Collection Items

  • Collection
    Civil Rights History Project One hundred and forty-five filmed oral history interviews with 175 participants in the civil rights movement in the United States and related documentation, created by the National Museum of African American History and Culture in partnership with the American Folklife Center, 2010-2016. The oral histories were conducted by historians Julian Bond, Taylor Branch, David P. Cline, Emilye Crosby, John Dittmer, Will Griffin, Hasan Kwame...
    • Contributor: Stewart, Eleanor - McDew, Charles - Hopkins, Evans D. - Magee, Clarence - Simpson, Euvester - Jones, Mary A. - Hicks, Gregory Vincent - Young, Sam - Tillow, Walter M. - Vivian, C. T. ... Stewart, Eleanor - McDew, Charles - Hopkins, Evans D. - Magee, Clarence - Simpson, Euvester - Jones, Mary A. - Hicks, Gregory Vincent - Young, Sam - Tillow, Walter M. - Vivian, C. T. - Mahone, Sam - Parker, Wheeler - Hill, Oliver W. - Anderson, Fletcher - Tillow, Kay - Dove, Samuel - Henderson, Juadine - Carlos, John - Adams-Johnson, Frankye - Funchess, Glenda - Derby, Doris Adelaide - Hicks, Robert Lawrence - Williams, Junius W. - Mulholland, Joan Trumpauer - Hrabowski, Freeman A. - Jenkins, Timothy Lionel - Jarmon, Charles - Tuttle, Rick - Library of Congress - McCarty, Michael D. - Montes, Carlos - Archive of Folk Culture (Library of Congress) - Grinnell, Gloria Claudette - Moldovan, Alfred - Arellanes, Gloria - Ackerman, Satoko Ito - Gaither, Thomas Walter - Browner, Clifford - Suggs, Harold - Abernathy, Donzaleigh - Miller, Carolyn - Zellner, Dorothy - Burras, Carol Cummings - Crosby, Emilye - Abernathy, Ralph David - Walker, Wyatt Tee - Dahmer, Ellie J. - Holloway, Eddie A. - Zapata, Luis - McLaurin, Charles - Howell, Embry - Anderson, William G. - Saunders, William - Carter, Robert L. - Varela, Maria - Walter, Mildred Pitts - Simmons, Gwendolyn Zoharah - Hildreth, Marilyn Luper - Richardson, Gloria - Crosby, Patricia A. - Bailey, D'army - Suggs, Frances L. - Cox, Courtland - Ackerman, David M. - Greene, Freddie - Anderson, Cynthia Baker - Smith, Jeanette - Leventhal, Willy S. (Willy Siegel) - Dahmer, Vernon - Bassett, Emmett W. - Lucy, William - Hicks, Charles Ray - Young, Carrie Lamar - Dittmer, John - Carawan, Guy - Caldwell, Ben R. - Robinson, Reginald - McCullar, Johnnie Ruth - McKinney, Samuel Berry - Jones, James Oscar - Newson, Moses J. - Sales, Ruby - Greenberg, Jack - Lowery, Joseph E. - Hamilton, Audrey Nell - Bennett, Geraldine Crawford - Ulmer, Joeann Anderson - Guyot, Lawrence - Head, Rosie M. - Alexander, Roberta - Glascoe, Myrtle Gonza - Duncan, Gwendolyn Annette - Cotton, Dorothy F. - Huggins, Ericka - Dixon, Elmer - Churchville, John Elliott - Cline, David P. - Siler, Charles E. - Brown, Amos C. (Amos Cleophilus) - Sherrod, Charles - Todd, Lisa Anderson - Broadway, Louise W. - George, Virginia Simms - Luper, Calvin - Holloway, Lucius - Branch, Raylawni G. - Crosby, David L. - Cleaver, Kathleen - Hutchings, Phil - Marshall, Cecilia - Burns, Julia Matilda - Brown, Robert J. - Griffin, Willie James - Finney, Ernest A., (Ernest Adolphus) - Noonan, Martha P. - Roxborough, Mildred Bond - Dudley, John F. - King, Lonnie C. - Perry, Matthew J. (Matthew James) - Jenkins, Willie Elliot - Jackson, Gertrude Newsome - Reece, Dwandalyn R. - McNichols, Steven - Hayling, Robert Bagner - Bassett, Priscilla - Russell, Bill - Seeger, Pete - Thelwell, Michael - Patton, Gwendolyn M. - Lawrence, William M. - Howell, Joseph T. - McClary, Robert - Fuller, Linda - Walker, Theresa Ann - Hicks, Darryl Robertson - Ladner, Dorie - Bates, Scott - Bruce, Walter - Blake, Harry - Bond, Julian - Miller, Grace H. - Long, Worth W. - Carawan, Candie - Conway, Purcell Maurice - Mtume, Norma - Paysour, Lafleur - National Museum of African American History and Culture (U.S.) - Williams, Cecil J. - Diamond, Dion T. - Mosnier, Joseph - Robinson, Betty Garman - Lawson, Jennifer - Guster, Leesco - Moore, E. Maynard - Ladner, Joyce A. - Miller, James E. - Branch, Taylor - Terry, Esther M. A. - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Jeffries, Hasan Kwame - Sellers, Cleveland - Hicks, Valeria Payton - Rosenberg, Jean Voelker - Strickland, William - Jenkins, Mary F. - Becton, Julius W. (Julius Wesley) - Richardson, Judy - Connor, Peggy Jean - Rosenberg, John M. - Sobol, Anne Buxton - Wright, Simeon - Collins, Barbara Maria - Sherrod, Shirley - Booker, Simeon - Dixon, Aaron Floyd - Sullivan, Patricia - Howard, Elbert - Bishop, John Melville - Taylor, Kieran Walsh - American Folklife Center - Jones, Jamila - Jones, Clarence - Geiger, Jack - Jones, Nathaniel Hawthorne - Vickers, Barbara Edna - Breaux, Toni - Camarillo, Mateo - Clark, Robert George - Brown, Harold K. - Avery, Annie Pearl - Holloway, Emma Kate - Sobol, Richard - Abernathy, Juandalynn R. - Southern Oral History Program
    • Date: 2010

    Collection Items: View 157 Items

  • Article
    Women in the Civil Rights Movement Many women played important roles in the Civil Rights Movement, from leading local civil rights organizations to serving as lawyers on school segregation lawsuits. Their efforts to lead the movement were often overshadowed by men, who still get more attention and credit for its successes in popular historical narratives and commemorations. Many women experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment within the movement and later...
    • Date: 1954
  • Article
    Music in the Civil Rights Movement African American spirituals, gospel, and folk music all played an important role in the Civil Rights Movement. Singers and musicians collaborated with ethnomusicologists and song collectors to disseminate songs to activists, both at large meetings and through publications. They sang these songs for multiple purposes: to motivate them through long marches, for psychological strength against harassment and brutality, and sometimes to simply pass the...
    • Date: 1958
  • Article
    Youth in the Civil Rights Movement At its height in the 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement drew children, teenagers, and young adults into a maelstrom of meetings, marches, violence, and in some cases, imprisonment. Why did so many young people decide to become activists for social justice? Joyce Ladner answers this question in her interview with the Civil Rights History Project, pointing to the strong support of her elders in...
    • Date: 1960
  • Article
    Voting Rights When Reconstruction ended in 1877, states across the South implemented new laws to restrict the voting rights of African Americans. These included onerous requirements of owning property, paying poll taxes, and passing literacy or civics exams. Many African Americans who attempted to vote were also threatened physically or feared losing their jobs. One of the major goals of the Civil Rights Movement was to...
    • Date: 1877
  • Article
    Nonviolent Philosophy and Self Defense The success of the movement for African American civil rights across the South in the 1960s has largely been credited to activists who adopted the strategy of nonviolent protest. Leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr., Jim Lawson, and John Lewis believed wholeheartedly in this philosophy as a way of life, and studied how it had been used successfully by Mahatma Gandhi to protest...
    • Date: 1954
  • Article
    The Murder of Emmett Till The murder of 14-year-old Emmett Till in 1955 brought nationwide attention to the racial violence and injustice prevalent in Mississippi. While visiting his relatives in Mississippi, Till went to the Bryant store with his cousins, and may have whistled at Carolyn Bryant. Her husband, Roy Bryant, and brother-in-law, J.W. Milam, kidnapped and brutally murdered Till, dumping his body in the Tallahatchie River. The newspaper...
    • Date: 1955
  • Article
    School Segregation and Integration The massive effort to desegregate public schools across the United States was a major goal of the Civil Rights Movement. Since the 1930s, lawyers from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) had strategized to bring local lawsuits to court, arguing that separate was not equal and that every child, regardless of race, deserved a first-class education. These lawsuits were combined...
    • Date: 1951
  • Article
    The March on Washington For many Americans, the calls for racial equality and a more just society emanating from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Aug. 28, 1963, deeply affected their views of racial segregation and intolerance in the nation.  Since the occasion of March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom 50 years ago, much has been written and discussed about the moment, its impact on society,...
    • Date: 1963
  • Article
    Collecting and Presenting the Freedom Struggle at the Library of Congress What makes a mass social movement? How is it defined? What happened as part of the movement and why? What are its obvious features and its hidden aspects? Who are the actors, both famous and obscure? These are among the prominent questions to keep in mind when we seek to understand the historical origins, changing meanings, and the current resonance of social and cultural...
    • Date: 1954
  • Web Page
    Rights and Access The individuals documented in these collection items retain copyright and related rights to the use of their recorded and written testimonies and memories. They have granted the Library of Congress and the Smithsonian Institution permission to provide access to their interviews and related materials for purposes that are consistent with each agency’s educational mission, such as publication and transmission, in whole or in part,...
  • Web Page
    Related Resources Finding Aids American Folklife Center National Visionary Leadership Project interviews and conference collection
  • Film, Video
    Barbara Edna Vickers oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Saint Augustine, Florida, 2011 September 13. Barbara Vickers recalls growing up in St. Augustine, Florida, working in a shipyard in New York during World War II, and returning to St. Augustine with her husband. She remembers working as a beautician, working with her neighbor, Dr. Robert Hayling, to organize civil rights protests and participating in kneel-ins in segregated churches. She also discusses raising money to build a monument to the...
    • Contributor: Mosnier, Joseph - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Vickers, Barbara Edna
    • Date: 2011

    Resource:
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  • Film, Video
    Candie Carawan and Guy Hughes Carawan oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in New Market, Tennessee, 2011 September 19. Candie Carawan recalls attending Fisk University as an exchange student and meeting civil rights activists in Nashville, Tennessee. She discusses meeting Guy Carawan at the Highlander Folk School, the importance of music to the civil rights movement, and Guy's work to record singers involved with the movement. The two perform several songs, including "Tree of Life," "Eyes on the Prize," and "We Shall Overcome."
    • Contributor: Carawan, Guy - Mosnier, Joseph - Carawan, Candie - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.)
    • Date: 2011

    Resource:
    View 24 Images

  • Film, Video
    Gloria Hayes Richardson oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in New York, New York, 2011 July 19. Recorded in New York, New York, on July 19, 2011. Civil Rights History Project Collection (AFC 2010/039), Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. The Civil Rights History Project is a joint project of the American Folklife Center, Library of Congress and the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of African American History and Culture to collect video and audio recordings...
    • Contributor: Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Mosnier, Joseph - Richardson, Gloria
    • Date: 2011

    Resource:
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  • Film, Video
    Jack Greenberg oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in New York, New York, 2011 July 18. Jack Greenberg remembers attending Columbia University Law School, working for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, and arguing the Brown v. Board of Education case. He discusses working on many other civil rights cases, such as Coke v. City of Atlanta, Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, and Griggs v. Duke Power.
    • Contributor: Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Mosnier, Joseph - Greenberg, Jack
    • Date: 2011

    Resource:
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  • Film, Video
    D'Army Bailey oral history interview conducted by David P. Cline in Memphis, Tennessee, 2013 August 13. D'Army Bailey describes growing up in Memphis, Tennessee, the influence of the Crump political machine in city politics, and his involvement with the Memphis NAACP at an early age. He talks about his participation in the civil rights activism as a student at Southern University, for which he was ultimately expelled. Bailey describes his move to Clark University in Massachusetts, where he became involved...
    • Contributor: Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Bailey, D'army - Cline, David P.
    • Date: 2013

    Resource:
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  • Film, Video
    Scott Bates oral history interview conducted by David P. Cline in Sewanee, Tennessee, 2013 June 20. Professor Scott Bates describes his career as an educator and civil rights supporter in Sewanee, Tennessee. He discusses his memories of race relations on U.S. Army bases during World War II, and he describes how he moved from the Midwest to Sewanee, Tennessee to become a college instructor of French. Once in Sewanee, Bates soon learned about the Highlander Folk School, where he attended...
    • Contributor: Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Cline, David P. - Bates, Scott
    • Date: 2013

    Resource:
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  • Film, Video
    Mildred Bond Roxborough oral history interview conducted by Julian Bond in New York, New York, 2010 October 29. Roxborough discusses how she became active in the Civil Rights Movement at the age of nine, when she sold subscriptions to the NAACP The Crisis magazine. Roxborough began working with the NAACP as a fieldworker and worked in a variety of administrative positions including as director of development.
    • Contributor: Bond, Julian - Roxborough, Mildred Bond - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.)
    • Date: 2010

    Resource:
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  • Film, Video
    Glenda Funchess oral history interview conducted by Emilye Crosby in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, 2015 December 02. Glenda Funchess speaks about her childhood in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. She remembers her experiences as one of the first children to desegregate Hattiesburg schools, as well as her involvement in Freedom Summer and at the Mount Zion Church Freedom School. She also discusses the relationship between churches and the Civil Rights Movement, and current civil rights activism and historical preservation.
    • Contributor: Funchess, Glenda - Bishop, John Melville - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Crosby, Emilye
    • Date: 2015
  • Film, Video
    Calvin Luper oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2011 May 24. Calvin Luper remembers his mother, Clara Luper, and her leadership in Oklahoma City's National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Youth Council. He recalls participating in sit-ins in drug stores and restaurants, and hosting a radio show with his mother. He also remembers other leaders in Oklahoma's civil rights movement, including Dr. Charles N. Atkins, E. Melvin Porter, and Ada Lois Sipuel.
    • Contributor: Mosnier, Joseph - Luper, Calvin - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.)
    • Date: 2011

    Resource:
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  • Film, Video
    Shirley Miller Sherrod oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Albany, Georgia, 2011 September 15. Shirley Sherrod recalls growing up on a farm in Baker County, Georgia, her father's murder, and joining the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). She remembers traveling to Washington, D. C., to protest the Justice Department, and the attacks on her husband, Reverend Charles Sherrod, a civil rights leader in Albany, Georgia. She also discusses starting the New Communities Land Trust and working for the...
    • Contributor: Mosnier, Joseph - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Sherrod, Shirley
    • Date: 2011

    Resource:
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  • Film, Video
    Dion Diamond oral history interview conducted by David Cline in Washington, District of Columbia, 2015 December 13. Dion Diamond discusses his activism and experiences during the Civil Rights Movement. He remembers growing up in segregated Petersburg, Virginia, and attending Howard University, where he began organizing for civil rights. He also recalls his work in Mississippi and Louisiana as a Freedom Rider and activist, his studies at University of Wisconsin and Harvard University, and his later career. Finally, he speaks about contemporary...
    • Contributor: Diamond, Dion T. - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Cline, David P. - Bishop, John Melville
    • Date: 2015
  • Film, Video
    Virginia Simms George oral history interview conducted by Emilye Crosby in Northborough, Massachusetts, 2013 August 24. Virginia Simms George remembers growing up in segregated Newport News, Virginia, attending Virginia Union University, and her desire to become a lawyer. She recalls participating in a protest at Thalhimers department store in Richmond, Virginia. She discusses her work as a teacher, counselor, and volunteering for many organizations. She also discusses the commemoration of the protests in Richmond, and her thoughts on racism and...
    • Contributor: George, Virginia Simms - Civil Rights History Project (U.S.) - Crosby, Emilye
    • Date: 2013

    Resource:
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