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Exhibition Shall Not Be Denied: Women Fight for the Vote

Carrie Chapman Catt (1859–1947). Ratification notebook, 1919–1920. Carrie Chapman Catt Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (120.00.00)

Ratification Campaign Begins

Confident of victory, Carrie Chapman Catt left Washington before the Senate vote and began mobilizing NAWSA’s ratification campaign, tracking progress of each state in this notebook. She recorded in the upper-right corner the number of seats in every state legislature. In Alabama, ratification failed twice in the state Senate and once in the House, despite President Wilson’s support and assurances from white suffragists that existing poll taxes and literacy tests would limit black women’s votes.


Senate 35
Assembly 106    [Total] 141
Legislature convened on
2nd part split session July 8.
Mrs. [Maria] McMahon, Miss [Josephine] Miller, and
Miss [Edna] Beveridge gave about two months
each to work.
Secured (through Mrs. [Katrina Ely] Tiffany) promise
of Ex Sec[retary of Treasury William Gibbs] McAdoo to visit state
provided Legislature would invite
him. It did so unanimously.
Status quo July 13.
Mrs. [Pattie Ruffner] Jacobs wired president
for message July 11.
Senate caucused against July 12.