Collection Items

  • Article
    Brazil: Rights of Children and Adolescents in Digital Environments Regulated On April 5, 2024, Brazil’s Ministry of Human Rights and Citizenship enacted Resolution No. 245, which provides for the rights of children and adolescents in digital environments. The resolution aims to address the risks of violations, exploitation, and abuse to which children are exposed through their use of digital technology. (Ministério dos Direitos Humanos e … Continue reading “Brazil: Rights of Children and Adolescents...
    • Contributor: Soares, Eduardo
    • Date: 2024-04-14
  • Article
    Zambia: Amendment to Marriage Act Enacted, Child Marriage Outlawed On December 22, 2023, Zambia enacted an amendment (amendment act) to the 1918 Marriage Act that raised the minimum marriageable age to 18 for all marriages, including those concluded under customary law. The amendment act adopts the Zambian Constitution’s definition of the term “child” as “a person who has attained, or is below, the age … Continue reading “Zambia: Amendment to Marriage Act Enacted,...
    • Contributor: Goitom, Hanibal
    • Date: 2024-02-05
  • Article
    Scotland: Court Upholds UK Government Order to Block Gender Recognition Bill from Becoming Law On December 8, 2023, the Court of Session in Scotland issued an opinion refusing a petition for judicial review of the Gender Recognition Reform (Scotland) Bill (Prohibition on Submission for Royal Assent) Order 2023 and upholding the order, which blocks the Gender Recognition Reform (Scotland) Bill by prohibiting it from being submitted to receive royal … Continue reading “Scotland: Court Upholds UK Government Order...
    • Contributor: Feikert-Ahalt, Clare
    • Date: 2024-01-23
  • Article
    Brazil: New Law Grants Special Pension to Children or Adolescents Orphaned due to Femicide On October 31, 2023, Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva signed into law legislation that creates a special pension for children and dependents under 18 years of age who have been orphaned due to the crime of femicide, as defined in article 121(§ 2)(VI) of Brazil’s Penal Code (Código Penal, Decreto-Lei No. 2.848, de … Continue reading “Brazil: New Law Grants Special Pension...
    • Contributor: Soares, Eduardo
    • Date: 2023-11-29
  • Article
    Pakistan: Balochistan Government Drafts Bill Outlawing Child Marriage On March 22, 2023, the government of Balochistan province in Pakistan reportedly informed Pakistan’s Federal Shariat Court (FSC) that it had finalized a bill outlawing child marriage and would be submitting it to the provincial assembly for approval soon.Background to the BillThe province of Sindh enacted Pakistan’s first law prohibiting child marriages, called the Sindh … Continue reading “Pakistan: Balochistan Government Drafts Bill Outlawing...
    • Contributor: Ahmad, Tariq
    • Date: 2023-04-19
  • Article
    Japan: Database of Teachers Who Committed Obscene Acts against Children Begins Operating A database of teachers who lost their license for committing obscene acts against children began operating in Japan on April 1, 2023. The Act on the Prevention of Sexual Violence by Educational Personnel (Act No. 57 of 2021), which took effect on April 1, 2022, obligated the national government to establish the new database. (Act … Continue reading “Japan: Database of Teachers Who Committed...
    • Contributor: Umeda, Sayuri
    • Date: 2023-04-11
  • Article
    United Kingdom: Government Blocks Scottish Gender Bill On January 16, 2023, the government of the United Kingdom (U.K.), for the first time, made an order using section 35 of the Scotland Act 1998 to prevent a Scottish Parliament bill from moving forward to receive Royal Assent and become law. The blocked bill is the Gender Recognition Reform (Scotland) Bill, which was passed … Continue reading “United Kingdom: Government Blocks Scottish Gender...
    • Contributor: Feikert-Ahalt, Clare
    • Date: 2023-02-09
  • Article
    Malaysia: Federal Court Holds That Illegitimate Child Can Inherit from Father Who Died Intestate On January 18, 2023, the Federal Court of Malaysia, Malaysia’s highest court, issued a decision in a case in which the illegitimate non-Muslim daughter of a businessman who died intestate sought the right to inherit a portion of his estate. (Tan Kah Fatt & Tan Sin Yee v Tan Ying, Rayuan Sivil No.: 02(f)-82-10/2019(B) (Jan. … Continue reading “Malaysia: Federal Court Holds That Illegitimate...
    • Contributor: Buchanan, Kelly
    • Date: 2023-02-07
  • Article
    Zambia: Children's Code Act Enacted On August 24, 2022, Zambia’s president, Hakainde Hichilema, signed into law a comprehensive law governing children, the Children’s Code Act (Act No. 12) of 2022. The act, which includes 19 parts and 198 provisions, provides for a comprehensive legal framework to govern matters affecting children for the first time in the country’s history. It brought … Continue reading “Zambia: Children’s Code Act Enacted”
    • Contributor: Goitom, Hanibal
    • Date: 2022-12-29
  • Article
    New Zealand: Supreme Court Declares Minimum Voting Age of 18 Inconsistent with Bill of Rights Act On November 21, 2022, the Supreme Court of New Zealand released its decision in the case of Make It 16 Inc v Attorney-General [2022] NZSC 134 (Decision). The appellant in the case, a group seeking to have the voting age lowered from 18 years to 16 years, had argued that the current minimum voting age … Continue reading “New Zealand: Supreme Court Declares Minimum...
    • Contributor: Buchanan, Kelly
    • Date: 2022-11-24
  • Article
    Norway: Supreme Court Rules Minors Enjoy Greater Protection under Hate Speech Provision than Adults On September 8, 2022, the Norwegian Supreme Court in a 3–2 decision ruled that the age of the recipient of an offensive statement affects whether the statement constitutes hate speech under Norwegian law. (Decision HR-2022-1707-A.)The issue in the case was the meaning of a paragraph addressing hate speech in section 185 of the Norwegian Penal … Continue reading “Norway: Supreme Court Rules Minors Enjoy...
    • Contributor: Hofverberg, Elin
    • Date: 2022-10-17
  • Article
    European Union: New Rules on Cross-Border Parental-Responsibility Disputes and Child Abduction Take Effect On August 1, 2022, the Brussels IIb Regulation took effect, which provides updated rules for cross-border disputes in the European Union (EU) regarding parental responsibility and child abduction. It repeals and replaces the Brussels IIa Regulation, which has been in effect since March 2005. The regulation aims to provide more efficient rules and expedite procedures … Continue reading “European Union: New Rules on Cross-Border...
    • Contributor: Gesley, Jenny
    • Date: 2022-08-10
  • Article
    Brazil: New Law Modifies Measures to Be Taken Against Parental Alienation On May 18, 2022, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro signed into law Law No. 14,340, which amended Law No. 12,318 of August 26, 2010, to modify procedures to protect children from parental alienation, and Law No. 8,069 of July 13, 1990 (Child and Adolescent Statute), to establish additional procedures for the suspension of family power.According to … Continue reading “Brazil: New Law Modifies Measures to...
    • Contributor: Soares, Eduardo
    • Date: 2022-07-04
  • Article
    Brazil: New Decree Creates Comprehensive Protection Program for Children and Adolescents On May 18, 2022, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro issued Decree No. 11,074, which amended Decree No. 9,579 of November 22, 2018, and created the Comprehensive Protection Program for Children and Adolescents – Protect Brazil and its management committee (comitê gestor).Decree No. 9,579 consolidated normative acts published by the federal executive branch that provide for infants, … Continue reading “Brazil: New Decree Creates Comprehensive Protection...
    • Contributor: Soares, Eduardo
    • Date: 2022-06-22
  • Article
    Brazil: New Law Creates Protective Measures for Child Victims of Domestic Violence On May 24, 2022, Law No. 14,344, creating new mechanisms for preventing and confronting domestic and family violence against children and adolescents, was signed into law by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro. The provisions of the law were formulated in accordance with articles 226(§ 8) and 227(§ 4) of the Federal Constitution and with specific provisions … Continue reading “Brazil: New Law Creates Protective Measures...
    • Contributor: Soares, Eduardo
    • Date: 2022-06-15
  • Article
    Egypt: Cabinet Approves Draft Law on Criminalizing Underage Marriage On April 12, 2022, the Egyptian Cabinet approved a draft law on criminalizing underage marriages in Egypt. The draft law would punish the parents of the underage bride and groom, the officiator conducting such a marriage, and any adult over the age of 18 who marries a minor. The main objective of the draft law … Continue reading “Egypt: Cabinet Approves Draft Law on...
    • Contributor: Sadek, George
    • Date: 2022-05-04
  • Article
    Switzerland: Popular Initiative to Protect Young People from Tobacco Advertisements Approved On February 13, 2022, the popular initiative “Yes, to the Protection of Children and Young Adults from Tobacco Advertising (No Tobacco Ads for Children and Young Adults)” reached the necessary majority for approval in Switzerland. The goal of the popular initiative was to prohibit tobacco advertisements wherever they are visible to children and young people — … Continue reading “Switzerland: Popular Initiative to Protect...
    • Contributor: Gesley, Jenny
    • Date: 2022-03-01
  • Article
    New Zealand: Bill Prohibiting Conversion Therapy Passed On February 15, 2022, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Conversion Practices Prohibition Legislation Bill, “an omnibus bill to prohibit conversion practices that seek to change or suppress a person’s sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression.” The bill defines conversion practices as any practice, sustained effort, or treatment thatis directed towards someone because of … Continue reading “New Zealand: Bill Prohibiting Conversion Therapy...
    • Contributor: Buchanan, Kelly
    • Date: 2022-02-16
  • Article
    Italy: Single and Universal Allowance for Dependent Children Established On December 31, 2021, Legislative Decree No. 230 of December 21, 2021 (L.D. No. 230) entered into effect in Italy, with the purpose of establishing the Single and Universal Allowance for Dependent Children effective March 1, 2022. The allowance consists of a monthly economic benefit payable during one year to households on the basis of their … Continue reading “Italy: Single and Universal Allowance...
    • Contributor: Figueroa, Dante
    • Date: 2022-02-06
  • Article
    Austria: Constitutional Court Holds Unmarried Couples May Adopt Together In a decision published on January 10, 2022, the Austrian Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof, VfGH) held that the Austrian Civil Code does not exclude unmarried couples from joint or second parent (successive) adoption. Even though it rejected the applicants’ claim that the relevant section of the Austrian Civil Code was unconstitutional, the Constitutional Court ruled that … Continue reading “Austria: Constitutional Court Holds Unmarried Couples...
    • Contributor: Gesley, Jenny
    • Date: 2022-02-02
  • Article
    Portugal: New Law Allows Medically Assisted Procreation Through Postmortem Insemination On November 12, 2021, Law No. 72/2021 (Lei No. 72/2021, de 12 de novembro) was published in Portugal’s Official Gazette of the Republic. Law No. 72/2021 amended Law No. 32 of July 26, 2006 (Lei No. 32/2006, de 26 de julho) to permit the use of medically assisted procreation through insemination after the death of … Continue reading “Portugal: New Law Allows Medically Assisted...
    • Contributor: Soares, Eduardo
    • Date: 2021-12-13
  • Article
    England: Children's Transgender Consent Judgment Overturned on Appeal On September 17, 2021, the Court of Appeal in England overturned a controversial decision from the High Court in the case of Bell v. Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust et al. In the case that was the subject of the appeal, the High Court originally ruled that patients under the age of 16 years … Continue reading “England: Children’s Transgender Consent Judgment Overturned...
    • Contributor: Feikert-Ahalt, Clare
    • Date: 2021-11-03
  • Article
    Malaysia: High Court Holds Malaysian Mothers Can Confer Citizenship on Children Born Abroad On September 9, 2021, Malaysian news sources reported that the High Court in Kuala Lumpur had issued a decision determining that the Federal Constitution of Malaysia allows children born outside of Malaysia to Malaysian mothers and foreign fathers to be automatically conferred citizenship. The decision of the court has not yet been publicly released.According to … Continue reading “Malaysia: High Court Holds Malaysian Mothers...
    • Contributor: Buchanan, Kelly
    • Date: 2021-09-26
  • Article
    England and Wales: Home Office Policy Regarding Family Reunification and Unaccompanied Children Ruled Unlawful On July 5, 2021, the High Court of England and Wales ruled in R (on the Application of Safe Passage International) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department (Decision) that two parts of the Home Office’s policy relating to European law on the reunification of asylum seekers with their families under the Dublin III … Continue reading “England and Wales: Home Office Policy...
    • Contributor: Feikert-Ahalt, Clare
    • Date: 2021-08-30
  • Article
    International: UNESCO Calls for Preservation of Afghanistan's Cultural Heritage, Unhindered Right to Education On August 19, 2021, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) made a statement that “calls for the preservation of Afghanistan’s cultural heritage in its diversity, in full respect of international law, and for taking all necessary precautions to spare and protect cultural heritage from damage and looting.” In addition, the director general … Continue reading “International: UNESCO Calls for Preservation of...
    • Contributor: Boomer, Elizabeth
    • Date: 2021-08-24