Women of Protest: Photographs from the Records of the National Woman's Party
This collection includes 448 digitized photographs selected from approximately 2,650 print photographs in the Records of the National Woman's Party, a collection of more than 438,000 items, housed in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. The images span from 1875 to 1938 but largely were created in the years between 1913 and 1922. The images depict the tactics used by the militant...
Library of Congress Resources Electronic American Women: A Gateway to Library of Congress Resources for the Study of Women's History and Culture in the United States. memory.loc.gov/ammem/awhhtml/index.html An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera memory.loc.gov/ammem/rbpehtml/ By Popular Demand: "Votes for Women" Suffrage Pictures, 1850-1920 memory.loc.gov/ammem/vfwhtml/vfwhome.html List of Individual Portraits Contained in the Records of the National Woman's Party (Groups...
Rights and Access
The Library of Congress provides access to these materials for educational and research purposes and makes no warranty with regard to their use for other purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory...
Gallery of Suffrage Prisoners
The following individuals depicted in "Women of Protest" were among the many National Woman’s Party activists who were arrested and imprisoned for their role in suffrage protests.
1930 to 1997
1930 Feb. 17 First conference of Inter-American Commission of Women held in Havana, Cuba. Alice Paul proposes international adoption of Equal Nationality Treaty, which she drafted.
Historical Overview of the National Womans Party
The origins of the National Woman's Party (NWP) date from 1912, when Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, young Americans schooled in the militant tactics of the British suffrage movement, were appointed to the National American Woman Suffrage Association's (NAWSA) Congressional Committee. They injected a renewed militancy into the American campaign and shifted attention away from state voting rights toward a federal suffrage amendment.
Alva Belmont (1853-1933) Often referred to as "Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont" in suffrage literature, wealthy New Yorker Alva Belmont was the most important financial benefactor among the leaders of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CU) and its successor organization, the National Woman's Party (NWP). Her 1895 divorce from William Vanderbilt, the grandson of mogul Cornelius Vanderbilt, brought her a personal fortune, along...
Inez Milholland (Boissevain) (1886-1916) Inez Milholland remains famous as the beautiful Joan of Arc-like symbol of the suffrage movement. She appeared dramatically astride a white horse leading more than 8,000 marchers at the head of the March 3, 1913, suffrage parade held the day before Woodrow Wilson's presidential inauguration in Washington, D.C.
Abby Scott Baker (1871-1944) Abby Scott Baker, of Washington, D.C., came from a multi-generational military family. She was one of Alice Paul's earliest associates and helped Paul and Burns plan their first major event–the March 3, 1913, national suffrage parade on the eve of Woodrow Wilson's inauguration. She served as treasurer of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CU) in 1914 and quickly became...
Officers and National Organizers
Lucy Gwynne Branham (1892-1966) Lucy Gwynne Branham was born in Kempsville, Virginia, and raised in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of a suffrage activist and a physician. A student of history, Branham graduated from Washington College in Maryland and earned a master's degree from Johns Hopkins University and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. While teaching in Florida, she received a Carnegie Hero Medal for saving...
Nina Allender (1872-1957) Born Nina Evans in Auburn, Kansas, Allender was the daughter of a superintendent of schools. She received formal training in art and studied at the Corcoran School of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. She was an instrumental propagandist for the suffrage movement and the key artist on the staff of the NWP's publication, The Suffragist.
Lucy Burns (1879-1966) Lucy Burns was a versatile and pivotal figure within the National Woman's Party (NWP). With distinctive flame-red hair that matched her personality and convictions, she was often characterized as a charmer and a firebrand–and the crucial support behind her friend Alice Paul's higher-profile leadership.
Tactics and Techniques of the National Womans Party Suffrage Campaign
Founded in 1913 as the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CU), the National Woman's Party (NWP) was instrumental in raising public awareness of the women's suffrage campaign. Using a variety of tactics, the party successfully pressured President Woodrow Wilson, members of Congress, and state legislators to support passage of a 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guaranteeing women nationwide the right to vote. In...