• Book
    Leonard Bernstein, 1918-1990 Biography. Bernstein died in New York on October 14, 1990.
    • Contributor: Bernstein, Leonard
  • Book
    Will Accooe (d. 1904) Biography. Biography. Accooe also composed for other musicals. Williams and Walker's The Sons of Ham (1900) included some Accooe material. He also wrote a musical in 1901 with Will Marion Cook called The Cannibal King, but this was never staged.
  • Book
    Samuel Barber, 1910-1981 Biography. Barber's hallmark among American composers lies in the fact that he embraced his lyrical and expressive compositional style and shunned nearly all of the experimental trends that penetrated music in the first half of the twentieth century. Unlike many of his contemporaries who dabbled with folk music, twelve tone music, or serial music, the majority of Barber's works adhere to traditional European 19th-century ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    Sure on This Shining Night Song Collection. Anecdotes aside, Barber must have appreciated the song's warm reception for nearly thirty years later he arranged "Sure on this Shining Night" (along with "A Nun Takes the Veil," also from Four Songs, op. 13) for chorus. The arrangements were extremely popular and sold over a hundred thousand copies. To date, "Sure on this Shining Night" remains a favorite among solo singers ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    The Daisies Song Collection. While the charm of "The Daisies" lies in the combination of the graceful melody with the asymmetrical textual underlay, the holograph manuscript suggests that Barber initially favored a more dissonant opening melodic phrase. Perhaps at the suggestion of his composition teacher at the Curtis Institute of Music, Rosario Scalero, Barber removed the accidentals prior to publication to form the song's diatonic opening. ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    The Boatmen's Dance and Simple Gifts Song Collection. Copland's holograph sketches for both sets of the Old American Songs can be accessed on-line through the Aaron Copland Collection at the Library of Congress: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/copland/index.html.
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    The Golden Willow Tree Song Collection. The text of "The Golden Willow Tree" is the most extensive of the collection, featuring a fairly lengthy narrative tale of maritime exploits. Although Copland completely modified the contour of the melodic line, he retained the modal ambiguities found in the original folksong. Copland's reworking of the melody for "The Golden Willow Tree" can be found in the holograph sketches of the ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    Rain Has Fallen and I Hear an Army Song Collection. The first two songs of the collection received their premiere in Rome at the Villa Aurelia at the American Academy on 22 April 1936, with Barber accompanying himself at the piano. The third song was heard nearly a year later, on 7 March 1937, at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia with mezzo-soprano Rose Bampton accompanied by the composer. "I Hear ...
  • Book
    Aaron Copland, 1900-1990 Biography. Further information, including holograph manuscripts, sketches, letters, and other primary resources are available through the Library of Congress's on-line presentation of the Aaron Copland Collection: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/copland.
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    In the Wilderness and Solitary Hotel Song Collection. Barber set three poems by Robert Graves in Despite and Still, including the third song, "In the Wilderness." Graves's poem, written in 1915, deals with the suffering of Jesus. While the opening of "In the Wilderness" is reminiscent of a lullaby, the middle section is harsh, featuring an aggressive accompaniment containing open fifths pitted against a melodic line containing tritones. The lullaby ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    To What You Said Song Collection. Bernstein's setting of Walt Whitman's unpublished poem, "To What You Said," is the fourth song in the cycle. Nearly mistaken as an abandoned scribble, the poem was discovered on the verso of page thirty of the holograph manuscript of Whitman's Democratic Vistas (1871), which is housed in the Charles E. Feinberg Collection at the Library of Congress. Bernstein was reportedly attracted to ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    As Adam Early in the Morning Song Collection. The short poem comes from the "Children of Adam" series of poems in Whitman's Leaves of Grass (1881-82). "As Adam Early in the Morning" is an appropriate finale to this series of poems in that it reaffirms its reiterated theme of Adam in paradise, having awakened, afresh and renewed, and at ease with his own body and his own existence. Whitman's suggestion ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    Look Down, Fair Moon Song Collection. "Look Down, Fair Moon," is contained in a collection of Rorem's songs, the Five Poems of Walt Whitman, which was published by Boosey and Hawkes in 1970. The song was dedicated to Donald Gramm, who has recorded the song for the Phoenix label. The stark lament has also been championed by mezzo-soprano Susan Graham, recorded for the Erato label in 2000, and ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    We Two Song Collection. Warren has been described as the "only woman among the group of prominent American neo-Romanticists that includes Howard Hansen, Samuel Barber, and Gian Carlo Menotti." She was active up until her death in 1991 at age 91, and created over 200 works throughout her lifetime. Her music is currently enjoying a revival.
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    Evening Song Song Collection. "Evening Song" is set to a text by Sidney Lanier (1842-1881), an American from the South who fought in the Civil War. It is worth noting that Lanier himself was also a musician – indeed, a talented flutist who sat first chair with the Peabody Symphony Orchestra in Baltimore in 1873 – and, as a result, his poetry often exhibits a musical ...
  • Book
    Ned Rorem, b.1923 Biography. While many of the recordings listed here are in the collections of the Library of Congress, not all are. If you have a question about specific recordings, please contact the Recorded Sound Reference Center at 202-707-7833. All recordings listed are protected by applicable Federal and State laws. The Library of Congress cannot provide copies of any of these recordings without proper permission from ...
  • Book
    Erich Korngold, 1897-1957 Biography. Perhaps seeking a respite from his intensely focused work on his large scale Symphonic Serenade for string orchestra (op. 39, 1947-48), Korngold began work on a set of songs which were eventually published as the Fünf Lieder (Five Songs, op. 38), for medium voice and piano. Based on poems from disparate sources (of twentieth century German poet Richard Dehmel; of nineteenth century German ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    I Wish You Bliss Song Collection. Despite Korngold's misgivings about his own fluency in English, he nevertheless prepared his own English translation of "Glückwunsch,"written, incidentally, on the reverse side of stationery for "Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc." of Burbank, California (an image of which appears elsewhere on this website). Once can easily imagine Korngold, in a moment of rest from creating his latest film score or musical composition, tossing ...
  • Book
    Ernest Bloch and the Library of Congress Courtesy of Musical America
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    With Rue My Heart is Laden Song Collection. Samuel Barber's setting of "With rue my heart is laden" was dedicated to his close friend Gama Gilbert. The setting was published in 1936, eight years after its composition, by G. Schirmer as the second song of Barber's "Three Songs, op. 2." The group of three songs also includes two settings of poems by James Stephens (1882-1950). The poems, "The Daisies" and ...
  • Manuscript/Mixed Material
    Night Wanderers Song Collection. Samuel Barber's setting of "Night Wanderers" was not published during his lifetime. It was finally published in 1994 as a part of G. Schirmer's collection of "Ten Early Songs" by Barber. The song is a setting of a poem by William Henry Davies (1871-1940), author of the well-known chronicle "Autobiography of a Super-Tramp" (1908). The book recalls Davies' years living as a ...
  • Book
    Arthur Foote (1853-1937) Biography. Apart from his notoriety as a composer, Foote was highly regarded as a teacher and writer. He served as a guest lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1911, and taught piano at the New England Conservatory between 1921 and 1937. He co-authored a theory text with Walter R. Spalding, Modern Harmony in Its Theory and Practice (1905, reprinted in 1969 and ...
  • Book
    Harvey Bartlett Gaul (1881-1945) Biography. Gaul's choral compositions include both church anthems and secular cantatas. One of his most enduring works for choir is I Hear America Singing (1925), a setting of Walt Whitman poetry published in separate versions for mixed chorus, women's chorus, and men's chorus with soprano soloist. Today Gaul is memorialized through the Harvey Gaul Composition Competition, a biennial contest created by the Friends of ...
  • Book
    Henry F. Gilbert (1868-1928) Biography. In 1905 he wrote Americanesque, which was a suite for orchestra based on minstrel show tunes. His first major success was Comedy Overture on Negro Themes (1910) for orchestra. He completed a work based on Creole music in 1908, but it was refused a public performance in Boston because of its hybrid style. Gilbert rewrote the work as a ballet, and The Dance ...