Collection Items

  • Map
    Argentine Railways, 1899. Intensive railroad development took place in Argentina between 1880 and 1916, a period of rapid economic growth and national consolidation. The railroads made possible Argentina's emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products. The most important railroads were owned and built by British companies, which were granted concessions by the Argentine government because of their technical expertise and their ability to...
    • Contributor: Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway Company
    • Date: 1899
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Dancing Zamba, Argentina. This photograph shows a couple in traditional costumes dancing the zamba, one of Argentina's most popular dance forms. The dance originated in Peru in the Creole genre known as the zamacueca, which was adopted in Chile as the cueca. The zamba is a slow dance in three-quarter time played primarily on guitar and bombo legüero (the indigenous Argentine bass drum). The photograph is from...
  • Map
    Map of the Argentine Railways. Between 1880 and 1915, the Argentine railroad network expanded from 1,388 miles (2,234 kilometers) to 22,251 miles (35,809 kilometers) in length, making it the longest on the continent of South America and the eighth longest in the world. Railroads played a key role in economic development and national consolidation and made possible Argentina's emergence as a major exporter of wheat, beef, and other products....
    • Contributor: Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway Company
    • Date: 1911
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Gaucho Broiling Steak in the Open. This photograph shows a gaucho in traditional dress cooking meat over a homemade spit. Gaucho is a term used to denote descendants of the early Spanish colonizers who traditionally led a semi-nomadic life on the South American pampas. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrating life and culture...
  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Gaucho Drinking "Mate".
    Gaucho tomando maté
    This photograph shows a gaucho in traditional dress pouring hot water from a kettle to make maté, a traditional drink common to Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay that is made from the yerba maté plant native to subtropical South America. In the background is a tepee-like structure. Gaucho is a term used to denote descendants of the early Spanish colonizers who traditionally led a...
  • Periodical
    El Mosquito. El Mosquito, which described itself as a "weekly independent, satirical, burlesque periodical with caricatures," appeared for the first time on May 24, 1863. In the more than 1,500 issues published between then and the last issue in 1893, the newspaper satirized the behavior of local politicians. The publication provides a unique vantage point on the formation of the modern nation-state in Argentina. Published on...
    • Date: 1875
  • Map
    Map of the Prata River.
    Mapa do estuário do Prata
    This 18th-century Portuguese map shows the Rio da Prata, located in present-day Argentina and Uruguay. Who made the map, and for what purpose, is unknown.
  • Map
    Description of the New Route to the South of the Strait of Magellan Discovered and Set in the Year 1616 by Dutchman Willem Schouten de Hoorn.
    Coarte vanda niewe passage bezunden de Strate Magellani ontdet en deurgesenlt inden iare 1616 Door Willem Schoute van Hoor
    In June 1615, Dutch navigators Jacob Le Maire (circa 1585--1616) and Willem Corneliszoon Schouten (circa 1567--1625) set out in two ships, the Eendracht and the Hoorn, from the Dutch port of Texel. Their goal was to find a new route to the Moluccas Islands, Europe's main source of pepper in the lucrative spice trade with the East Indies, and in so doing avoid the...
    • Contributor: Le Maire, Jacob - Schouten, Willem Corneliszoon
    • Date: 1619
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Map
    Chile, 1816.
    Chili
    This hand-colored map of 1816 shows most of Chile, from its northern border to approximately 44° South. Relief is shown by hachures. An inset map depicts Isola de Tierra, the easternmost of the Juan Fernández Islands, the archipelago in the Pacific Ocean that appears at the far western edge of the map. The map has two distance scales, Spanish geographical miles and British statute...
    • Contributor: Pinkerton, John - Hebert, L. - Charles, H. - Neele, Samuel John
    • Date: 1816
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Map
    The First Map of the Strait of Magellan, 1520.
    Primer mapa del Estrecho de Magallanes, 1520
    The first circumnavigation of the globe was the voyage of 1519--22 by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan (1480--1521), undertaken in the service of Spain. The only known first-hand account of the voyage is the journal by Venetian nobleman and scholar Antonio Pigafetta (circa 1480--1534). Four manuscript versions of Pigafetta's journal survive, three in French and one in Italian. Pigafetta also made 23 beautiful, hand-drawn...
    • Contributor: Amoretti, Carlo - Pigafetta, Antonio
    • Date: 1800
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Map
    A Chart of Magellan by the Route of Tierra del Fuego.
    Tabula Magellanica qua Terrae del Fuego
    This map of "Magellanica," the land south of the Strait of Magellan, is by Willem Janszoon Blaeu, a leading Dutch cartographer and map publisher and the founder of a family of distinguished mapmakers that included his sons Joan and Cornelis. Born in the Netherlands in 1571, between 1594 and 1596 Blaeu studied in Denmark under the astronomer Tycho Brahe, where he developed skills as...
    • Contributor: Blaeu, Willem Janszoon
    • Date: 1640
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Book/Printed Material
    Reise nach der Magellansstrasse, With : Jacob Morier's zweite reise durch Persien, Armenien, und Kleinasien nach Constantinopel, in den jahren 1810 bis 181 / Morier, James Justinian, 1780?-1849. Weimar, Gr. H.S. priv. Landes-industrie-comptoir, 1820. Bound together subsequent to publication.
    • Contributor: Vargas Ponce, José - Córdoba Y Laso, Antonio De - Córdoba, Antonio De - [Vargas Y Ponce, José De]
    • Date: 1820
    • Resource: - 155 pages

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  • Map
    Brazil.
    Brasil
    This early map of Brazil is by Jacopo Gastaldi (circa 1500-circa 1565), a Piedmontese cartographer who worked in Venice and rose to the position of cosmographer of the Venetian Republic. Gastaldi produced maps and illustrations for parts of Delle Navigationi et Viaggi (Travels and voyages), a compilation of travel writings by the Venetian diplomat and geographer Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485-1557). Ramusio's work contained more...
    • Contributor: Ramusio, Giovanni Battista - Gastaldi, Giacomo
    • Date: 1565
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Map
    Geographic Chart of the Kingdom of Chile.
    Tabula Geographica Regni Chile
    This map by the Chilean Jesuit priest Alonso de Ovalle (1601--51) appears in his book Histórica Relación del Reyno de Chile (Historical narration about the kingdom of Chile), considered the first history of the country. The map is the result of a major descriptive effort begun during Ovalle's first trip to Europe, as "Procurator" of Chile, in 1641. At the time, the Jesuits needed...
    • Contributor: Ovalle, Alonso De - Society of Jesus
    • Date: 1646
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Map
    Map in Which the Rivers on Argentina, Parana and Paraguay are Described Most Exactly for the First Time, When a Beginning was Made by the New Colony as Far as the Mouth ...
    Mappa geographicum quo flumen Argenteum, Paraná et Paraguay exactissime nunc primum describuntur, facto initio a nova Colonia ad ostium usque fluminis Iauru
    This atlas of colonial South America is by Miguel Antonio Ciera. A noted mathematician and professor of astronomy at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, Ciera was part of an expedition sent to demarcate the border between Spanish and Portuguese holdings in South America following signature of the 1750 Treaty of Madrid and the 1756 Guarani War. The atlas focuses on the southern part...
    • Contributor: Ciera, Miguel Antonio, 18th Century
    • Date: 1758
    • Resource: - 35 pages

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  • Map
    Map of the Strait of Magellan Developed by the Schouten and Le Maire Expedition, 1616.
    Mapa del Estrecho de Magallanes elaborado por la expedición de Schouten y Le Maire, 1616
    In June 1615, Dutch navigators Jacob Le Maire (circa 1585--1616) and Willem Corneliszoon Schouten (circa 1567--1625) set out in two ships, the Eendracht and the Hoorn, from the Dutch port of Texel, seeking to find a new route to the East Indies. They made landfall on the coast of South America in early December, at Port Desire (present-day Puerto Deseado, Argentina). This near-contemporary print...
    • Contributor: De Herrera Y Tordesillas, Antoine - Le Maire, Jacob - Schouten, Willem Corneliszoon
    • Date: 1622
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Map
    Paraguay, or the Province of the Rio de la Plata, with the Adjacent Regions Tucamen and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
    Paraguay, ó prov. de Rio de La Plata, cum regionibus adiacentibus Tucuman et Sta. Cruz de la Sierra / Guiljelmus Blaeuew excudit
    This map of Paraguay and the Rio de la Plata basin is the work of Willem Blaeu (1571-1638), the founder of a famous Dutch mapmaking dynasty. Blaeu studied astronomy, mathematics, and globe-making with the Danish scholar Tycho Brahe before establishing his mapmaking studio in Amsterdam. In 1633, he was appointed mapmaker of the Dutch East India Company. In 1635, together with his sons Joan...
    • Contributor: Blaeu, Willem Janszoon
    • Date: 1616
    • Resource: - 1 page
  • Map
    Plan topografico del Valle de Centa "This clear and beautifully executed late 18th century Spanish map of the vicinity of Oran in the extreme north of Argentina was intended to promote settlement in this region. The map was prepared at the behest of Ramón Garcia de Leon y Pizarro, Governor and Captain General of the Province of Salta, who founded Oran in August 1794, possibly as an outpost to strengthen...
    • Contributor: García De Leon Y Pizarro, Ramón.
    • Date: 1794
  • Map
    Carta reducida del Estrecho de Magallanes y parte de la costa del Fuego levantado en el año de 1786. "This composite map of the 1785-86 scientific expedition to the Strait of Magellan under the command of Antonio de Córdoba (1740?-1811) represents the first comprehensive study of the region. The map includes references to ports, bays, channels, and other natural features, a keyed legend, and a detailed explanation and notes. Córdoba was a commander (teniente general) in the Spanish Navy who participated in various...
    • Date: 1786
  • Book/Printed Material
    The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
    Los cuatro jinetes del Apocalipsis
    Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (1867--1928) was a Valencian writer, editor, journalist, and politician. He was awarded a degree in law from the University of Valencia in 1888, but he never practiced law. In 1887 he joined the Republican Party and embarked on an active political life. He founded two newspapers, La Bandera Federal (The federal flag), in 1889, and El Pueblo (The people), in 1894,...
    • Contributor: Blasco Ibáñez, Vicente
    • Date: 1919
    • Resource: - 403 pages

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  • Map
    Map of the Rio Grande of Parana with All Its Turns.
    Plano do Rio Gr. de Paranâ com todas as suas voltas
    This pen-and-ink map shows the course of the Paraná River, the second longest river in South America after the Amazon. In the language of the indigenous Tupi people, Paraná means "like the sea." From its source in Brazil, the Paraná flows through Paraguay and Argentina before entering the Atlantic Ocean at the border between Argentina and Uruguay.
  • Book/Printed Material
    Legal Allegation and Decision to Examine and Approve the Miracles on Record of the Very Pious Man Father Francis Solano, Member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order.
    Allegatio ivris, et consilvim pro examinandis et approbandis miraculis religio fissimi viri Francisci Solano Seraphici Fraciscani ordinis alumni
    Allegatio ivris, et consilium pro examinandis et approbandis miraculis religio fissimi viri Francisci Solano Seraphici Franciscani ordinis alumni (Legal allegation and decision to examine and approve the miracles on record of the very pious man Father Francis Solano, member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. Saint Francis Solano (1549-1610) was a Spanish-born Franciscan friar who came to South...
    • Contributor: Carrasco Del Saz, Francisco, Active 1620
    • Date: 1612
    • Resource: - 22 pages

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  • Map
    Map of the Battle of Catalan: Dated the 4th of January in 1817.
    Plano de la Batalla de catalã: dada en 4 de Enero de 1817 en le sitio llamado Catalan
    This hand-colored manuscript map depicts the Battle of Catalan, January 4, 1817, in which the Portuguese Army, operating from southern Brazil, defeated forces led by José Gervasio Artigas, the leader in the struggle for Uruguayan independence. Portugal was tacitly allied with the government in Buenos Aires, which was seeking to retain its grip on the eastern province of Argentina that would become the independent...
  • Map
    Map of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, 1893.
    Mapa de la República Oriental del Uruguay, 1893
    This 1893 map of the República Oriental del Uruguay (Eastern Republic of Uruguay), as the country is officially called, shows railroad lines (both in operation and under construction), telegraph lines, and submarine cables; and provinces and provincial boundaries. Relief is shown by hachures. The map provides navigational information relating to the Rio de la Plata, including water depths in meters and the location and...
  • Map
    Map of the Brazilian Empire.
    Carta do Império do Brasil
    This detailed map of Imperial Brazil was drawn by Conrado Jacob Niemeyer (1788-1862) after an earlier map by Duarte da Ponte Ribeiro, the Baron of Ponte Ribeiro (1795-1878). After beginning his career as a doctor, Ponte Ribeiro became an important diplomat during the early years of Brazilian independence, representing his country in Portugal, Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. Niemeyer was an engineer best known...
    • Contributor: Tourinho, Monteiro - Ponte Ribeiro, Duarte Da Ponte Ribeiro, Barão De - Niemeyer, Conrado Jacob De
    • Date: 1873
    • Resource: - 1 page