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Collection Fiddle Tunes of the Old Frontier: The Henry Reed Collection

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Glossary | Publications related to Henry Reed | Publications about the context and revival of old-time music | Publications about tunes | Published recordings of tunes

Glossary of Musical and Subject Cataloging Terms

Airs
Tunes. In this collection, the term is reserved for slower-paced instrumental tunes derived from a secular song or hymn.
Anecdotes
Short narratives describing events or persons.
Arpeggio
A musical element of a few notes made by playing the notes of a chord separately rather than simultaneously. Hence the verb "arpeggiate."
Bar
Measure; small grouping of musical beats. In musical notation, vertical lines on the staff enclose a bar.
Beat
Metrical or rhythmic stress, groupings of which constitute the meter or "time" of music.
Blues
Musical genre of African-American origin often using three phrases to a musical strain or textual stanza.
The blues are usually sung with instrumental accompaniment but may be purely instrumental.
Bowing
The technique of handling the bow or pattern of bowstrokes used when playing a stringed instrument.
Bowstroke
The articulation of the bow in a single direction to play a note or group of notes; often shortened to "stroke."
Breakdowns
Instrumental tunes in duple meter (2/4 or 4/4) at a quick dance speed. This general term in the American South is roughly equivalent to the term "reel" elsewhere in the English-speaking world. But it does not imply a particular type of dance; a "breakdown" tune may be used for square dances, longways dances, or other group dances, as well as for solo fancy dancing.
Cadence
The final notes of a strain in a tune, normally resolving on the tonic.
Chord
A group of three or more musical tones sounded together.
Chromatic
A term referring to the use of all the half-tones in a scale.
Circular
A term for tunes that do not resolve at the tonic at the end of a strain but move continuously into the next strain.
Clogs
A class of dance tunes drawn from a popular nineteenth-century dance form associated originally with Lancashire, England, and with wooden-soled shoes ("clogs") worn by the dancers to accentuate the rhythm of the steps. In some areas of the Appalachians "clog" has come to signify both the tune and the dance step for which it is intended.
Compass
The range of pitches between a tune's lowest and highest notes, expressed here as the number of notes in the diatonic scale. Thus a tune with the range of an octave would have a compass of 7.
Diatonic
A term referring to the standard seven-tone scale.
Dominant
The fifth degree of the diatonic scale, measured upward from the tonic.
Double stop
Two musical tones noted together. On the fiddle, a double stop is technically two notes created by using fingers simultaneously on two strings, but the term is sometimes used when one or both of the notes are open strings.
Drone
A single tone sounded continuously along with other melodic tones. On the fiddle, the term is sometimes used to refer to the practice of sounding open strings simultaneously with adjacent strings on which the melody is being played.
Duple
Occurring in groups of two; used to refer to rhythmic patterns such as 2/4 or 4/4.
Fiddle
The violin; a four-stringed instrument played with a bow. The terms "fiddle" and "violin" are used interchangeably by fiddlers like Henry Reed, though they and other Americans sometimes use "violin" as the more formal and "fiddle" as the more informal word. For Henry Reed, "fiddle" and "violin" both refer to the modern violin, the basic design of which was developed in Italy in the seventeenth century and had spread throughout Europe and the Americas by the later eighteenth century. There is a tradition of locally crafted violins in the Appalachians, but many of the instruments current in the region were manufactured elsewhere in the United States or Europe. Other kinds and shapes of fiddle, including "cigarbox fiddles" and other simple children's instruments, are found here and there in the Appalachians but are thought of as children's toys, training instruments, or novelties.
Fiddle tunes
Tunes played on and in many cases designed for the fiddle. Most fiddle tunes are dance tunes, but some are played purely for auditory appreciation, and some are slower airs adapted from vocal melodies.
Fife
A small transverse (side-blown) flute, used in America in the fife and drum corps that historically accompanied local militias.
French harp
The harmonica. In the Appalachian South "French harp," often shortened to "harp," is the preferred term for the instrument.
Frog
The small apparatus attached to the fiddle bow stick near its base, to which the hairs of the bow are attached.
Genre
An artistic category characterized by a particular style, form, or content. Most genres of instrumental music are also genres for dancing or marching.
Guitar
A six-stringed instrument plucked or strummed with either fingers or picks. In the Appalachian South, guitars are flat-backed and are typically picked or strummed with a single flatpick. In this collection the guitar, when it is used, provides chords and rhythm in accompaniment to the fiddle.
Harmonica
A small, hand-held wind instrument on which tones are produced by exhaling and inhaling into recessed air slots. In the Appalachian South, the harmonicas play an ordinary diatonic scale but not the "chromatic" intervals between the diatonic scale tones. They are thus sold in separate models to play in different keys, and some musicians keep multiple harmonicas (a G-harmonica, a C-harmonica, a D-harmonica, and so forth) in order to play with other instruments. Also known as French harp.
Harp
A shortening of "French harp," or harmonica.
Hornpipes
A class of dance tunes, or the dance for which those tunes are intended as musical accompaniment, relating to a fancy solo dance popular from the later eighteenth century into the twentieth century. An earlier British musical form called the hornpipe, in 3/2 time, is musically unrelated to the 4/4 hornpipe. The music for hornpipes is typically in 4/4 time and is played somewhat slower than reels. It often involves melodically complex and elaborately arpeggiated tunes. In the Appalachian South, there are not many hornpipes in the repertories of fiddlers, and they often seem to be converging in tempo and style with the larger "breakdown" category.
Instrumentals
Tunes designed for and performed on a musical instrument without use of the voice.
Jigs
A class of dance tunes originating in a British dance form; or the dance for which those tunes are intended as musical accompaniment. Jig tunes in the English-speaking world are normally in 6/8 time. The slip jig in 9/8 time is a different genre, as is the jig of the American minstrel stage in 2/4 time. Jigs in 6/8 time are uncommon in the American South, and there is evidence that some earlier 6/8-time jigs have been recast into 2/4 or 4/4-time breakdowns.
Key
The tonality of a scale; the organization of the pitches of a piece of music around a tonal center, or tonic.
Marches
Tunes created or adapted for walking or marching in groups. In nineteenth-century America, marches were played by the fife and drum corps that accompanied local militia, as well as by military and civic brass bands.
Measure
Bar; pattern of musical beats. In musical notation, vertical lines on the staff enclose a measure.
Melody
Tune; for instrumental music, an arrangement of notes typically comprising at least two strains, each of which is repeated.
Meter
"Time" in music; a pattern of regularly recurring rhythmic pulses or beats, whether heard or imagined.
Music transcription
Notation; the system of writing used to represent music.
Narratives
Spoken or narrated stories.
Notation
Transcription; the system of writing used to represent music.
Note
A single tone, the smallest musical unit in a melody or tune. In notation, a note is the symbol indicating the duration and pitch of a musical sound by its shape and position on the staff.
Nut
The screw at the base of the fiddle bow stick that tightens the bow hairs.
Phrase
A short musical expression, several of which comprise an entire tune or melody. The phrase structure provides insight into the shape, aesthetics, and psychodynamics of the tune. The fiddle tunes in this collection typically have two strains, each of which is composed of four phrases or eight subphrases. In the Musical Features section of the bibliographic record for each tune, phrases are indicated by capital letters and subphrases are in parentheses in lowercase letters. Thus a phrase structure described as ABA'B QRQS (abcd ab'cd qrst qrud) indicates a tune of two strains, each composed of four phrases. The first strain (ABA'B) consists of an initial phrase (A), a different second phrase (B), a third phrase repeating the first phrase with a significant alteration (A'), and a fourth phrase repeating the second phrase (B). The same first strain can be broken down into eight subphrases: (abcd) repeated with a significant alteration of the second subphrase (ab'cd).
Pitch
The highness or lowness of sound or intonation; the frequency of sound waves producing a sound. Thus Henry Reed's A-string, if tuned to the current standard for the pitch of A, would vibrate at a pitch with the frequency of 440 cycles per second.
Polkas
A class of dance tunes originating in nineteenth-century central Europe that became popular in the United States beginning in the 1840s; or the lively couple dance for which those tunes are intended as musical accompaniment.
Quicksteps
Fast military marches, often in 6/8 time.
Rags
A class of syncopated dance tunes that emerged in folk and popular music in America around the turn of the nineteenth to twentieth century. The musical style is sometimes called "ragtime."
Reels
A class of dance tunes in duple meter (2/4 or 4/4 time), played at a fast tempo. The reel as a dance was originally a "longways" dance with couples forming facing lines, but the reel as a tune class is used for all sorts of group dances. In the American South the reel class has expanded into the large and generic breakdown class of dance tunes.
Rendition
The pattern in which strains are arranged within a particular performance of a tune. Most, but not all, strains in this collection are repeated, and there may be variation from performance to performance in whether a strain is repeated. In the Musical Features section of the bibliographic record for each tune, the strains are numbered (1, 2, etc.), and "r" indicates that the strain is repeated. A rendition described as 1r-2r-1r indicates that the tune is composed of two strains, and that Henry Reed played the first strain twice, followed by the second strain twice, followed by the first strain twice.
Rhythm
The pattern of musical movement through time.
Scale
The notes used as building blocks in constructing a particular tune.
Schottisches
A class of dance tunes originating in nineteenth-century Germany emulating Scottish music; or the dance for which those tunes are intended as musical accompaniment. The tunes are in 4/4 time, the pace is lively but slower than reels, and the music is characterized by dotted rhythmic pairs (alternating long and short notes). The schottische (sometimes spelled "schottisch") became popular in America beginning in the 1840s. Schottisches remain a popular class of tune in twentieth-century tradition, though less in the South than elsewhere.
Scotch snap
An inverted dotted rhythmic pair (short note on the beat followed by a long note after the beat).
Slur
A single bowstroke that incorporates more than one note.
Staff
The five horizontal lines on which musical notation is written.
Strain
A complete unit of musical expression composed of multiple phrases and usually resolving with a cadence to the tonic at the end. The instrumental tunes in this collection normally consist of two strains, each of which is repeated before proceeding to the other. In the Musical Features section of the bibliographic record for each tune, if the strains Henry Reed played were described as 2 (high-low, 4-4), it would indicate that the tune has two strains, that the high strain precedes the low strain, and that each strain consists of four measures.
Stroke
Bowstroke; the articulation of the fiddle bow in a single direction to play a note or group of notes.
Strathspeys
A class of Scottish dance tunes in 4/4 time, lively but slower than reels; or the dance for which these tunes are played. Strathspeys are characterized by dotted rhythms, including the Scotch snap.
Tempo
The speed of a musical piece. Henry Reed discusses tempo in his performance of a clog, pointing out that the tempo should be moderate to enable the dancers to keep up with the music.
Time
Meter, as in "3/4 time."
Tonality
Key; the organization of the pitches of a piece of music around a tonal center, or tonic.
Tone
A sound of definite pitch; a note.
Tonic
Tonal center, or first degree of the diatonic scale. Most of the tunes in this collection end on the tonic, although a few end on the dominant or are "circular."
Tune
Melody; for instrumental music, a complete melody consisting typically of at least two strains, each of which is repeated.
Waltzes
A class of dance tunes in 3/4 time; or the couple dance for which those tunes are played. The waltz has been popular in America since the beginning of the nineteenth century.

Publications related to Henry Reed

The following publications and Web sites contain information about Henry Reed.

NOTE: The Library of Congress does not maintain these Internet sites. Users should direct concerns about these links to their respective site administrators or Web masters.

  • Carter, Thomas. "Looking for Henry Reed: Confessions of a Revivalist." In Sounds of the South, edited by Daniel W. Patterson, 73-89. Chapel Hill: Occasional Papers, Number 1, Southern Folklife Collection, Manuscripts Department, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina, 1991.
  • Gura, Philip F. "Some Thoughts on the Revival: Alan Jabbour and Old-Time Music." The Old-Time Herald 2 (May-July 1991): 24-48.
  • Jabbour, Alan. "Creativity and Aging: Some Thoughts from a Folk Cultural Perspective." In Perspectives on Aging: Exploding the Myths, edited by Priscilla W. Johnston, 139-49. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1981.
  • Krassen, Miles. Masters of Old-Time Fiddling. New York: Oak Publications, 1983.
  • Reed, Terry. Henry Reed Memorial. http://www.henryreed.org/ External, accessed April 5, 2001.
  • Screven, Tom. "An Interview with Alan Jabbour: Imminent Folklorist Tells of His Background and Interest in State's Music." Goldenseal 3 (July-August 1977): 10-14, 58-61.

Publications about the context and revival of old-time music

  • The following publications provide further information on the performance, documentation, and study of fiddle tunes, particularly in the Upper South.
  • NOTE: The Library of Congress does not maintain these Internet sites. Users should direct concerns about these links to their respective site administrators or Web masters.
  • Blaustein, Richard Jason. "Rethinking Folk Revivalism: Grass-Roots Preservation and Folk Romanticism." In Transforming Tradition, edited by Neil V. Rosenberg, 258-74. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.
  • ---. "Traditional Music and Social Change: The Old Time Fiddlers Association Movement in the United States." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1975.
  • Burman-Hall, Linda C. "Southern American Folk Fiddling: Context and Style." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1974.
  • Howard, Rachel I., Gregory K. Jenkins, Scott R. Prouty, and Kathy J. Shambaugh. West Virginia Collections in the Archive of Folk Culture acquired through 1990. LCFAFA No. 20, edited by Joseph C. Hickerson. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, June 1997. Electronic version available at www.loc.gov/folklife/guides/WestVirginia.html.
  • Jabbour, Alan. "The Fiddle in the Blue Ridge." In Blue Ridge Folk Instruments and Their Makers, edited by Beth Worley and Vaughn Webb. A catalog from an exhibit of the same name. Ferrum, Va.: Ferrum College, 1993.
  • Kaufman, Alan. Beginning Old-Time Fiddle. New York: Oak Publications, 1977.
  • Lilly, John, ed. Mountains of Music: West Virginia Traditional Music from Goldenseal. Music in American Life Series. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
  • Lynch, David. The Old-Time Music Home Page. Ashville, N.C.: Southern Music Network, 1998. http://www.oldtimemusic.com External, accessed April 12, 2000.
  • Milnes, Gerald. Play of a Fiddle: Traditional Music, Dance, and Folklore in West Virginia. Lexington: The University of Kentucky Press, 1999.
  • Wolfe, Charles. The Devil's Box: Masters of Southern Fiddling. Nashville and London: The Country Music Foundation Press and Vanderbilt University Press, 1997.

Publications about tunes

The following publications and Web sites contain information about, or transcriptions of, instrumental tunes and songs, including those cited in this online presentation.

NOTE: The Library of Congress does not maintain these Internet sites. Users should direct concerns about these links to their respective site administrators or Web masters.

  • "A. Shattuck's Book [ca. 1801]." Music Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • Adam, E. F. Old Time Fiddlers' Favorite Barn Dance Tunes. St. Louis: E. F. Adam, 1928.
  • Ames, Mrs. L. D. "The Missouri Play-Party." Journal of American Folklore 24 (July-Sept. 1911): 295-318.
  • Artley, Malvin. "The West Virginia Country Fiddler: An Aspect in the Development of Folk Music in America." Ph.D. diss., Roosevelt University, 1955.
  • Astor, G. Astor's Twenty Four Country Dances for the Year 1807. London: G. Astor, ca. 1808.
  • Bayard, Samuel P. Dance to the Fiddle, March to the Fife: Instrumental Folk Tunes in Pennsylvania. University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1982.
  • ---, ed. Hill Country Tunes: Instrumental Folk Music of Southwestern Pennsylvania. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, vol. 39. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1944.
  • ---. "Scales and Ranges in Anglo-American Fiddle Tunes." In Two Penny Ballads and Four Dollar Whiskey: A Pennsylvania Folklore Miscellany, edited by Kenneth Goldstein and Robert Byington, 51-60. Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associates, Inc., 1966.
  • Bennett, David Parker. "A Study in Fiddle Tunes from Western North Carolina." M.A. thesis, University of North Carolina, 1940.
  • Bowman, A. S. The J. W. Pepper Collection of 500 Reels, Jigs . . . for Violin. Philadelphia: J. W. Pepper, 1908.
  • Bronson, Bertrand Harris. The Traditional Tunes of the Child Ballads. 4 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959-72.
  • Brother Jonathan's Collection of Violin Tunes. New York: Firth, Pond & Co., 1862.
  • Brown, Frank C. The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore. Vol. 5, The Music of the Folk Songs, edited by Jan Philip Schinhan. Durham: Duke University Press, 1962.
  • Buckley, James, and sons. Buckley's Violin Tunes. New York: Firth, Pond & Co., 1855.
  • Burchenal, Elizabeth. American Country-Dances, Volume 1: Twenty-Eight Contra-Dances Largely from the New England States. New York: G. Schirmer, 1918.
  • ---. Rinnce Na Eirann: National Dances of Ireland. New York: G. Schirmer, 1929.
  • Byerly, William. The Crystal Schottisch. New York: Firth, Pond & Co., 1853.
  • Carden, Allen D. The Missouri Harmony, or, A Collection of Psalm and Hymn Tunes, and Anthems: An Introduction to the Grounds and Rudiments of Music. 1825. Rev. ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
  • The Casket, or Musical Pocket Companion. New York: James L. Hewitt, ca. 1830.
  • Cazden, Norman. Dances from Woodland. 2nd ed. Bridgeport, Conn.: N. Cazden, 1955.
  • Chappell, William. A Collection of National English Airs. 2 vols. London: Chappell, 1840.
  • Coes, George H. George H. Coes' Album of Music. Boston: Louis P. Goullaud, 1876.
  • Coffin, Tristram P. The British Traditional Ballad in America. 1950. Rev. ed. Publications of the American Folklore Society, Bibliographical and Special Series. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977.
  • Crampton, C. Ward. The Second Folk Dance Book. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1930.
  • Davie's Caledonian Repository. Aberdeen: James Davie & Co., ca. 1825.
  • DeVille, Paul. Reels, Hornpipes, Jigs, Etc.: The Universal Favorite Contra Dance Album. New York and Boston: Carl Fischer, 1905.
  • Dunham, Mellie. "Mellie" Dunham's 50 Fiddlin' Dance Tunes. New York: Carl Fischer Inc., 1926.
  • Elsom, J. C., and Blanche M. Trilling. Social Games and Group Dances. 1919. 2nd ed. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1927.
  • Fillmore, Henry. The American Veteran Fifer. Rev. ed. Cincinnati: Fillmore Music House, ca. 1927.
  • Fishar, J. Sixteen Cotillions, Sixteen Minuets, Twelve Allemands and Twelve Hornpipes Composed by J. Fishar. London: John Rutherford, ca. 1780.
  • Ford, Ira W. Traditional Music of America. 1940. Reprint, with an introduction by Judith McCulloh. Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associates, 1965.
  • Fuld, James J. The Book of World-Famous Music. New York: Crown Publishers, 1966.
  • Gentlemen's Amusement, Consisting of Select Airs for the Clarionet. 3 vols. Philadelphia: G. E. Blade, ca. 1824-25.
  • Gilchrist, Annie G. "Songs and Tunes from the Clague Collection." Journal of the Folk-Song Society 7 (December 1924): 117-83.
  • Gill, W. H. Manx National Music. London: Boosey & Co., 1898.
  • Glen, John. The Glen Collection of Scottish Dance Music. 2 vols. Edinburgh: John Glen, 1891-95.
  • Gow, John, and Andrew Gow, comps. A Collection of Slow Airs, Strathspeys and Reels. London: Campbell, ca. 1795.
  • Hamblen, A. Porter, comp. A Collection of Violin Tunes Popular During the Early 1800's. N.p., ca. 1950-56.
  • Harding, Frank. Harding's All-Around Collection of Jigs, Reels and Country Dances. New York: Harding's Music House, 1905.
  • ---. Harding's Collection of 100 Jigs and Reels for Violin or Pianoforte. New York: Frank Harding, 1891.
  • "Haste to the Wedding." Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society 3 (December 1938): 208-10.
  • "Henry Beck's Flute Book [1786]." Music Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • Howe, Elias. Howe's School for the Violin. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1851.
  • ---. Leviathan Collection of Instrumental Music. New York: S. T. Gordon & Son; Boston: Russell & Richardson, 1858.
  • ---. The Musician's Companion. 3 vols. Boston: Elias Howe, Jr., 1844.
  • Jabbour, Alan. "Copland's Kentucky Muse: From Hill Country Hoe-Down to Concert Hall Classic." Civilization 6 (June/July 1999): 110.
  • Jigs and Reels. Chicago: Belmont Music Co., 1937.
  • Johnson, James. The Scots Musical Museum. Rev. ed. 1853. 4 vols. Reprint, Portland, Or.: Amadeus Press, 1991.
  • Joyce, P. W. Old Irish Folk Music and Songs. 1909. Reprint, New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1965.
  • Knauff, George P. Virginia Reels. 4 vols. Baltimore: George Willig, Jr., ca. 1839.
  • Kuntz, Andrew. The Fiddler's Companion. Wappingers Falls, N.Y.: Staggerin' Willie Music Publishing, 1999. http://www.ceolas.org/tunes/fc External, accessed April 12, 2000.
  • Laws, George Malcolm. American Balladry from British Broadsides: A Guide for Students and Collectors of Traditional Song. Publications of the American Folklore Society, Bibliographical and Special Series, vol. 8. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1957.
  • ---. Native American Balladry: A Descriptive Study and Bibliographical Syllabus. 1950. Rev. ed. Publications of the American Folklore Society, Bibliographical and Special Series, vol. 1. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1964.
  • Linscott, Eloise Hubbard. Folk Songs of Old New England. Rev. ed. 1962. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1993.
  • Lomax, John A., and Alan Lomax. American Ballads and Folk Songs. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1934.
  • Lomax, John A., Alan Lomax, and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Our Singing Country. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1941.
  • Longman & Broderip's Fifth Selection of the Most Admired Dances, Reels, Minuets & Cottilons. London: Longman & Broderip, ca. 1786.
  • Lovett, Benjamin B. Good Morning: Music Calls and Directions for Old-Time Dancing as Revived by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Ford. Dearborn, Mich.: Henry Ford, 1941.
  • "Manuscript Collection of Dance Tunes [ca. 1775-1800]." Newberry Library, Chicago.
  • Marshall, William. A Collection of Strathspey Reels. Edinburgh: Neil Stewart, ca. 1781.
  • McGlashan, Alexander. A Collection of Reels. Edinburgh: Neil Stewart, ca. 1786.
  • ---. A Collection of Scots Measures. Edinburgh: Neil Stewart, ca. 1781.
  • Meade, Guthrie T., Jr. The Annotated Discography of Traditional Music. Commercial Country Music Recordings: 1921-1942. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, forthcoming.
  • Messer, Don. Original Old Tyme Music. Toronto: Gordon V. Thompson Ltd., 1942.
  • ---. Way Down East Fiddlin' Tunes. Toronto: Gordon V. Thompson Ltd., 1948.
  • Morris, W. H. Old Time Violin Melodies: Book No. 1. St. Joseph, Mo.: W. H. Morris, 1927.
  • Moser, Joan. "Instrumental Music of the Southern Appalachians: Traditional Fiddle Tunes." North Carolina Folklore 12 (December 1964): 1-8.
  • Music of the Ethiopian Serenaders. No. 6. New York: William Hall and Son; Firth, Pond & Co., 1848.
  • Old Time Jigs and Reels for the Violin. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1906.
  • One Thousand Fiddle Tunes. Chicago: M. M. Cole, 1940. Reprinted from Ryanís Mammoth Collection, q.v.
  • O'Neill, Francis. The Dance Music of Ireland: 1001 Gems. Chicago: Lyon and Healy, 1907.
  • ---. Irish Folk Music: A Fascinating Hobby, with Some Account of Allied Subjects Including O'Farrell's Treatise on the Irish or Union Pipes and Touchey's Hints to Amateur Pipers. 1910. Reprint, Philadelphia: R. West, 1977.
  • ---. O'Neill's Music of Ireland: Eighteen Hundred and Fifty Melodies. 1903. Reprint, New York: Daniel Collins, ca. 1964.
  • Owens, Lee. American Square Dances of the West and Southwest. Palo Alto, Ca.: Pacific Books, 1949.
  • Peacock, J. Peacocks Tunes. Newcastle, England: ca. 1801.
  • Perrow, E. C. "Songs and Rhymes from the South." Journal of American Folklore 25 (April-June 1912): 137-55.
  • Person, Mrs. Joe. A Collection of Popular Airs As Arranged and Played Only by Mrs. Joe Person at the Southern Expositions. Richmond, Va.: Hume, Minor & Co., 1889.
  • Petrie, George. The Complete Collection of Irish Music. 3 vols. Edited by George Villiers Stanford. London: Boosey & Co., 1902-5.
  • Randolph, Vance. Ozark Folksongs. 4 vols. 1946-50. Rev. ed. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1980.
  • Riley, Edward. Riley's Flute Melodies. New York: Edward Riley, ca. 1814.
  • Robbins Collection of 200 Jigs, Reels, and Country Dances. New York: Robbins Music Corp., 1933.
  • Roche, F. Collection of Irish Airs, Marches, and Dance Tunes. 2 vols. 1912. Rev. ed., 3 vols. Dublin: Pigott & Co., Ltd., 1928.
  • Ruth, Viola Hopen. Pioneer Western Folk Tunes. Phoenix: V. H. Ruth, 1948.
  • Ryan, Grace Laura. Dances of Our Pioneers. New York: A. S. Barnes & Company, 1939.
  • Ryan, William Bradbury. Ryan's Dances, Reels and Jigs. Cincinnati: The John Church Co., 1886.
  • ---. Ryan's Mammoth Collection. Boston: Elias Howe, 1883.
  • Sharp, Cecil J. Country Dance Tunes. 11 vols. London: Novello & Co., Ltd., 1909-22.
  • ---. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians. 2 vols. 1917. Rev. ed., edited by Maud Karpeles. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1932.
  • Spaeth, Sigmund. A History of Popular Music in America. New York: Random House, 1948.
  • Stewart-Robertson, James. The Athole Collection of the Dance Music of Scotland. 1884. Reprint, Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1961.
  • Thede, Marion. The Fiddle Book. New York: Oak Publications, 1967.
  • Thomas, Jean. Devil's Ditties, Being Stories of the Kentucky Mountain People. 1931. Reprint, Detroit: Gale Research, 1976.
  • Thomas, Jean, and Joseph A. Leeder. The Singin' Gatherin': Tunes from the Southern Appalachians. New York: Silver Burdett Co., 1939.
  • [Transcriptions of variants of "Bonaparte's Retreat"]. Journal of the Folk Song Society 2 (1905-6): 88-89.
  • Walker, William. The Southern Harmony and Musical Companion. 1854. Reprint, edited by Glenn C. Wilcox, Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1987.
  • White, Benjamin Franklin. Original Sacred Harp (Denson Revision). Cullman, Ala.: Sacred Harp Publishing Company, Inc., 1971.
  • White, Charles. White's Serenaders' Song Book. Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson, 1851.
  • White's Excelsior Collection of Jigs, Reels, and Hornpipes. Boston: White-Smith Music Pub. Co., 1896.
  • White's 100 Popular Hornpipes, Reels, Jigs and Country Dances for the Violin. Boston: Jean White, 1880.
  • White's Unique Collection of Jigs, Reels, etc. Boston: White-Smith Music Publishing Co., 1902.
  • Wilkinson, Winston. "Virginia Dance Tunes." Southern Folklore Quarterly 6 (March 1942): 1-10.
  • "William O. Adams's Musick Book [1795]." Music Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • Winner, Septimus. Music and Steps of the Round and Square Dances for the Violin. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1894.
  • ---. Winner's Choice Gems for the Violin. Cleveland: S. Brainard's Sons, 1873.
  • ---. Winner's Collection of Music for the Violin. 1851. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Charles H. Davis and Winner & Shuster; Lee & Walker, 1853.
  • ---. Winner's Dance Folio for the Violin. N.p.: W. F. Shaw, 1882.
  • ---. Winner's Dance Music. Philadelphia: Sep. Winner & Co., 1866.
  • ---. Winner's Excelsior Collection for the Violin, a Selection of Popular Melodies. Boston: Oliver Ditson and Company, 1864.
  • ---. Winner's Music of the Dance. 1866. Reprint, Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1894.

Published recordings of tunes

The following publications contain other performers' versions of tunes featured in this online presentation. This selected discography includes those recordings and liner notes cited in "Henry Reed: His Life, Influence, and Art," by Alan Jabbour, and in the "Notes" paragraphs accompanying each tune.

  • American Fiddle Tunes. Folk Music of the United States from the Archive of Folk Song. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Recording Laboratory AFS L62, 1971.

    Twenty-eight instrumentals performed on fiddle by various artists. Recorded in the United States by various collectors, 1934-46. Edited, with forty-one-page liner note booklet, by Alan Jabbour. Reissued on compact disc as Rounder CD 1518, 2000.

  • Blue Ridge Barn Dance. New York: County 746, 1974.

    Twelve fiddle tunes, with various instrumental ensembles, performed by various artists. Program notes by C. K. Rorrer on slipcase.

  • Charlie Poole and the North Carolina Ramblers: Old Time Songs Recorded from 1925-1930. New York: County 505, 197-?.

    Twelve old time songs recorded from 1925 to 1930. Program and biographical notes by D. F. on slipcase.

  • The Edden Hammons Collection: Historic Recordings of Traditional Fiddle Music from the Louis Watson Chappell Archive. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press SA-001, 1984. Reissued on compact disc, produced by Danny Williams, with revised notes, as The Edden Hammons Collection, Volume One: The Legendary West Virginia Fiddler, from 1947 Field Recordings (SA-1-CD, 1999).

    Fifteen instrumentals performed by Edden Hammons on fiddle, accompanied on guitar by his son James. Recorded in 1947 by Louis Watson Chappell. Edited, with eighteen-page liner note booklet, by John A. Cuthbert and Alan Jabbour.

  • The Fuzzy Mountain String Band. Somerville, Mass.: Rounder Records 0010, 1972. Reissued on compact disc, with Summer Oaks and Porch, as The Fuzzy Mountain String Band (Rounder 11571, 1995).

    Twenty traditional dance tunes from the upland South, western North Carolina, southwest Virginia, and east-central West Virginia, including tunes learned from Henry Reed, performed by Tom Carter, banjo and mandolin; Eric Olson, banjo; Blanton Owen, banjo; Malcolm Owen, fiddle; Vicky Owen, dulcimer; Bill Hicks, fiddle; Bobbie Thompson, guitar; and Sharon Sandomirsky, guitar. Program notes on slipcase by Bill Hicks with the assistance of Alan Jabbour.

  • The Hammons Family: A Study of a West Virginia Family's Traditions. Folk Music of the United States from the Archive of Folk Song. Washington, D.C: Library of Congress, Recording Laboratory AFS L65/66, 1973. Reissued on compact disc, with Shaking Down the Acorns and revised notes, as The Hammons Family: The Traditions of a West Virginia Family and Their Friends (Rounder CD 1504/1505, 1998).

    Twenty-three instrumentals, songs, and stories, performed by Burl Hammons, five-string banjo, fiddle, and narration; Sherman Hammons, five-string banjo and narration; and Maggie Hammons Parker, fiddlesticks, narration, and vocals. Recorded in Pocahontas County, West Virginia, by Dwight Diller, Carl Fleischhauer, and Alan Jabbour, 1970-72. Edited, with thirty-six-page liner note booklet, by Carl Fleischhauer and Alan Jabbour.

  • The Hollow Rock String Band. Somerville, Mass.: Rounder Records 0024, 1974.

    Twenty-one traditional instrumental tunes, most of which were learned from Henry Reed, recorded in the summer of 1972 at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Performed by Alan Jabbour, fiddle; Tommy Thompson, five-string banjo and guitar; and Jim Watson, guitar, mandolin, and autoharp. Program notes on slipcase by Alan Jabbour.

  • The Hollow Rock String Band: Traditional Dance Tunes. Charleston, W.Va.: Kanawha 311, 1968. Reissued as vol. 8 in the Matchbox Country Series by Saydisc Specialized Recordings Ltd. (Matchbox SDM 241, 1973). Reissued on compact disc as County CD-2715, 1997.

    Fifteen traditional instrumental tunes, most of which were learned from Henry Reed, performed by Alan Jabbour, fiddle; Bertram Levy, mandolin; Tommy Thompson, banjo; and Bobbie Thompson, guitar. Program and biographical notes by Alan Jabbour and Tommy Thompson on slipcase.

  • Instrumental Music of the Southern Appalachians. New York: Tradition Recordings TLP 1007, ca. 1956. Reissued on compact disc as Tradition TCD 1061, 1997.

    Twenty instrumentals performed with five-string banjo, dulcimer, fiddle, guitar, and harmonica, by various artists. Recorded in North Carolina and Virginia by Liam Clancy, Paul Clayton, and Diane Hamilton, 1956. Program notes by Paul Clayton on slipcase.

  • J. E. Mainer's Mountaineers: Good Ole' Mountain Music. Cincinnati: King 666, ca. 1960.

    Sixteen songs performed by J. E. Mainer's Mountaineers. Recorded June, July, and October 1946.

  • Leake County Revelers Complete Recorded Works in Chronological Order: Volume 2, 1929-1939. Vienna, Austria: Document Records, DOC 8030-CD.

    Twenty-one songs performed by the Leake County Revelers, 1929-39.

  • North Carolina Boys. N.p.: Leader LEA 4040, 1972.

    Sixteen songs and dances performed by Gary Craig, fiddle or banjo; Tex Isley, guitar or autoharp; and the New North Carolina Ramblers. Seven-page illustrated liner notes by Janet Kerr, Tex Isley, and Gary Craig.

  • Old-Time Fiddle Classics, Vol. 1. New York: County 507, 197-?.

    Twelve old-time songs performed by various artists on fiddle with instrumental ensemble.

  • Old-Time Fiddle Classics, Vol. 2. New York: County 527, 197-?.

    Songs performed by various artists on fiddle with instrumental ensemble. Recorded 1927-34. Program notes by R. Nevins on slipcase.

  • Old-Time Music from Clay County, West Virginia. Charleston, W.Va.: Folk Promotions 11567-11568, 1964.

    Traditional instrumentals, songs, and stories performed by Jenes Cottrell, banjo and vocal, and David Frank "French" Carpenter, fiddle and narration. Program notes by Ken Davidson on slipcase.

  • Old-Time Music of West Virginia, Vol. 1. Floyd, Va.: County Sales, CO-3518-CD, 2000.

    Nineteen songs performed by various West Virginian artists in the 1920s and 1930s. Includes illustrated liner note booklet.

  • Old-Time Music of West Virginia, Vol. 2. Floyd, Va.: County Sales, CO-3519-CD, 2000.

    Nineteen songs performed by various West Virginian artists in the 1920s and 1930s. Includes illustrated liner note booklet.

  • Oscar and Eugene Wright: Old-Time Fiddle and Guitar Music. Somerville, Mass.: Rounder Records 0089, 1978.

    Traditional instrumental tunes, including tunes learned from Henry Reed, performed by Oscar Wright, fiddle, and Eugene Wright, guitar.

  • Ralph Stanley and the Clinch Mountain Boys Play Requests. Mt. Rainier, Md.: Rebel SLP 1514, 1972.

    Twelve instrumentals and songs performed by Ralph Stanley, banjo and vocals; Roy Lee Centers, guitar and vocals; Jack Cooke, bass and vocals; Curly Ray Cline, fiddle; Ed Ferris, bass; Rick Skaggs, fiddle and mandolin; and Keith Whitley, guitar.

  • The Roane County Ramblers: Complete Recordings, 1928-1929. New York: County 403, ca. 1971.

    Twelve tunes performed by Luke Brandon, guitar; John Kelly, mandolin; Jimmy McCarroll, fiddle; and Howard Wyatt, banjo.

  • Rural Rhythm. N.p.: Repeat RS 300-4, ca. 1969.

    Folk dance music performed by Norman Whistler, fiddle, and Ted Nash, fife. Program notes on slipcase.

  • Sandy's Fancy. Chicago: Flying Fish 260, 1981.

    Thirteen traditional instrumental tunes, including eight learned from Henry Reed, performed by Sandy Bradley, guitar or piano; Alan Jabbour, fiddle; and Tommy Thompson, banjo.

  • Shaking Down the Acorns: Traditional Music and Stories from Pocahontas and Greenbrier Counties, West Virginia. Somerville, Mass.: Rounder Records 0018, 1973. Reissued on compact disc, with The Hammons Family and revised notes, as The Hammons Family: The Traditions of a West Virginia Family and Their Friends (Rounder CD 1504/1505, 1998).

    Seventeen instrumentals, songs, and stories, performed by Pete Bachman, guitar; Mose Coffman, fiddle and narration; Burl Hammons, five-string banjo, fiddle, and narration; Lee Hammons, five-string banjo; Sherman Hammons, five-string banjo, narration, and vocals; and Maggie Hammons Parker, narration and vocals. Recorded in Greenbrier and Pocahontas Counties, West Virginia, by Dwight Diller, Carl Fleischhauer, and Alan Jabbour, 1970-72. Edited by Carl Fleischhauer and Alan Jabbour. Twelve-page liner note booklet by Carl Fleischhauer.

  • Summer Oaks and Porch. Somerville, Mass.: Rounder Records 0035, 1973. Reissued on compact disc, with The Fuzzy Mountain String Band, as The Fuzzy Mountain String Band (Rounder 11571, 1995).

    Eighteen traditional songs and fiddle tunes from North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia, including tunes learned from Henry Reed, performed by The Fuzzy Mountain String Band (Tom Carter, banjo and mandolin; Eric Olson, banjo; Blanton Owen, banjo; Malcolm Owen, fiddle; Vicky Owen, dulcimer; Bill Hicks, fiddle; Bobbie Thompson, guitar; and Sharon Sandomirsky, guitar). Program notes on slipcase.

  • 31st Annual Old Time Fiddlers Convention, 1966. Winston-Salem, N.C.: Justice JLP 1002, ca. 1966.

    Twelve tunes performed by various artists at the 31st Annual Old Time Fiddlers' Convention, Galax, Virginia, 1966.

  • Versions and Variants of Barbara Allen. Folk Music of the United States from the Archive of Folk Song. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Recording Laboratory AFS L54, 1964.

    Thirty complete and partial performances, sung by various singers, of two versions of the folksong. Recorded by various collectors, 1933-54. Edited, with forty-eight-page liner note booklet, by Charles Seeger.

  • Virginia Breakdown. New York: County 705, 1966.

    Traditional tunes performed by Otis Burris and other fiddlers with instrumental ensemble. Program and biographical notes by Charles Faurot on slipcase.

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