Articles and Essays

  • Highlights from the 15th Century Around 1455, Johannes Gutenberg (c. 1400-1468) perfected the technique of "artificial writing" in a multi-volume Vulgate Bible, now known as the Gutenberg (or, 42-line) Bible. The next four decades witnessed the craft of printing move quickly throughout Europe, with presses springing up in hundreds of towns and cities in Germany, the Low Countries, Italy, France, Spain, England and beyond. By the turn of the...
  • Highlights from the 16th Century The sixteenth century witnessed the explosive potential of the printing press. Most importantly, books during the sixteenth century became standardized, including page numbers, tables of contents, and indices. This standardization made information easier to access and created a powerful common experience for readers, an essential component of several important sixteenth-century developments. In 1517 Martin Luther published his Ninety-Five Theses, initiating a religious reform movement...