JAINISM, AN INDIAN religion distinct from Hinduism and Buddhism, was founded by Vardhamana Mahavira, called “The Jina” (conqueror), who lived in the sixth century B.C. Jainism has its own version of geography and cosmology. This chart from the nineteenth century shows the world of human habitation as a central continent with mountain ranges and rivers, surrounded by a series of concentric oceans (with swimmers and fish) and ring-shaped continents.

Manusyaloka (The Human World). Western Rajasthan, late nineteenth century. Fabric. Southern Asian Section, Asian Division, Library of Congress

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Jaina World View