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Exhibition Join In: Voluntary Assocations in America

R. P. Slater, photographer. Niagara Movement Founders, 1905 (from left to right) front row, Henry L. Baily; of Washington, D.C., Clement G. Morgan of Massachusetts, W.H.H. Hart of Washington, D.C., and B.S. Smith of Kansas; middle row, Frederick L. McGhee of Minnesota, Norris Bumstead Herndon, son of Alonzo Herndon, J. Max Barber of Illinois, W.E.B. Du Bois of Alanta, Georgia, and Robert Bonner of Massachusetts; back row, H.A. Thompson of New York, Alonzo F. Herndon of Georgia, John Hope of Georgia, and an unidentified man, possibly James R.L. Diggs. Robert McNeil Family Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (073.00.00)
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An Open Letter to College Men—The Meaning of the Niagara Movement and the Junior Niagara Movement, 1909. Booker T. Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (072.00.00)
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An Open Letter to College Men—The Meaning of the Niagara Movement and the Junior Niagara Movement, 1909. Booker T. Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (072.00.00)
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An Open Letter to College Men—The Meaning of the Niagara Movement and the Junior Niagara Movement, 1909. Booker T. Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (072.00.00)
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An Open Letter to College Men—The Meaning of the Niagara Movement and the Junior Niagara Movement, 1909. Booker T. Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (072.00.00)
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An Open Letter to College Men—The Meaning of the Niagara Movement and the Junior Niagara Movement, 1909. Booker T. Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (072.00.00)
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Niagara Movement

In 1905, a group of African American men met at Niagara Falls to formulate a program seeking full rights for Blacks and to discuss alternatives to Booker T. Washington’s (1856–1915) racially conciliatory policies. They were led by activist, historian, and sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois (1868–1963) and William Monroe Trotter (1892–1934), a journalist and businessman. The platform they developed included demands for free speech and free press, the right to vote, equal civil rights, and educational and economic opportunity. Washington’s supporters sought to undermine the Niagara Movement, which countered by issuing this pamphlet designed to enlist male college students and recent graduates. Although the Niagarites met several times, they did not have the funds to implement their program. The NAACP later adopted most of their platform.