Book/Printed MaterialCollection of Texts on Mathematical Astronomy and the Natural Sciences. This manuscript is a collection of texts on mathematical astronomy and the natural sciences dating from early in the ninth century. The illuminations are mainly of astronomical content and are based on models from late antiquity. They include the occupations of the 12 months, the earliest surviving medieval illuminations of this type (folio 91 verso); an astronomical map (folio 113 verso); the constellations (folios...
- Date: 0818
Book/Printed MaterialThe Recension of Euclid's "Elements". This work is a printed edition of Kitāb taḥrīr uṣūl li-Uqlīdus (The recension of Euclid's Elements) by one of the intellectual luminaries of the Islamic world, the Persian polymath Nasir al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Tusi (1201--74). After his death al-Tusi was referred to as al-mu'allim al-thalith (the third teacher, with Aristotle and Farabi referred to as the first and second teachers, respectively). An extraordinarily...
- Contributor: Euclid - Ṭūsī, Naṣīr Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Muḥammad
- Date: 1594
MapA Modern and Complete Map of the World by the Royal Mathematician Oronce Fine of the Dauphiné.
Recens et integra orbis descriptio. Orontius F[inaeus] Delph[inas], Regis[s] mathematic[us] facebiat An astronomer and mathematician, from 1531 the first chair of mathematics in the Collège Royal (the present-day Collège de France), Oronce Fine (1494--1555) was one of the first French scholars to work with cartography. His world map in the shape of a heart belongs to a group of 18 heart-shaped projection maps published between 1511 and 1566. Inspired by one of the projections described...
- Contributor: Finé, Oronce
- Date: 1534
Book/Printed MaterialThe Essentials of Arithmetic. Bahaa al-Din al-Amili (1547--1621 AD; 953--1031 AH) is thought to have been born in Baalbek, Lebanon, but his family moved to Herat, present-day Afghanistan, to escape Ottoman persecution. He studied in Isfahan, in present-day Iran, and continued on to Aleppo, Jerusalem, and Egypt, before returning to Isfahan, where he served for many years as the chief judge and where he died. He produced more...
- Contributor: ʻāmilī, Bahāʾ Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥusayn
- Date: 1846
Book/Printed MaterialThe Essentials of Arithmetic. Bahā' al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al-'Āmilī, also known as Sheiykh Bahā'ī, was a famous polymath and intellectual luminary of Safavid Persia. He was born in 1547 (953 AH) near the Jabal 'Āmila in Syria. He migrated with his family to Persia (perhaps to escape the persecution of Shi'a Muslims at the hand of the Ottomans), where he eventually obtained an honored place at the...
- Contributor: ʻāmilī, Bahāʼ Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥusayn
- Date: 1547
Book/Printed MaterialA Treatise on the Sector-Figure and the Composition of Ratios. This manuscript preserves a three-page fragment from Risālatun fī al-shakl al-qiṭāʻ wa al-nisbati al-muʼallafah (A treatise on the sector-figure, and the composition of ratios), an essay that deals with Menelaus's Theorem and spherical astronomy. The treatise is attributed to Thabit ibn Qurrah al-Harrani (died 901), a Sabian from the ancient city of Harran (in present-day Turkey). Thabit was an important mathematician, translator, physician, philosopher,...
- Contributor: Thābit Ibn Qurrah Al-Ḥarrānī, Died 901
- Date: 1299
Book/Printed MaterialOn the Sphere and the Cylinder; On the Measurement of the Circle; On Conoids and Spheroids; On Spirals; On the Equilibrium of Planes; On the Quadrature of the Parabola; The Sand Reckoner.
De sphaera et cilindro ; Dimensio circoli ; De conoidibus et sphaeroidibus ; De lineis spiralibus ; De planorum equilibriis ; Quadratura parabolae ; Arenarius In the middle of the 15th century, a number of manuscripts by the third-century BC Greek mathematician Archimedes began to circulate in the humanistic centers in the courts of Italy. Piero della Francesca (circa 1416--92), the Renaissance artist best known for the frescos he painted for the Vatican and for the chapels in Arezzo, transcribed a copy of a Latin translation of Archimedes's geometry...
- Contributor: Circa 212 Bce - Archimedes, Circa 287 Bce - Jacobus Cremonensis, Flourished Mid-15th Century - Piero, Della Francesca
- Date: 1450
Book/Printed MaterialUnique Algebraic Remainders on the Sibṭ's Commentary on the Yāsamīnīyya. This work is an elaboration of the commentary written by the Egyptian mathematician Sibṭ al-Māridīnī-i.e., a commentary on another commentary-on the urjūzah (versified introduction) to the science of algebra, originally composed by the Berber mathematician and man of letters Abū Muḥammad 'Abd-Allāh al-Ishbīlī al-Marrakushī, also known as Ibn al-Yāsamīn, who died in 1204 (600 AH). Al-Yāsamīn summarized his mathematical knowledge in a versified treatise...
- Contributor: Ḥifnī, Muḥammad Ibn Sālim,0 - Sibṭ Al-Māridīnī, Badr Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Muḥammad, 1423 - Ibn Al-Yāsamīn, ʻabd Allāh Ibn Ḥajjāj, 1204
- Date: 1559
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialHādhā kitāb al-Lumʻah al-Māridīnīyah fī sharḥ al-Yāsamīnīyah fī ʻilm al-jabr wa-al-muqābalah ...
هذا كتاب اللمعة الماردنية في شرح الياسمينية في علم الجبر والمقابلة ... Text is a commentary on the versified treatise of arithmetic entitled al-Yāsamīnīyah by ʻAbd Allāh ibn Ḥajjāj Ibn al-Yāsamīn. The mathematical tradition that flourished in North Africa and Andalusia during the Middle Ages did not undergo the same decline that many scholars claim occurred in the sciences after the first half of the 13th century. The present work supports this point. The manuscript is...
- Contributor: Yūsuf, Ṭāhā - Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ibn Al-Yāsamīn, ʻabd Allāh Ibn Ḥajjāj - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām - Sibṭ Al-Māridīnī, Badr Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Muḥammad
- Date: 1874
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialBahāʼīyah fī al-ḥisāb.
بهائية في الحساب. Text is a well-known manual on arithmetic. The author of this mathematical treatise, Bahā' al-Dīn Al-'Amilī (1547-1621), is considered one of the leading intellectuals of 17th-century Safavid Persia (present-day Iran). He was born in Baalbek (present-day Lebanon) but moved to Persia in his youth where he devoted his entire life to study. He excelled in various fields, leaving a legacy of more than 80...
- Contributor: Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ṭabbāqī, Muḥammad - ʻāmilī, Bahāʼ Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥusayn - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām
- Date: 17??
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialHādhihi Ḥāshīyat al-ʻĀlim al-ʻAllāmah al-Shaykh Aḥmad Muḥammad al-Shāfiʻī al-Janājī al-Mālikī ʻalá Sharḥ al-Sibṭ al-Māridīnī ʻalá al-Yāsamīnīyah fī ʻilm al-jabr wa-al-muqābalah ...
هذه حاشية العالم العلامة الشيخ أحمج محمد الشافعي الجناجي المالكي على شرح السبط المارديني على الياسمينية في علم الجبر و المقابلة ... This supercommentary (commentary on a commentary) by Aḥmad Muhammad al-Šāfiʻī al-Janājī al-Mālikī testifies to the liveliness and endurance of the Arabic mathematical tradition and demonstrates the continuous exegetical effort in which Arabic scientists commented upon previous works with the aim of expanding and clarifying their contents. The North African mathematician 'Abd Allāh ibn Ḥajjāj ibn al-Yāsamīn (died 1204) conveyed his mathematical knowledge in a...
- Contributor: Sibṭ Al-Māridīnī, Badr Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Muḥammad - Yūsuf, Ṭāhā - Janājī, Aḥmad Muḥammad - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām - Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ibn Al-Yāsamīn, ʻabd Allāh Ibn Ḥajjāj
- Date: 1888
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialKitāb matn al-Lumaʻ fī ʻilm al-ḥisāb
كتاب متن اللمع في علم الحساب / | Lumaʻ fī ʻilm al-ḥisāb The treatise preserved in this manuscript, Al-Luma'al-yasīra fī 'ilm al-hisāb (The little sparkles on the science of calculation), deals with Muslim inheritance. Of the social innovations that came with the Islamic conquest, the introduction of the system of fara'id (shares) for inheritances was one of the most radical and socially advanced. The fourth surah of the Qurʼan, verses 11-12, criticizes the traditional pre-Islamic system...
- Contributor: Ibn Al-Hāʼim, Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad - Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress)
- Date: 15??
Book/Printed Material"Ma'aseh Hoshev". This manuscript of Ma'aseh ḥoshev (The art of calculation), one of the most valuable Hebrew codices in the Bavarian State Library, is arranged in 24 separate works or grouped fragments of texts on mathematics, geometry and astronomy, together with a great number of explanatory notes, glosses, and additions. It is hard to do justice in a few words to the very broad range of...
- Contributor: Comtino, Mordecai Ben Eliezer, Active 15th Century - Fārābī - Alhazen, 965 - Ibn Tibon, Mosheh, Active 13th Century - Ibn Ezra, Abraham Ben Meïr - Ben David, Moses - Euclid - Levi Ben Gershom - Abraham Bar Hiyya Savasorda, Approximately 1065-Approximately 1136 - Moṭoṭ, Shimʻon Ben Mosheh Ben Shimʻon, Active 15th Century
- Date: 1450
Book/Printed MaterialEuclid's "Elements:" Six Juan. Ji he yuan ben (Euclid's Elements) is a version of the work by Greek mathematician Euclid (circa 323-circa 285 BC). Presented here is the earliest Chinese translation, done by Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) together with Xu Guangqi. Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), name Zixian, style name Xuanhu, was born in Shanghai. He received his jin shi degree in the 32nd year (1604) of the Wanli...
- Contributor: Ricci, Matteo - Euclid - Xu, Guangqi - Clavius, Christoph
- Date: 1606
Book/Printed MaterialEuclid's "Elements".
Elementa Gold leaf often was used to enhance the value of medieval manuscripts. In scriptoria and painters' workshops, highly specialized techniques had been developed to write in golden letters-often on a colored background-or to decorate initials and miniatures with gold. These methods continued to be employed in the manual decoration of printed books. However, the development of a corresponding technique for printing gold on parchment...
- Contributor: Euclid - Mocenigo, Giovanni - Hypsicles, of Alexandria
- Date: 1482
Book/Printed MaterialCollection of the Principles and Objectives in the Science of Timekeeping. Abu al-Hasan ʻAli al-Marrakushi was a 13th-century mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and timekeeper. He was born in Marrakesh, in present-day Morocco, but immigrated to Mamluk Egypt, apparently fleeing the upheaval in Arab Spain and the Maghreb under the Almohads. He worked as a muwaqqit (timekeeper) in Cairo, where he wrote his major work, Jāmiʻ al-mabādiʼ wa al-ghāyāt fī ʻilm al-mīqāt (Collection of the principles and...
- Contributor: Marrākushī, Abū Al-Ḥasan ʻalī, Active 13th Century
- Date: 1586
Book/Printed MaterialQabas al-ḍawʼ fī al-ḥisāb.
قبس الضوء في الحساب. Islamic law goes into great detail on the subject of the division of inheritances (farā'id) among heirs. For this reason, inheritances have received extensive treatment in books of fiqh (Islamic law) and been a subject of study for mathematicians as well. Qabas al-Daw' fī al-Hisāb (The illumination of inheritance calculation) was copied by its author, 'Abd al-Raḥman ibn Aḥmad ibn 'Ali al-Ḥamidi, in this...
- Contributor: Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ḥamīdī, ʻabd Al-Raḥmān Ibn Aḥmad Ibn ʻalī
- Date: 1589
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialTaʻlīq ʻalá al-urjūzah al-Yāsamīnīyah fī ʻilm al-jabr.
تعليق على الأرجوزة الياسمينية في علم الجبر. Text is a short treatise on arithmetic and a commentary on the versified treatise of arithmetic entitled al-Yāsamīnīyah by ʻAbd Allāh ibn Ḥajjāj ibn al-Yāsamīn. The 12th-century mathematical poem known as al-Yāsamīnīyya fī 'ilm al-Jabr (The poem by al-Yāsamīn on calculus) from the name of its author, al-Yāsamīn, is one of the most read and commented upon mathematical texts of its time. Its verses...
- Contributor: Yāsīn, Muḥammad ʻalī - Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ibn Al-Yāsamīn, ʻabd Allāh Ibn Ḥajjāj - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām - Sibṭ Al-Māridīnī, Badr Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Muḥammad
- Date: 1911
Philosophiæ naturalis principia mathematica Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (Mathematical principles of natural philosophy) is Sir Isaac Newton's masterpiece. Its appearance was a turning point in the history of science, and the treatise is considered by many as the most important scientific work ever published. Newton (1642--1727) was a professor of mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge, when he produced the work. It presents the basis of physics and astronomy,...
- Contributor: Royal Society (Great Britain) - Streater, Joseph, Flourished - Halley, Edmond - Newton, Isaac, Sir
- Date: 1687
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialHādhihi Ḥāshīyat al-Shaykh al-Imām al-ʻĀlim al-ʻAllāmah Aḥmad al-Shāfiʻī al-Janājī al-Mālikī ʻalá Sharḥ Shaykh al-Islām Zakarīyā al-Anṣārī ʻalá al-Muqniʻ li-ibn al-Hāʼim fī ʻilm al-jabr wa-al-muqābalah ...
هذه حاشية الشيخ الإمام العالم العلامة أحمد الشافعي الجناجي المالكي على شرح شيخ الإسلام زكريا الأنصاري على المقنع لإبن الهائم في علم الجبر والمقابلة ... Text is a commentary on Zakarīyā al-Anṣārī's commentary on the mathematical assumptions addressed by Ibn al-Hāʼim in al-Muqniʻ on the algebraic equality and inequality of functions. The Arabic mathematical tradition, which flourished during the Middle Ages, transmitted and enriched the knowledge derived from Greek and Indian sources. Arabic mathematicians further developed these studies, seeking to answer theoretical as well as practical problems. Medieval Arabic...
- Contributor: Ibn Al-Hāʼim, Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad - Yūsuf, Ṭāhā - Janājī, Aḥmad Muḥammad - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām - Anṣārī, Zakarīyā Ibn Muḥammad - Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress)
- Date: 1888
Manuscript/Mixed Materialal-Lumʻah al-Māridīnīyah
اللمعة الماردينية Text is a short treatise on arithmetic and a commentary on the versified treatise of arithmetic entitled al-Yāsamīnīyah by ʻAbd Allāh ibn Ḥajjāj Ibn al-Yāsamīn. The present manuscript preserves a very elegant copy of a work by one of the most prolific authors of the second half of the 15th century in the field of mathematics and related subjects: Badr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad...
- Contributor: Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ibn Al-Yāsamīn, ʻabd Allāh Ibn Ḥajjāj - Fayyūmī, Muḥammad Aḥmad ʻabd Al-Raḥīm Al-Azhārī - Sibṭ Al-Māridīnī, Badr Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Muḥammad
- Date: 1800
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialKitāb rafʻ al-ḥijāb ʻan wujūh aʻmāl al-ḥisāb : al-mulakhkhaṣah maʻa taqrīb al-maʻānī wa-ḍabṭ al-qawāʻid wa-al-mabānī fī ghayr hādhā al-kitāb
كتاب رفع الحجاب عن وجوه اعمال الحساب : الملخصة مع تقريب المعاني وضبط القواعد والمباني في غير هذا الكتاب / Ms. is a commentary in two parts on the author's treatise on mathematics (Talkhīṣ aʻmāl al-ḥisāb). The establishment of the Berber-Muslim dynasty of the Almohads in North Africa and Andalusia in the 12th century coincided with the decline in scientific advances in many fields of knowledge, including medicine. This was not the case with mathematics, and the treatise preserved in this manuscript together with...
- Contributor: Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ibn Al-Bannāʼ, Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad - Jabartī, Ḥasan Ibn Ibrāhīm - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām
- Date: 17??
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialSharḥ al-Khulāṣah fī al-ḥisāb
شرح الخلاصة في الحساب / Text is a commentary on al-Khulaṣah fī al-ḥisāb by Bahāʼ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al-ʻĀmilī. Two poems attributed to ʻAmr ibn al-ʻĀṣ on title page in a different hand. Last page includes a note in a third hand on a different topic. The present manuscript preserves an extensive commentary on the 17th-century mathematical treatise Al-Ḫulāṣa fī al-Ḥisāb (The abridgment on calculus), which was composed...
- Contributor: ʻāmilī, Bahāʼ Al-Dīn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥusayn - ʻamr Ibn Al - Baytūshī, ʻabd Allāh Ibn Muḥammad - ʻabāyī, ʻabd Allāh Ibn ʻīsá Ibn Ismāʻīl - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām - Jazarī, Ramaḍān Ibn Abī Hurayrah - Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress)
- Date: 1665
Manuscript/Mixed MaterialHādhā Bughyat al-ṭullāb ʻalá Munyat al-ḥussāb
هذا بغية الطلاب على منية الحساب / | Bughyat al-ṭullāb fī sharḥ Munyat al-ḥussāb Poem written in rajaz meter. Marginal notes indicate that the manuscript was compared with another copy of the same text. This manuscript offers a clear example of the liveliness of the North African mathematical tradition under the Muslim-Berber dynasties that ruled over the Islamic West from the 12th century to the first half of the 17th century. They were the Almohads (12th-13th centuries), the...
- Contributor: Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ibn Ghāzī, Muḥammad Ibn Aḥmad - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām - Shandawīlī, Harīdī Aḥmad
- Date: 17??
Manuscript/Mixed Materialal-Nuzhat al-ḥisāb li-Ibn al-Haʼīm.
النزهة الحساب لابن هائم. According to Carl Brockelmann's Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur (Supplement II, p. 154), the text is an abridgement of the author's book al-Murshidah fī ṣināʻat al-ghubār. This manuscript is an 18th-century copy of Nuzhat al-ḥisāb (The excursion of calculus) by mathematician Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Farāḍī ibn al-Hā'im (around 1356-1412). The copyist of this brief but densely written codex provided his name and the date of...
- Contributor: Ibn Al-Hāʼim, Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad - Mansuri Collection (Library of Congress) - Ḥanbalī, Aḥmad Ibn Qāsim Ibn Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad - Manṣūrī, Maḥmūd Al-Imām
- Date: 1772