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Collection Andrew Jackson Papers

Pursuing the Presidency: 1822-1837

A timeline of Andrew Jackson from the U.S. Senate through the presidency of the United States.

Timeline

  1. 1822

    Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844) becomes president of the Second Bank of the U.S.
  2. 1822 July

    Andrew Jackson nominated as a candidate for the U.S. presidency by the Tennessee legislature.
    General Andrew Jackson: The hero, the sage and the patriot. Lithograph, N.Y.: N. Currier, c. 1845. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZC2-2402.
  3. 1823 Oct.

    Elected to the U.S. Senate.
  4. 1823 Dec.

    In Washington, appointed to Senate committees on foreign relations and military affairs.
  5. 1824 Mar. 16

    Receives gold medal from Congress for War of 1812 service.
  6. 1824 May 13

    Votes in favor of U.S. Senate version of tariff bill.
  7. 1824 May 22

    Tariff Act of 1824 becomes law.
  8. 1824 Aug. 15

    Marquis de Lafayette arrives in New York to begin U.S. tour
  9. 1824 Sept. 16

    Andrew Jackson Donelson and Emily Tennessee Donelson marry. The first cousins (and nephew and niece of Rachel and Andrew Jackson) are involved in the social life of the Hermitage.
  10. 1824 Nov.

    Jackson runs in the presidential election as a Democrat-Republican. He wins a plurality of the popular and electoral vote over his leading opponent, John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, but not the majority electoral vote necessary to be declared the victor. Under the terms of the 12th Amendment, the U.S. House of Representatives will decide which of the top three candidates will occupy the presidency.
    John Quincy Adams, sixth President of the U.S. Lithograph, E. B. & E.C. Kellogg. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZC4-5800.
  11. 1825 Feb. 9

    U.S. House of Representatives selects Jackson's rival John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) as U.S. President. John C. Calhoun will be vice president. Jackson soon charges a "corrupt bargain" as Adams-backer Henry Clay is named Adams's choice as secretary of state.
  12. 1825 May 5

    The Marquis de Lafayette visits the Hermitage.
  13. 1825 Oct.

    Jackson resigns from the U.S. Senate. He is nominated again as a candidate for the U.S. presidency by the Tennessee legislature.
  14. 1825

    The "Jackson party" is born, merging Democrat-Republicans and Jeffersonian-Republicans opposed to strong central government. They would become known simply as Democrats.
  15. 1826 July 4

    Founding fathers, bitter political rivals, and ultimately friends, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both die on the same day, as the nation celebrates the Declaration of Independence they crafted.
  16. 1827-1828

    The new presidential campaign is a highly contentious rematch between Adams and Jackson. Personal aspersions are cast against Jackson's wife and mother and Jackson is faulted for a murderous past. Meanwhile, Jacksonians level charges of elitism against Adams. They stage a stirring grassroots campaign with demonstrations, barbecues, and parades, with the hickory pole as a dominant symbol.
  17. 1828 Feb-Mar.

    John Binns and the National-Republicans publish now-famous "coffin handbill" highlighting Jackson's harshness towards militiamen who served under his command in the Creek War and executions that took place under his military orders.
  18. 1828 May 19

    Tariff of 1828 Act passed by Congress. Higher (protective) tariff rates are seen as detrimental by southern planters and advantageous to northern manufacturers. The economic policy is denounced as a "tariff of abominations" by its detractors. It is signed into law by President Adams.
    Some account of the bloody deeds of General Jackson. Woodcut handbill by John Binns. Philadelphia, 1828. One of the "coffin hand bills” produced by opponents of Andrew Jackson in the 1828 presidential campaign. Broadside collection, Portfolio 229, no. 8. Rare Book and Special Collections, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-43901.
  19. 1828 June 1

    Lyncoya dies of tuberculosis.
  20. 1828 July 11

    Jackson accused of slave trading by Boyd McNairy in the National Banner and Nashville Whig.
  21. 1828 July 16

    Kentucky Reporter publishes account of Jackson's "hot-headed" behavior during negotiations with the Chickasaws in 1818.
  22. 1828 Nov.

    Jackson elected the 7th President of the U.S. His presidential win, heralded as a victory for the common man, is dubbed "the Revolution of 1828." John C. Calhoun is Vice President.
    The pedlar and his pack, or, The desperate effort, an over balance. Etching by James Akin, 1828. Satire on John Binns's coffin handbill and anti-Jacksonian support for the Second Bank of the U.S. American cartoon print series, Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-39530.
  23. 1828 Dec. 22

    As the Jacksons prepare for their move to Washington, Rachel Donelson Jackson takes ill and dies of heart failure, in Tennessee. A bereaved Jackson blames the bitter campaign and aspersions directed against his wife for her demise. She is buried with ceremony in the Hermitage garden December 24.
  24. 1829 Jan.-Feb.

    Departs Nashville for Washington January 19. Arrives February 11.
  25. 1829 Mar. 4

    Inaugurated as President of the U.S. in outdoor ceremony open to public view. A riotous party commences as citizens celebrate in democratic fashion at the White House.
    Chief Justice John Marshall administering the oath of office to Andrew Jackson on the east portico of the U.S. Capitol, March 4, 1829. Photograph of mural by Allyn Cox, U.S. Capitol. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZC4-7731.
  26. 1829

    Nephew and ward Andrew Jackson Donelson serves as private secretary to President Jackson, and will do so throughout his presidency. Donelson's wife Emily Donelson serves as White House hostess and unofficial first lady, serving in the place of her deceased aunt Rachel Jackson.
  27. 1829

    Approximately 100 African-American men, women, and children live in slavery on President Jackson's Hermitage estate in Tennessee.
  28. 1829 Dec. 8

    First annual message to Congress. Jackson casts doubt on the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the U.S.
  29. 1829-1830

    What is popularly known as "the Eaton affair"–involving the social stigmatization of secretary of war John Eaton's wife Margaret O'Neale Timberlake Eaton (Peggy) (1799-1879)--embroils members of the cabinet and their wives. Jackson associates criticism and snobbery directed at Mrs. Eaton with the slander suffered by his wife Rachel at the hands of his political opponents. The Eaton controversy harms Jackson's relationship with his niece, Emily Tennessee Donelson.
  30. 1830

    The white and black population of the U.S. numbers 12,866,020, with 10,537,378 whites and 2,328,642 African Americans. Gold is discovered on Cherokee lands in Georgia. Georgia outlaws Cherokee government.
  31. 1830 Apr. 13

    Jackson gives "Our Union—it must be preserved!" toast at Jefferson Day dinner. Calhoun replies with "The Union, next to our liberty, most dear," and advocates states rights and the equal distribution of the benefits and burdens of the Union.
    John C. Calhoun, c. 1850. Photoprint from daguerreotype. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-76296.
  32. 1830 May 28

    Indian Removal Act signed by President Jackson. Congress authorizes funds for removal treaties to be negotiated with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River.
  33. 1830 Dec. 7

    Second annual message to Congress.
  34. 1831

    Choctaw Indian removal from traditional homelands.
  35. 1831 April

    Jackson seizes control over his contentious cabinet with a personnel sweep at the White House. Cabinet secretaries John H. Eaton, Martin Van Buren, John Branch, and Samuel D. Ingham resign. Van Buren soon becomes minister to Great Britain and Eaton governor of Florida Territory. Lewis Cass becomes secretary of war.
    The rats leaving a falling house. Lithograph, 1831. The "rats” are Secretary of War John H. Eaton, Secretary of the Navy John Branch, Secretary of State Martin Van Buren, and Treasury Secretary Samuel D. Ingham. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-92280.
  36. 1831 Nov. 24

    Andrew Jackson, Jr., marries Sarah Yorke (1806-1887) in Philadelphia. Their first child, a daughter named in honor of Rachel Jackson, is born in November of the following year (1832). A son, Andrew Jackson III, is born in 1834. Sarah Yorke Jackson will take on many of the duties of first lady, in the absence of Jackson's deceased wife Rachel and estranged niece Emily, who suffers from ill health.
  37. 1831 Dec.

    National Republicans nominate Henry Clay of Kentucky (a defender of the Second Bank of the U.S.) as their candidate for the U.S. presidency.
  38. 1832

    In a move related to the brewing presidential campaign, Nicholas Biddle applies for re-chartering of the Second Bank of the U.S. four years before the current charter is due to expire.
  39. 1832 July

    Bank bill renewing the charter of the Second Bank of the U.S. passes both houses of the U.S. Congress. Nicholas Biddle hosts a celebration party in Washington.
  40. 1832 July 10

    Jackson vetoes the Bank bill. Bank Veto Message crafted with the aid of Amos Kendall, Roger Taney, and other Jackson allies.
  41. 1832 July 14

    Jackson signs Tariff of 1832.
  42. 1832 Nov.

    Jackson re-elected as President of the U.S., defeating Henry Clay.
  43. 1832 Nov. 24

    South Carolina nullifies the Tariff of 1832, claiming that states have the right to nullify Federal laws they deem unconstitutional. Calhoun and Jackson take opposite political sides of the nullification issue.
  44. 1832 Dec. 4

    Fourth annual message to Congress.
  45. 1832 Dec. 10

    Jackson issues proclamation denouncing nullification by South Carolina.
  46. 1832 Dec. 28

    John C. Calhoun resigns from the office of vice president.
  47. 1833

    British Parliament abolishes slave trade in British empire.
  48. 1833 Mar. 2

    Jackson signs the Force bill. The legislation authorizes the president to use armed forces to enforce Federal tariff laws, the collection of import duties, to secure or close ports, etc. The bill strengthens presidential power to address the nullification crisis and is an anti-secession measure.
  49. 1833 Apr. 12

    John Overton dies.
  50. 1833 Mar. 7

    Compromise Tariff of 1833, negotiated by Henry Clay and others, reduces tariff rates on a gradual basis over time, appeasing dissenting southerners.
  51. 1833 Mar. 15

    South Carolina rescinds the nullification ordinance.
  52. 1833 Mar. 4

    Second inaugural.
  53. 1833 May 6

    Assaulted by Robert B. Randolph, who had been dismissed from the Navy on embezzlement charges. Jackson declines to press charges.
  54. 1833 June 26

    Orders plans for removing federal deposits from the Second Bank of the U.S.
  55. 1833 Sept. 18

    Informs his cabinet of his intention to remove the bank deposits.
  56. 1833 Sept. 23-26

    Replaces secretary of the treasury William J. Duane, who opposes removal of the federal bank funds, with Roger B. Taney, who orders removal of the deposits. The U.S. Senate rejects Taney's nomination in June 1834.
    This is the house that Jack built. Lithograph, 1833. Satire on Jackson's decision to withdraw funds from the Second Bank of the U.S. and his firing of Treasury Secretary William J. Duane, depicting his Kitchen Cabinet as rats eating up the malt of "public Deposits." American Cartoon print series, Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-91447.
  57. 1833 Dec. 3

    Fifth annual message to Congress.
  58. 1834

    Rise of the Whig Party, led by Henry Clay.
  59. 1834 Mar. 28

    U.S. Senate censures Jackson over removal of the federal deposits.
    Set to between Old Hickory and Bully Nick. Lithograph, 1834. Pro-Jackson satire on the Bank Wars, depicting the Second Bank of the U.S. as an obese drunken woman (Mother Bank) accompanied by Nicholas Biddle, Daniel Webster, and Henry Clay. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-9650.
  60. 1834 Apr. 4

    Grandson Andrew Jackson III is born.
  61. 1834 Oct. 13

    Fire damages the Hermitage.
  62. 1835

    Texas wins independence from Mexico.
    John Ross, a Cherokee chief / drawn, printed & coloured at the Lithographic & Print Colouring Establishment, 94 Walnut St. Philadelphia: Daniel Rice and James G. Clark, c. 1843. John T. Bowen, lithographer. Ross (1790-1866) (Koo-wis-s-gu-wi or Guwisguwi) was Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1828 to 1866. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. LC-USZC4-3156.
  63. 1835 Jan. 1

    National debt extinguished.
  64. 1835 Jan. 30

    An assassination attempt against Jackson by Richard Lawrence occurs outside the U.S. Capitol building. Lawrence is thwarted when his pistols misfire and the elderly president fends him off with his cane.
  65. 1835 May 1

    Appoints Amos Kendall postmaster general.
  66. 1835 Spring

    Painter Asher Durand creates portrait of Jackson. It is considered by contemporaries to be an excellent likeness among many created of the president.
  67. 1835 Nov.-Dec.

    The Second Seminole War begins in Florida.
    Andrew Jackson, drawn from life and engraved by J. B. Longacre. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-117120.
  68. 1835 Dec. 7

    7th annual message to Congress. Suggests prohibition of the distribution of abolitionist literature by mail in the South.
  69. 1835 Dec. 27

    Nominates Roger B. Taney as Chief Justice of the U.S.
  70. 1835 Dec. 29

    Treaty of New Echota signed by Cherokee Nation leaders in Georgia.
  71. 1836 Mar.

    Federal charter of the Bank of the U.S. expires.
    The vision. Political hydrophobia, shewing the comfort of crowns, and how to obtain them. Lithograph published by E. Bisbee, 1834. Satire on Jackson's claim that his veto of the re-charter of the Second Bank of the U.S. and his subsequent campaign to destroy the bank was a battle over constitutionality. Jackson is depicted as King Andrew on a throne as the Capitol burns behind him. Martin Van Buren peeps out from behind a curtain. American cartoon print series, Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-1573.
  72. 1836 June 23

    Jackson signs the Surplus bill authorizing distribution of surplus federal funds to the states, a boon to Van Buren's prospects for the presidency.
  73. 1836 Nov.

    Democrat Martin Van Buren elected U.S. President.
    Caucus on the Surplus bill. Lithograph published by Henry R. Robinson, 1836. Satire on Jackson's endorsement of the Surplus bill, depicting Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and Van Buren's running mate, Richard M. Johnson. Jackson signed the bill aware that its supporters had sufficient political strength to over-ride a presidential veto. American cartoon prints series, Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LC-USZ62-1564.
  74. 1836 Dec. 19

    Niece Emily Donelson dies of tuberculosis at age 29, in Tennessee.
  75. 1837 Mar. 3

    Recognizes independence of Texas.
  76. 1837 Mar. 4

    Martin Van Buren inaugurated as the 8th President of the U.S.
  77. 1837 Mar. 7

    Jackson departs Washington.
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