Articles and Essays

  • Traditional Landscape Timbuktu, an important center for culture and commerce, is a city whose monuments and architecture reflect its physical environment. Timbuktu is situated on the edge of the ever increasing Sahara Desert as well as on the Niger River, whose waters provide for the greenery that breaks up the uniform tan color of the buildings. The river and the earth supply the basic building material...
  • Timbuktu: An Islamic Cultural Center Timbuktu, the legendary city founded as a commercial center in West Africa 900 years ago, is synonymous today for being utterly remote. This, however, was not always the case. For more than 600 years, Timbuktu was a significant religious, cultural, and commercial center whose residents traveled north across the Sahara through Morocco and Algeria to other parts of Africa, Europe, and Asia. Located on...
  • Timbuktu in Space and Time: Maps Timbuktu flourished because it was a center for transportation and overland trade. Situated at the edge of the Sahara Desert, it was both the first place that trans-Saharan caravans coming from the north stopped and the jump-off place for caravans traveling north across the desert to the Mediterranean basin.
  • Enhanced Version of the Annotated Document Sullam al-Atfal fi Buyu al-Ajal This volume delineates the obligations of various parties to commercial exchanges and contracts. The author focuses on sales and protection for individuals loaning money in such transactions. Poetic verse is used to aid in memorizing the text.