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Exhibition Shall Not Be Denied: Women Fight for the Vote

Lucy B. Johnston (1846–1937), Kansas Equal Suffrage Association, to Alice Paul (1885–1977), March 5, 1913. Typescript signed letter. NWP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (066.00.00)

Congressional Investigation of Police Conduct

Public outcry over the ill treatment of women participating in the 1913 parade, as expressed in this letter, led to a congressional investigation, the removal of the police chief, and “indignation meetings” staged throughout the country. Even NAWSA officials, leery of Alice Paul’s affiliation with militant British suffragettes, conceded that the police debacle solidified support among “those who were wavering” and brought “to our ranks thousands of others who would never have taken any interest.”

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