1900 to 1905
T. R.'s books The Strenuous Life and Oliver Cromwell are published.
McKinley is inaugurated as president for a second term with T. R. as his vice-president.
McKinley dies after being shot at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo eight days earlier. T. R. takes the oath of office for the presidency.
T. R. attacks monopolies by ordering the Justice Department to bring suit against Northern Securities for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. In March 1904, the court rules that Northern Securities should be dissolved.
T. R. persuades Congress to pass the Reclamation Act (also known as the Newlands Act), which allows funds from the sale of Western public lands to be used for dams and irrigation in the dry West.
T. R. establishes Crater Lake National Park in Oregon, the first of several national parks he will authorize.
T. R. intervenes in a labor dispute between the United Mine Workers and the coal industry, the first time a president has done so. He pressures the industry to meet and settle with the workers and threatens to send in troops to seize operation of the mines.
T. R. warns Germany that the U.S. will intervene if Germany invades Venezuela to collect on debts. He later helps to settle the dispute between Germany and Venezuela.
T. R. establishes Pelican Island, Florida, as a federal bird reservation, the first of many federally-protected wildlife refuges.
T. R. agrees to have a jury of six arbitrate a dispute between Canada and the U.S. over a claim to land in the Klondike region. The jury rules in favor of the U.S. claim.
T. R. supports the claims of a revolutionary government in Panama. A treaty is ratified on Feb. 23, 1904, between this government and the U.S., giving the U.S. the right to build and control a canal across Panama's isthmus.
When Santo Domingo falls behind on its debts to European countries, T. R. warns the European powers not to intervene in Latin American matters. The U.S. takes control of customs in Santo Domingo in 1904 to aid the country in paying off its debts.
T. R. is reelected as president, defeating Judge Alton B. Parker, the Democratic nominee.
T. R. signs the act establishing the National Forest Service.
The first federal game preserve is established in Wichita Forest, Oklahoma.
T. R. proposes to mediate at peace talks between Russia and Japan in an attempt to end the Russo-Japanese War; both parties accept his offer.
Peace talks begin at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, between Russia and Japan. Agreements are reached by August 29.
T. R.'s book Outdoor Pastimes of an American Hunter is published.