River documented harsher realities of Native American life.

On June 2, 1924, President Calvin Coolidge signed a bill granting Native Americans full citizenship. Coolidge posed with four visiting Osage leaders in front of the White House to commemorate the event.

Three years later, the president's photo opportunities included wearing a suit and war bonnet when he was declared to be a Sioux Chief while standing in front of the White House with veterans of the wars on the Plains.