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Collection Women of Protest: Photographs from the Records of the National Woman's Party

1930 to 1997


  1. 1930

    Feb. 17

    First conference of Inter-American Commission of Women held in Havana, Cuba. Alice Paul proposes international adoption of Equal Nationality Treaty, which she drafted.

  2. 1932

    Mar. 23

    House Judiciary Committee holds hearings on ERA.

  3. 1933

    Feb. 12

    Funeral services for Alva Belmont in New York City, following her death in Paris on Jan. 26.

    July 8

    Memorial service for Alva Belmont at Washington Monument.

  4. 1934

    May 24

    After years of NWP lobbying, Dickstein-Copeland bill signed into law, extending coverage of 1922 Cable Act and establishing equal nationality laws.

    May 25

    Equal Nationality Treaty, drafted by Alice Paul, signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.


    Biennial NWP convention in New York reflects growing intra-party conflict.

  5. 1937

    July 26

    NWP plays role in repeal of Section 213, Legislative Appropriations Act of 1932 (Economy Act), prohibiting federal employees from working for the government if spouses also federal employees.

  6. 1938


    Fair Labor Standards Act passed–major legislative victory for NWP.

    Oct. 9

    World Woman's Party (WWP), headquartered in Geneva, formed at NWP convention in Detroit.

    Nov. 19-20

    WWP officially incorporated, with NWP as American branch.

  7. 1964

    Successful NWP campaign to include Title VII within Civil Rights Act

  8. 1971

    Oct. 12

    House of Representatives approves ERA.

  9. 1972

    Mar. 22

    Senate approves ERA. Ratification process begins; 20 states ratify before year's end.

  10. 1973-76

    Eleven more states ratify ERA; two states rescind earlier ratification.

  11. 1977

    July 9

    Alice Paul dies in Moorestown, New Jersey, believing ERA ratification imminent.

  12. 1982

    June 30

    Time expires before ERA ratification completed—falls short by three states.

  13. 1997

    NWP becomes non-profit, nonpolitical, educational organization.