Collection Items

  • Book/Printed Material
    Rumania. In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Rumania is Number 23 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion...
    • Contributor: Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section
    • Date: 1920

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  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Ruined Home, Suceava, Romania. This photograph shows a man posing in front of a home in Suceava (present-day northeastern Romania, until 1918 in southern Bukovina, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) that was destroyed during World War I. After the war, the population of Suceava was about one-third Jewish. The Jewish community supported a number of communal philanthropic associations and was the seat of several regional organizations. During this...
    • Contributor: Joint Distribution Committee of the American Funds for Jewish War Sufferers
    • Date: 1920
  • Map
    Wallachia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania.
    Walachia, Servia, Bulgaria, Romania
    Gerard Mercator (1512--94) was born in Rupelmonde in Flanders (Belgium). His given name was Gerard de Kremer or Cremer. "Mercator," meaning "merchant," is a Latinized version of his Flemish last name. He studied philosophy and theology at the University of Leuven, and developed an interest in astronomy and mathematics. He produced his first map, of Palestine, in 1537. He went on to create numerous...
    • Contributor: Mercator, Gerhard
    • Date: 1589
  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Ruined Buildings in Siret, Romania. This photograph shows Jewish residents of Siret, a town in northeastern Romania close to the border with Ukraine, standing in front of a ruined building slated for reconstruction. Siret was located in the region of Bukovina, which was annexed to Romania following World War I and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the first decades of the 20th century, Siret had a relatively...
    • Contributor: Joint Distribution Committee of the American Funds for Jewish War Sufferers
    • Date: 1920
  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Refugees in a Food Line in Bucharest, Romania. Elderly refugees, such as this 75-year-old woman newly arrived in Bucharest, had the hardest time surviving the rigorous journey to safety during World War I. Romania joined the Allied war effort in late August 1916. Sections of the country became enemy-occupied territory. As in large swaths of Europe, Jewish homes in Romania and the civic institutions supporting community life were destroyed. Civilian populations, treated...
    • Contributor: Joint Distribution Committee of the American Funds for Jewish War Sufferers
    • Date: 1917
  • Book/Printed Material
    The Divan or the Quarrel of the Wise Man with the World or the Judgment Between the Soul and the Body.
    Divanul sau Gâlceava înţeleptului cu lumea sau Giudeţul sufletului cu trupul
    Dimitrie Cantemir (1673--1723), prince of Moldavia, was a philosopher, historian, composer, and man of letters. His father was a mercenary of peasant origin who rose to become the voivode (prince) of Bogdan, the Turkish name for Moldavia. As a boy, Cantemir pursued studies in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, and other subjects. At age 14, he replaced his brother as a hostage of the Ottomans in...
    • Contributor: Cacavela, Eremiah - Dionisie - Atanasie - Dimitrie Cantemir, Voivode of Moldavia
    • Date: 1698

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  • Book/Printed Material
    Bukovina. In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Bukovina is Number 5 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion...
    • Contributor: Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section
    • Date: 1920

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  • Book/Printed Material
    Transylvania and the Banat. In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Transylvania and the Banat is Number 6 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published...
    • Contributor: Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section
    • Date: 1920

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  • Book/Printed Material
    A Collection of Songs of the Bukovina People. Bukovina is a region in southeastern Europe that is today partly in Ukraine and partly in Romania. Between 1775 and 1918 it was ruled by the Austrian Empire. It was annexed by Romania after World War I and divided between the Soviet Union and Romania after World War II. This book is a collection of song lyrics, gathered in the second half of the...
    • Contributor: Lonachevsky, Alexander - Kupchanko, Hryhori
    • Date: 1875

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  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Matei Millo. Károly Szathmári (1812--87) was one of the most interesting and prolific artistic figures active in Romania in the 19th century. Trained as a painter, he also excelled as a lithographer and became the most important Romanian photographer of his day. He was the first Romanian awarded the title of "Painter and Photographer of the Court," by the ruler Alexandru Ioan I Cuza and then...
    • Contributor: Szathmári Pap, Károly
    • Date: 1864

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  • Book/Printed Material
    The Roumanian question. Romania was formed in 1861 by the union of the provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, which had been ruled by the Ottoman Turks for centuries. At the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the major European powers recognized the full independence of Romania. In World War I, Romania fought on the side of France, Britain, and the other Allied powers against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria, chiefly...
    • Date: 1919

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  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Matei Millo Portraying Chir Gaitanis Loghiotatos. Károly Szathmári (1812--87) was one of the most interesting and prolific artistic figures active in Romania in the 19th century. Trained as a painter, he also excelled as a lithographer and became the most important Romanian photographer of his day. He was the first Romanian awarded the title of "Painter and Photographer of the Court," by the ruler Alexandru Ioan I Cuza and then...
    • Contributor: Szathmári Pap, Károly
    • Date: 1864

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  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Matei Millo Portraying Barbu Lăutaru. Károly Szathmári (1812--87) was one of the most interesting and prolific artistic figures active in Romania in the 19th century. Trained as a painter, he also excelled as a lithographer and became the most important Romanian photographer of his day. He was the first Romanian awarded the title of "Painter and Photographer of the Court," by the ruler Alexandru Ioan I Cuza and then...
    • Contributor: Szathmári Pap, Károly
    • Date: 1864

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  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Matei Millo Portraying an Old Boyar. Károly Szathmári (1812--87) was one of the most interesting and prolific artistic figures active in Romania in the 19th century. Trained as a painter, he also excelled as a lithographer and became the most important Romanian photographer of his day. He was the first Romanian awarded the title of "Painter and Photographer of the Court," by the ruler Alexandru Ioan I Cuza and then...
    • Contributor: Szathmári Pap, Károly
    • Date: 1864

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  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Matei Millo Portraying Mama Bălaşa. Károly Szathmári (1812--87) was one of the most interesting and prolific artistic figures active in Romania in the 19th century. Trained as a painter, he also excelled as a lithographer and became the most important Romanian photographer of his day. He was the first Romanian awarded the title of "Painter and Photographer of the Court," by the ruler Alexandru Ioan I Cuza and then...
    • Contributor: Szathmári Pap, Károly
    • Date: 1864

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  • Book/Printed Material
    Vasile Lupu's Code of Laws.
    Carte românească de învăţătură de la pravilele împărăteşti şi de la alte giudeaţe
    Carte românească de învăţătură de la pravilele împărăteşti şi de la alte giudeaţe (Romanian book of instruction from the imperial statutes and other judicial pronouncements), also known as Pravila lui Vasile Lupu (Vasile Lupu's code of laws), is the first official codification of civil law in Moldavia (present-day Romania). It is also the country's earliest printed legal code in the Romanian language. It lays...
    • Contributor: Eustratie, Logothete, Died Approximately 1646 - Vasile Lupu, Voivode of Moldavia
    • Date: 1646

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  • Book/Printed Material
    Legislation of His Highness the Most Pious and Genuine Sovereign of all Ungro-Vlahia, Lord, Lord Iōannēs Geōrgiou Karatzas, Voivode. Nomothesia tou hypsēlotatou kai eusevestatou authentou kai hēgemonos pasēs Oungrovlachias, kyriou kyriou Iōannou Geōrgiou Karatza voevoda (Legislation of His Highness the most pious and genuine sovereign of all Ungro-Vlahia, Lord, Lord Iōannēs Geōrgiou Karatzas, Voivode) is a 19th century legal code for Romania. It was written at the command of the Phanariot Ioannes Georgiou Karatzas (also seen as Caradja and Caragea), who was prince...
    • Contributor: Bălăceanu, Radu - Bălăceanu, Constantin - Karatzas, Iōannēs Geōrgiou - Christopoulos, Athanasios - Craiovescu, Nestor - Höfel, Blasius
    • Date: 1818

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  • Photo, Print, Drawing
    Hutsul Wedding.
    Huzulen-Hochzeit
    This pen-and-ink drawing of a late-19th-century Hutsul wedding is by Thaddäus Rybkowski (1848--1926), a Polish artist whose work featured scenes of rural life in Galicia and Poland. Born in Russian Poland, Rybkowski was educated at the Krakow School of Art. He later came to Vienna, where he studied in the studio of Professor Leopold Löffler-Radymno. The Hutsuls are a seminomadic ethno-cultural group that for...
    • Contributor: Rybkowski, Tadeusz
    • Date: 1898
  • Book/Printed Material
    Ornaments of Domestic Industry: Ruthenian Peasant Metalwork. Vzory promyslu domashnogo vyroby metalevi selian na Rusi (Ornaments of domestic industry: Ruthenian peasant metalwork) is one of a series of books published by the Industrial Museum in L'viv (present-day Ukraine), this one appearing in 1882. The explanatory text appears in Polish, Ruthenian (a predecessor of modern Ukrainian), German, and French, and it highlights the art and aesthetic taste shown in everyday objects. The...
    • Contributor: Muzeum Przemysłowe Miejskie (Lwów)
    • Date: 1882

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  • Book/Printed Material
    About Patience.
    De patientia
    Battista Spagnoli (Giovanni Baptista Spagnoli Mantuanus, 1448--1516) was a Carmelite monk, poet, philosopher, and theologian. He produced a large and diverse body of work, including religious, philosophical, and ethical writings and several panegyrics. De patientia (About patience) is a treatise that counsels patience and the acceptance of pain as a way of purification and spiritual elevation and of coming closer to God. Published in...
    • Contributor: Capriolo, Elia, Died Approximately 1519 - Baptista, Mantuanus
    • Date: 1497

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  • Book/Printed Material
    Satire.
    Satyrae
    Aulus Persius Flaccus (known as Persius, 34--62) was a Roman poet who came to Rome at a young age and attended grammar lectures by the famous teacher Remmius Palaemon, the rhetorician Verginius Flavus, and the Stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Cornutus. A good student, he read widely, availed himself of the opportunities of the literary world, and became friendly with such poets as Lucan (Marcus...
    • Contributor: Persius - Britannico, Giovanni, Flourished - Fonte, Bartolomeo
    • Date: 1493

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  • Book/Printed Material
    Latin Bible with Interpretations of Hebrew Names in Alphabetical Order.
    Biblia
    This extremely rare Latin Bible was printed in Venice by Ottaviano Scotto, who completed the work on May 31, 1480. It includes in its final 73 pages Interpretationes hebraicorum nominum secundum ordinem alphabeti (Interpretations of Hebrew names in alphabetical order), a list with identification information on the Hebrew names occurring in the Bible. The incunabulum is almost complete (it is missing the first, second,...
    • Contributor: Scotto, Ottaviano, 1498
    • Date: 1480

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  • Book/Printed Material
    The Consolation of Philosophy.
    De consolatione philosophiae
    De Consolatione Philosophiae (The consolation of philosophy) is a by Boethius, the son of an influential and aristocratic Roman family, written around the year 524. It is regarded as one of the most important works in the Western world. Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius (circa 480-524) was a statesman, philosopher, poet, and consul, as well as adviser to the Ostrogoth king Theodoric, whom he...
    • Contributor: Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus, Circa 480-524
    • Date: 1489

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  • Book/Printed Material
    Elegantiolae. Agostino Dati (1420--78) was a philosopher, theologian, historian, linguist, and teacher in Siena. We know from his extensive correspondence that he also filled important public political, administrative, and judicial functions. Dati opened a school of rhetoric in Siena where he gave lectures illustrating the works of the classical poets. He was known for his oratory in both Latin and the vernacular. Elegantiolae is a...
    • Contributor: Dati, Agostino
    • Date: 1491

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  • Book/Printed Material
    Dance of Death.
    Chorea ab eximio Macabro versibus alemanicis edita
    Chorea ab eximio Macabro versibus alemanicis edita, better known under the uniform title Dance of Death, is an example of a late-medieval morality play, the purpose of which was to teach that all humanity must die and that therefore every person needed to prepare to meet his or her maker. In the 14th--15th centuries, constant warfare, recurring famines, and the plague meant that the...
    • Contributor: Desrey, Pierre, Approximately 1450-Approximately 1520
    • Date: 1490

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