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Finding Aids to Individual Collections in the Archive of Folk Culture


AFC 1986/033

Compiled by Marsha McGuire, Stephanie A. Hall, and Michelle Forner
Library of Congress
American Folklife Center
November 1994



Scope and Content Note

Brief History of the Expeditions

General Description of Series

Related Publications

Appendix A: Chronology of the 1940 Fahnestock Expedition

Appendix B: Audio Recordings Duplication Concordance [not available online. Available in the printed version of this guide.

Appendix C: Specific Dance-Related Material


The Fahnestock South Sea Collection consists of audio recordings, film footage, photographs, and accompanying manuscript documentation assembled by brothers Bruce and Sheridan Fahnestock on two widely-publicized expeditions to Oceania and Southeast Asia in 1940 and 1941. It documents music and dance from American Samoa, Fiji, French Polynesia (Marquesas Islands and Tahiti, Society Islands), Indonesia (Bali, Java, and Madura), Kangean Islands, and New Caledonia before the large-scale cultural disruptions that followed World War II. Film and photographs that were shot by an associate during several of the Fahnestock's recording sessions further inform the materials.

The Collection was donated to the Library of Congress by Margaret Fahnestock Lewis (wife of Sheridan Fahnestock and a member of the 1940 expedition) in December 1986. Subsequent research, oral history interviews, an acquisition ceremony, and resulting products and publications produced between 1987 and 1994 complement the materials gathered during the voyages.

Access and Reproduction: Listening and viewing access is unrestricted. All rights of the materials donated by Margaret Fahnestock Lewis, including copyrights, have been dedicated to the public, according to the Instrument of Gift. The materials donated by Howard Kincheloe may require permission for publication. The compact disc and the materials by CNN and NBC are restricted by copyright.

Key Subjects: ayoha; boatmen's songs; children's songs; ceng-ceng; clothing and dress; costume; dance, Indonesia; dance, Oceania; dance, Polynesia; divination songs; gamelan gong gede; gamelan gong kebyar; gamelan joged (or djoged); gender wayang; harvest songs; himene; hymns; kecak; lali; legong; meke; musical instruments; music, Indonesia; music, Oceania; music, Polynesia; pangka; pa'oa; pilou-pilou; rari; rice-pounding songs; rincik; rinding;
sandoer; saronen; sasa; tape'a; taralala; trompong; tyada; 'ute; wanmido; wayang wong

Physical Description

Series I

Physical Description Location Numbers
Print Materials
15 folders
1 box disc sleeves
1 box computer diskettes
Sound Recordings
148 16" and 10" acetate discs AFS 25,808-25,955
(Original field recordings)
13 10" DT mono reels at 7.5 ips RWB 6281-A1 to 6290-B10,
RWB 6321-A1 to 6323-A4
(Preservation copies)
13 7" DT mono reels at 3.75 ips (Listening copies)
1 audiocassette Listening copy of RWA 1365A2
Graphic Materials
3 b&w photoprints
1 photo album (copy)
2 b&w photoprints, archival documentation
166 b&w negatives, archival documentation
6 color slides, archival documentation
46 b&w photoprints, Kincheloe
79 b&w negatives, Kincheloe
8 b&w copy negatives, Kincheloe
Moving Image
5 reels 16 mm silent, color film AFC 1986/033:F1-F5
(Original field recordings)
2 videocassettes 3/4" silent, color with time code (NOTE: duplicate of tape 1 only) AFC 1986/033:F1-F5-v1; LWO 22304 (Preservation copies)
2 videocassettes 3/4" silent, color without time code AFC 1986/033:F1-F5-v2; LWO 22733 (Preservation copies)
1 videocassette 1/2" VHS silent, color AFC 1986/033:F1-F5-v3
(Viewing copy)
2 reels 8 mm silent, color film AFC 1986/033:F6-F7
(Original field recordings)
1 videocassette 1/2" VHS silent, color AFC 1986/033:F6-F7-v1
(Preservation copy)
1 videocassette 1/2" VHS silent, color AFC 1986/033:F6-F7-v2
(Viewing copy)

Series II

Physical Description Location Numbers
Print Materials
11 folders
1 box (index cards)
Sound Recordings
8 reels 7" DT mono at 7.5 ips AFS 26,830-26,837
8 reels 7" DT mono at 7.5 ips Listening copies
1 reel 10" DT mono at 7.5 ips AFC 1986/033:SR1
1 audiocassette AFC 1986/033:SR1-c1
(Listening copy)
4 audiocassettes AFC 1986/033:SR2-5
1 compact disc AFC 1986/033:SR6
Graphic Materials
5 b&w photoprints
110 b&w negatives
2 b&w contact sheets
Moving Image
1 videocassette 3/4" silent, color AFC 1986/033:V1
1 videocassette 3/4" color AFC 1986/033:V2
(Original copy)
1 videocassette 1/2" VHS color AFC 1986/033:V2-v1
(Viewing copy)



The Fahnestock South Sea Collection spans the years 1939-1994, with the largest portion dating 1940-1941. The collection is arranged into two groups or series of materials.

Series I consists of materials related to the field expeditions led by Bruce and Sheridan Fahnestock in 1940 and 1941. It documents music and dance from American Samoa, Fiji, French Polynesia (Marquesas Islands and Tahiti, Society Islands), Indonesia (Bali, Java, and Madura), Kangean Islands, and New Caledonia, and contains possibly the last field recordings made in Oceania before World War II and the subsequent effects on these cultures. Film footage and graphic and manuscript materials inform the recordings as well as provide background information on the expeditions themselves.

After the collection was donated to the library, contact was made with Howard Kincheloe, whom the Fahnestocks met (along with his wife Shannon) in Java in 1941. Kincheloe was assigned to Surabaya (now Jakarta), Java as a flight instructor. The Kincheloes accompanied the Fahnestocks on some of their recording sessions, during which Mr. Kincheloe took photographs and shot film of these music and dance events. Kincheloe donated these materials to the Library in 1991, and they augment the 1941 expedition recordings in Series I.

Series II consists of more recent materials generated or assembled by the donor and Library of Congress staff. In 1987 the Library contracted ethnomusicologist James B. McKee to organize and inventory the collection. Assisted by reference librarian Gerald E. Parsons, he conducted several oral history interviews with Mrs. Lewis. In turn, McKee assisted Parsons in making preservation copies of memorabilia outside the collection and organizing an acquisition ceremony. These activities generated a number of audio and video recordings, photographs, and printed materials that provide further information on the history and goals of the original expeditions. Additional programs, products, and broadcasts that resulted from processing the collection are included in this series.

Series I: Original Field Expeditions

The manuscript materials supply information that augments, informs, and provides access to the primary ethnographic documentation. The administrative materials include preliminary logs, inventories, a glossary, and a bibliography compiled and drafted by James McKee. Original correspondence relays background information about expedition activities and includes first-hand accounts of the disaster when Director II, the expedition's 137-foot schooner, ran aground and sank. The documentation of sound recordings describe the contents and circumstances of the recordings, while the travel documentation details the second expedition's progress. Included in the newspaper and magazine commentary are accounts that document the loss of Director II and the accident that claimed the life of Bruce Fahnestock in 1942.

The primary field audio recordings (organized chronologically to reflect the routes of the second and third expeditions) captured a variety of styles representing the traditional and contemporary musics of the South Pacific and insular Southeast Asia. Of particular interest are recordings of Fijian legends describing the origin of the Ndakunimba Stones; Samoan choral hymns introduced by English missionaries; and Balinese gamelan, including the ceremonial gamelan gong gede, the virtuoso gamelan gong kebyar, and the gender wayang quartet. The latter form of music accompanies the shadow plays known as wayang kulit. Also featured in the collection are a number of children's songs and fairy tales from Java, bull-racing music and boatmen's songs from Madura, and the only known field recordings from the Kangean Islands, a small archipelago northeast of Java. This unique group of discs includes women's divination songs, harvest songs, and rice-pounding songs.

Many of these audio recordings document music that accompanies dance. Included are Samoan sasa (sitting dances featuring intricate hand movements); Fijian meke (combining song, dance, and hand clapping, accompaniment by lali, a large slit-log idiophone); the Balinese kecak, or "monkey chant" (dance developed from the male chorus for ritual trance ceremonies); the Tahitian pa'oa and 'ute; Maduran sandoer (harvest songs accompanying circle dances); New Caledonian pilou-pilou (traditional music and dance styles); and others.

The audio recordings in this series also include a copy of the NBC Blue Network radio program broadcast live from Suva, Fiji, by the Fahnestock expedition on August 19, 1940.

The graphic and moving image materials provide visual commentary and background information on the audio recordings and expeditions. Included are photographs documenting Balinese gamelan music and dance events and memorabilia, such as a copy of Margaret Fahnestock Lewis' photo album of the second expedition. The Fahnestock expedition film documents the progress of the 1940 journey; it includes scenes of the crew's activities and some scant documentation of dancing. The Kincheloe film, made as a "home movie," includes short scenes of Balinese gamelan music and dance events (also documented in the still photographs) and Maduran bull races.

Series II: Oral history, acquisition ceremony, and products

The manuscript material in Series II contains information on the field expeditions not included with the donor's original gift, as well as on ensuing research, events, and products that resulted from acquiring the collection. It includes transcripts from the recorded oral history interviews with the donor; administrative materials related to the 1988 ceremony that marked the acquisition of the collection by the Library of Congress; publications, press coverage, and publicity on the collection and acquisition ceremony; and written materials from a 1993 lecture held at the Library of Congress on the collection. A 1965 typewritten obituary for Sheridan Fahnestock and magazine articles in which the Fahnestocks and crew members discuss the expeditions also form part of the manuscript materials.

The first oral history interview with Margaret Fahnestock Lewis, conducted in the Library's National Programs Office on January 20, 1988, provides background information on the five reels of silent film contained in Series I (recorded while watching the footage). The second oral history interview, recorded in the Library of Congress Whittall Pavilion on January 21, 1988, includes anecdotes and reminiscences about the voyages. Other audio recordings include a documentation of the 1988 acquisition ceremony; a copy of "Sounds from the LC Collection," a 1988 radio program describing the collection; a narrative recorded by Howard Kincheloe in 1993 in which he describes the scenes on his Indonesian trip film; and "Music for the Gods," a 1994 compact disc release on the Ryko label featuring selections from the original Indonesian recordings.

The photographs in this series relate to the events described above. One set documents the donor's oral history interview. Another set provides a visual record of the acquisition ceremony held at the Library of Congress on March 14, 1988, and includes images of some of the crew members, drawings, publications, and artifacts associated with the expeditions. A third set of photographs documents water damage that occurred to the discs in 1988 as a result of a burst pipe and the measures taken to dry them.

The video recordings in this series relate to the 1988 acquisition ceremony. One videotape contains excerpts from the Fahnestock expedition film; it was shown during the ceremony. The other videotape is a copy of the CNN Newswatch report, filmed at the ceremony, that describes the collection and the event.


The history of the expeditions begins with the story of their leaders, brothers Bruce and Sheridan Fahnestock. They were born several years apart in the early 1910s in Washington, DC, to Adam Bruce Fahnestock, a successful inventor and consulting engineer, and Mary Sheridan Fahnestock, an avid collector and writer. As the boys grew up in Manhassat, New York, their youth was spent sailing and boat racing on the Long Island Sound. A small inheritance from cousin John Hubbard in the early 1930s allowed them to fulfill a dream: to do the things they loved best--sailing and writing--and buy themselves a future through exploring and collecting.

The brothers set out to make their dream a reality. After a year spent acquiring a suitable boat, the 65-foot schooner, Director, and studying at the American Museum of Natural History, the Fahnestocks sailed from New York City to the coast of China. Between 1934 and 1937, they uncovered a set of ancient petroglyphs carved into the fragments of what was once a 50-foot-high monolith buried deep in the forest near the village of Ndakunimba, Vanua Levu Island, Fiji. Today these fragments are known as the Ndakunimba Stones. Their origin remains a mystery. While the petroglyphs were at first thought to have been an early notational system, they have yet to be deciphered. Bruce and Sheridan described their experiences on this first expedition in a book, Stars to Windward (1938); their recently widowed mother, Mary Sheridan Fahnestock, accompanied them on the trip and gave her account in I Ran Away to Sea at Fifty (1939).

The second expedition (the first in which sound recordings were made) began in February 1940 when the Fahnestock brothers and a 17-member crew left New York Harbor in their three-masted, 137-foot schooner Director II, a gift from John Hubbard's widow, Helen Fahnestock Hubbard. During a nine-month period, they traveled to American Samoa, Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Australia, recording music and collecting Pacific bird specimens for the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The expedition ended abruptly on October 18 when the ship struck a shoal and sank near Gladstone, Australia. Nearly everything on board was lost, and the expedition was forced to return to the United States eight months sooner than planned. The damages totaled more than one hundred thousand dollars.

In February 1941, the Fahnestock brothers traveled to the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), chartered a sailboat, and during the next ten months, recorded the music of Bali, Java, Madura, and also the Kangean Islands. Years later, it was revealed that this trip was also an intelligence assignment undertaken at the request of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. At an earlier White House meeting, the President had asked them to evaluate Dutch military preparations on Java, assess the usefulness of small watercraft for Pacific Islands combat, and ensure that U.S. defense funds allocated to Southeast Asia were being properly spent.

In January 1942, the Fahnestock brothers gave a lecture to a capacity audience at Town Hall in New York City. Excerpts from their field collection were played in public for the first time. Columbia Records expressed an interest in issuing the recordings, but several weeks after the Town Hall lecture, Bruce, Sheridan, and several members of the Director II crew were on their way to New Guinea. There they served in the U.S. Army's Small Ships Section, a picturesque assemblage of sailboats, fishing trawlers, dories, and freighters run by American and Australian troops. This colorful operation, which inspired the 1960s television comedy series, The Wackiest Ship in the Army, was responsible for ferrying soldiers and supplies into battle. On October 18, 1942, two years to the day after the Director II disaster, Bruce Fahnestock was killed in New Guinea when the fishing trawler on which he traveled was mistakenly attacked by an American fighter plane.

In 1945, Sheridan Fahnestock was named Chief of Overseas Operations, Transport Command, for the invasion of the Philippines and the assault on Japan. After his return to private life, he devoted himself to raising a family and to publishing newspapers in Southern Maryland. He died in 1965, without again attempting to release his recordings.




Box 1
Disc sleeves. Approximately 111 16" paper disc sleeves with handwritten notes and numbers. Arranged in AFS number order, AFS 25,808-25,955. (Sleeves containing no information have been discarded.)
Folders 1-4
Administrative materials regarding the collection:
1) the collection register [this document];
2) preliminary inventories, reference aids, logs, and glossary researched and assembled by James McKee;
3) print-outs of nine computer diskette directories (also containing documents for Series II materials);
4) correspondence (1986-1991) principally about the donation of the collection and its initial processing, primarily between the Library and Margaret Fahnestock Lewis, and correspondence (1991-1994) between AFC staff and Howard Kincheloe concerning the donation and handling of his additions to the collection. Correspondence is arranged chronologically.
Folders 5-6
Correspondence. One original, one copy, arranged chronologically (1939-1950, bulk 1940-41). Correspondence chiefly documents the activities of the second expedition, including first-hand accounts of the shipwreck. Most are communications between expedition members and administrators at the American Museum of Natural History. Also included is correspondence between expedition members and others such as the Columbia Recording Corporation concerning the third expedition's activities and recordings
Folders 7-8
Documentation of sound recordings and recording notes. One original, one copy, arranged in loose chronological order. Typewritten and handwritten documentation includes notes on the contents of certain discs, such as titles, instrumentation, and lyrics. Also included are lecture notes for a music presentation at the Manhattan School of Music in New York City (1942).
Folders 9-11
Travel documentation. Two copies of the Log Book for the Director II, January-October, 1940 (123 pages). Log book continues with the Director's Proxy, November 1953-May 1957 (1 page), and Director III, June 1957-May 1967 (14 pages). One folder (2 copies) consisting of the shipping articles for the second expedition, signed June 4, 1940, and a storage receipt.
Folder 12
Technical information on recording equipment. Original booklets and articles on operating instructions and technical information for the Presto recording equipment.
Folder 13
NBC broadcast transcripts. Partial and edited transcripts of the NBC Blue Network radio broadcast of August 19, 1940 from Suva, Fiji, that featured the Fahnestock South Sea Expedition. Museum of Broadcasting disc #13589; RWA 1365A2. (See "Audio recordings.")
Folders 14-15
Newspaper and magazine commentary. Two copies of press coverage and magazine articles about the Fahnestock South Sea Expeditions and the Fahnestock family. Arranged chronologically (1939-1974; bulk 1940-41).
Box 4 Computer diskettes. Nine 5 1/4" regular density diskettes housed in three computer storage boxes. Written in Wordperfect 5.1; formatted in MS-DOS. A few files are written in a Macintosh desktop publishing program. The diskettes contain administrative files concerning the collection, including correspondence, memorandum, inventories, and drafts of registers. They also include files relating to Series II activities, programs, and products. Preservation copies made on 3 1/2" high density diskettes.


Expedition recordings: 148 16" and 10" acetate discs of original field recordings. Arranged chronologically. AFS 25,808-25,955. Preserved on 13 10" DT mono reels, RWB 6281-A1 to 6290-B10 and RWB 6321-A1 to 6323-A4. Listening copies are available in the Folklife Reading Room. A preliminary, detailed disc-by-disc inventory is included in "James McKee's Research Materials," folder 2.

NBC Blue Network broadcast: One 10 1/2" reel recording of live broadcast featuring the Fahnestock South Sea Expedition, Suva, Fiji, August 19, 1940. Part of the NBC Radio Collection in the Recorded Sound Division. RWA 1365A2. Listening copy is available in the Folklife Reading Room. See folder 13 for transcripts.


Location Contents
Folder 16 Photoprints. Three black and white photoprints (two 5 x 7, one 8 x 10) from the second Fahnestock expedition, 1940. One public relations photograph of Mary Sheridan Fahnestock, Coleman Glover (radio technician) and Manchu spaniel "Siege" taken aboard Director II in New York harbor for release when the broadcast took place. Two different close-ups showing Director II as she sinks off the coast of Australia. Photographers are unknown.
Folder 17 Archival documentation of photo album. Two copies of photo album from the second Fahnestock expedition, 55 pages. Includes photographs, newspaper clippings, and letters. Primarily documents expedition members; some photographs include captions. (See detailed inventory in "James McKee's research materials," folder 2.) Photographer is unknown.
Folder 18 Archival documentation of newspaper and magazine commentary. Five sheets of black and white 35 mm negatives (131 images, many multiples) recording the collection's newspaper clippings, magazine articles, and accompanying photographs (see folders 14-15). Photographed by Gerald Parsons, 1988.
Folder 19 Archival documentation of drawings. One sheet of black and white 35 mm negatives (14 images), 6 color slides (two of each drawing), and one black and white 8 x 10 photoprint copying three of expedition artist Ed Dair's drawings (collection of Margaret Fahnestock Lewis). Photographed by Gerald Parsons, 1988.
Folder 20 Archival documentation of expedition logo. One sheet of black and white 35 mm negatives (19 images) and one positive black and white 8 x 10 print copying part of a disc sleeve featuring identification notes and expedition logo. Photographed by Gerald Parsons, 1988.
Box 10 Photoprints. 46 black and white 3 1/2 x 5 photoprints primarily of gamelan musicians and dancers, Bali, 1941. Photographed by Howard Kincheloe. Eight copy negatives of selected shots. Original negatives in folder 21
Folder 21 Negatives. Four sheets of black and white 35 mm negatives (79 images) taken by Howard Kincheloe, 1941, in Bali and Java. Original negatives of photoprints listed above.


Fahnestock expedition film: Five reels of 16mm, silent, color, and black-and-white film documenting parts of the second field expedition (1940). AFC 1986/033:F1-F5. The film was assembled by crew member Philip Farley from original footage filmed by Farley and Margaret Fahnestock Lewis. Running time is approximately 75 minutes. Transferred for preservation purposes to two silent, color, and black and white 3/4" videocassettes with a time code visible at the bottom of the screen (a second copy exists without the time code). Viewing copy is available in the Folklife Reading Room. See film log in "James McKee's research material" (folder 2). In addition, the donor has provided detailed commentary on the footage in an oral history interview recorded at the Library of Congress on January 21, 1988 (see Series II, Audio recordings, AFS 26,830-26,837).

Kincheloe film: Two reels of 8 mm, silent, color film ("home movies") documenting Shannon and Howard Kincheloe's trip to Indonesia (1941). AFC 1986/033:F6-F7. Filmed by Howard Kincheloe. Running time is approximately 45 minutes. Included are scenes of Hawaii, New Zealand, Java, Madura, and Bali. Pertinent to the collection are scenes of gamelan music and dance filmed in Bali, presumably while the Fahnestocks were recording the music, and bull races in Madura. Transferred for preservation purposes to 1/2" silent, color VHS videocassette. Viewing copy is available in the Folklife Reading Room. See description of scenes in "James McKee's research material" (folder 2). See accompanying photoprints listed above.



Folders 22-24
Administrative materials:
1) correspondence (1988-1994) between LC and Folklife staff and others concerning the acquisition ceremony and the collection;
2) and 3) James McKee's research notes and related material pertaining to the initial research and processing of the collection.
Box 9
Index cards also containing McKee's research housed in 3 X 5 cardbox with reference audiocassettes
Folder 25
Oral history interviews. Transcripts, questions, and notes from the interviews with donor Margaret Fahnestock Lewis, January 20-21, 1988. Conducted by Gerald Parsons and James McKee, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress. See audio recordings AFS 26,830-26,837.
Folders 26-28
Acquisition ceremony, March 14, 1988, Whittall Pavilion, Library of Congress:
1) acquisition event materials such as script, agenda, invitation, room layout, and copies of exhibit labels;
2) Gerald Parsons' file containing administrative paperwork concerning the acquisiont event under subjects such as communications, scripts, arrangements, audio/visual, and exhibits;
3) original invitation in the form of a 16" disc sleeve (oversize folder located in the map drawer). See audio recording AFC 1986/033:SR1.
Folder 29
Event/collection press coverage and publicity. Written materials (such as press releases and articles) generated by the Library and Center about the collection and acquisition ceremony, and outside news coverage, such as newspaper clippings and transcripts from CNN television reports. (See video recording AFC 1986/033:V2 for CNN report.)
Folder 30
Publications about the collection. Original copies of the Library of Congress Information Bulletin, the Folklife Center News, and the descriptive leaflet in the shape of a disc sleeve (used as the invitation to the ceremony)
Folder 31
Lecture program. Publicity and program information concerning James McKee's presentation, "The Fahnestock Collection of South Seas Music and Folklore," May 14, 1993, Library of Congress.
Folder 32 Writings about/by expedition members. Published articles and manuscripts about the expeditions and the collectors (1940-1982). Arranged chronologically.
Folder 33
Compact disc release publicity. Press release and publicity photographs concerning the release of "Music for the Gods" compact disk by Rykodisc, October 18, 1994. See audio recording AFC 1986/033:SR6.


Oral history interviews: Eight 7" DT mono reels. AFS 26,830-26,837. Interviews with Margaret Fahnestock Lewis conducted by Gerald Parsons and James McKee, Library of Congress, January 20-21, 1988. Listening copies are available in the Folklife Reading Room. See folder 25 for written transcripts and notes.

Acquisition ceremony: One 10" DT mono reel. AFC 1986/033:SR1. Audio recording of the acquisition ceremony held March 14, 1988, Whittall Pavilion, Library of Congress. Listening copy is available in the Folklife Reading Room. See folders 26-27.

"Sounds from the LC Collection": One audiocassette copy of a 15-minute radio program recorded in April 1988 by James McKee on the Fahnestock collection. AFC 1986/033:SR2. Part of the "Sounds from the LC Collection" series that was broadcast on WETA during intermissions of live concerts from Coolidge Auditorium.

"Fahnestock radio demo": Two audiocassettes of excerpts from expedition audio recordings used by McKee to make the "Sounds from the LC Collections" program. AFC 1986/033:SR3-4.

Narration of Kincheloe film: One audiocassette (AFC 1986/033:SR5) of Kincheloe's description of the scenes in his 1941 film (AFC 1986/033:F6-F7). Synchronized to the VHS copy. Recorded and accessioned in 1993.

Compact disc recording: "Music for the Gods--The Fahnestock South Sea Expedition: Indonesia," AFC 1986/033:SR6. Released October 1994 by Rykodisc and the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress. Part of the Endangered Music Project. Produced by Mickey Hart and Alan Jabbour. Includes a 22-page booklet with background information and liner notes.


Location Contents
Folder 34 Interview session photographs. Two sheets of black and white 35 mm negatives (42 images) and three black and white 8 x 10 photoprints, primarily taken of Margaret Fahnestock Lewis during interview sessions, January 1988. Photographed by Carl Fleischhauer. See folder 25 and
AFS 26,830-26,837.
Folder 35 Acquisition ceremony photographs. Two black and white 35 mm contact sheets (42 images) and two black and white 8 x 10 photoprints documenting speakers and guests at the ceremony held March 1988. Photographed by Library staff; negatives housed in Public Affairs Division. See folders 26-27 and audio recording AFC 1986/033:SR1.
Folder 36 Disc water damage photographs. One sheet of black and white 35 mm negatives (26 images) documenting water damage to discs and sleeves that occurred at the Library in 1988 due to a burst pipe and subsequent drying arrangements. Photographed by Center staff. (See 3/21/88 memo in "Administrative materials--correspondence," folder 22.)


Expedition film excerpts: One 3/4" silent, color videocassette, AFC 1986/033:V1. Excerpts from Fahnestock expedition film shown during the acquisition ceremony, March 1988. See "Acquisition ceremony," folder 26, for identification of excerpts.

CNN Newswatch: One 3/4" color videocassette copy, AFC 1986/033:V2. Television news report on Cable News Network, aired March 14-15, 1988. Approximately 2 1/2 minutes. Reported by David French. Filmed at the acquisition ceremony, it includes interviews with Margaret Fahnestock Lewis and Alan Jabbour. Viewing copy is available in the Folklife Reading Room. See "Event/collection press coverage and publicity," folder 29, for transcript of the broadcast.


Burman-Hall, Linda. "The Fahnestock South Sea Collection: New Light on Old Madurese Music." The Madura Reader. The Netherlands: Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, University of Leiden. (Forthcoming)

Fahnestock, Bruce, and Sheridan Fahnestock. Stars to Windward. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1938.

Fahnestock, Mary Sheridan. I Ran Away to Sea at Fifty. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1939.

McKee, James. "South Sea Collection Comes to Folk Archive." Folklife Center News X, no. 2 (Spring 1988): 4-6.

"South Sea Collection Presented to Library, Lay in Attic for 45 Years." Library of Congress Information Bulletin 47, no. 11 (March 14, 1988): 97-98.



February 1          Director II leaves New York
February 11         San Salvador (Watling Island), Bahama Islands
February 13         Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
February 26         Colon, Panama
March 9             Perlas Archipelago
April 3-10          Sailed from Panama to Galapagos
April 10-14         Galapagos Islands
April 15-May 8      Sailed from Galapagos Islands to Marquesas Islands
May 9               Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands
May 13              Sailed from Hiva Oa to Nuka Hiva, Marquesas Islands
May 14              Nuka Hiva, Marquesas Islands
May 15-21           Sailed from Marquesas Islands to Tahiti
May 21-June 18      Papeete, Tahiti
June 18-27          Sailed from Tahiti to Samoa
June 27-July 17     Pago Pago, Samoa
July 17-23          Sailed from Samoa to Fiji
July 23-26          Suva, Fiji
July 26-28          Sailed from Suva to Ndakunimba, Fiji
July 28-31          Ndakunimba, Fiji
July 31-August 2    Somosomo, Taveuni Island, Fiji
August 2-3          Sailed from Somosomo to Suva
August 3-14         Suva, Fiji
August 15-23        Sailed from Suva to Noumea, New Caledonia
August 23-Sept. 2   Noumea, New Caledonia
Sept. 2-4           Sailed from Noumea to Tao Bay, New Caledonia
Sept. 4-25          Tao Bay, New Caledonia
Sept. 25-27         Sailed from Tao Bay to Noumea
Sept. 27-30         Noumea, New Caledonia
Sept. 30-Oct. 6     Sailed from Noumea towards Australia
October 7           Moreton Bay, Brisbane, Australia
October 7-15        Vacationed in Brisbane
October 16-17       Sailed from Brisbane to Gladstone, Australia
October 18          Director II runs aground in Curtis Channel, 13 miles off Gladstone



Available with the printed version of this guide. Request by email to [email protected]



This appendix lists the audio recordings, photographs, and film footage from the Fahnestock South Sea Collection (Series I) that include dance content. Dance in Indonesia and Polynesia is often an integral part of a music event. However, since the Fahnestocks were primarily interested in documenting music, they did not always note when music events included dance. In addition, the film and still photographs included in the collection were ancillary; hence, dance documentation is short and unannotated. Nonetheless, it provides what may be rare glimpses of movement vocabulary, material culture, and other dance event characteristics for the dances documented.

The information about the audio recordings is based on a preliminary inventory prepared by James McKee. Included below are entries that specifically mention dance as part of the documented music event, based on notes recorded by the Fahnestocks and McKee's research. Where appropriate, references are made to the corresponding recording on "Music for the Gods," the compact disc released in 1994 on the Rykodisc label. The CD liner notes provide additional information.

The Fahnestock expedition film and the Howard Kincheloe film include some brief dance scenes. The dance still photographs taken by Kincheloe seem to correlate with his film footage. In addition, a correlation probably exists between the films, the still photographs, and the audio recordings, but more research is needed to verify these connections. Due to these circumstances, this appendix may not include all the dance-related audio recordings in the collection.

See the glossary in "McKee's research materials" (folder 2) for explanations of most dance and music terms; see McKee's preliminary "audio recordings inventory" (folder 2) for more detailed comments and information on the recordings.


FHN = information derived from the collection's original documentation, such as the disc sleeves, recording notes, etc.
McK = information derived from James McKee's research on the recordings.

AFS No.: 25,808 A
FHN: Marquesan Group No. 1, "To Huite Ture ite Aia"
McK: Side A: Rari, performed by a female soloist and male chorus.
Location: Marquesas Date: May 1940

AFS No.: 25,809 A-B
McK: Side A: 1) Brief chant (labeled "Pig dance"; 2) Tapea or Rari: female soloist, male chorus; 3) Tapea or Rari: female soloist, male chorus.
Side B: 1) Rari: "Ep iti a huru maile," female soloist, male unison chorus.
Location: Marquesas Date: May 1940

AFS No.: 25,810 A-B.
FHN: Marquesan Group No. 5--Pohituau Rari; No. 6--Etahi Miriokoehu (Rari).
McK: Side A: Rari, "Pohituau Rari," female soloist, male chorus.
Side B: Rari, "Etahi Miriokoehu Rari," female soloist, male chorus.
Location: Marquesas Date: May 1940

AFS No.: 25,812 A.
FHN: Marquesan Group No. 10, Tapea, Rari.
McK: Side A: 1) Tapea or Rari, female soloist with male chorus.
Location: Marquesas Date: May 1940

AFS No.: 25,816 A
FHN: #I (Inside) Marquesan Rari=Prophecy; II-III-IV-Pupuana ("Tahitian" crossed out); Paumotou?
McK: Side A: 1) Pupuana; 2) Pupuana; 3) Pupuana; 4) Rari performed by mixed chorus.
Location: Marquesas Date: May 19, 1940

AFS No.: 25,826 A
FHN: Outside in, Tahiti #6. #9 Ute-Paumotuan. #10 in four parts ute with bamboo pipe (tube).
#11 Ute -------> dance
McK: Side A: 1) Ute or song with guitar accompaniment; male soloist and chorus, steady rhythmic accompaniment by either "bamboo pipes" or stamping tubes; 2) sounds like either a repeat or
a dub or No. 1; 3) either a repeat or a dub of No. 1; 4) song with 2-part female singing, accompanied by guitar or uke and handclapping; 5) same ensemble as No. 4; 6) similar to No. 5 and 6, but with accompaniment by male chorus.
Location: Society Islands Date: May-June 1940

AFS No.: 25,829 B
FHN: Side B: Two Sasa dances; A) Sasa with no special name. B) Simon dance (usual).
McK: Side B: 1) Sasa with rhythm produced by small drum or idiophone; 2) Sasa.
Performed by the Fita Fita Guard Chorus.
Location: Pago Pago, Samoa Date: June-July 1940

AFS No.: 25,830 A
FHN: A Siva siva, "Tutuila ma Manua," the Fita Fita Guard Chorus.
McK: Side A: "Tutuila ma Manua," accompanied by guitar and occasional handclaps.
Location: Pago Pago, Samoa Date: June-July 1940

AFS No.: 25,833 A-B
FHN: S6B, Pago Pago -- Sasa dance, directed by Tuia. S7A Pago Pago, Samoa, Native Teachers of American Samoa. A Siva siva dance "Vi'i o Faia'oga Samoa" Composed by Sete, directed by Suiava.
McK: Side A: 1) Sasa; 2) sasa. (recording quality poor).
Side B: Siva siva "Vi'i o Faia'oga Samoa," sung by chorus with stamping feet, handclaps.
Location: Pago Pago, Samoa Date: June-July 1940

AFS No.: 25,834 A
FHN: S7B, Siva siva, same as record #S-7A. S8A, English song and dance "The Mosquito Song."
McK: Side A: A siva siva dance, "Vi'i o Faia'oga Samoa"; this is a repeat, but not a dub, of 25,833 B.
Side B: Choral singing in the manner of Side A. Both pieces are performed by the Native Teachers of American Samoa.
Location: Pago Pago, Samoa Date: June-July 1940

AFS No.: 25,841 A
FHN: Taralala: music to accompany Fijian dance.
McK: Taralala performed by male soloist, chorus and lali.
Location: Ndakunimba, Vanua Levu, Fiji Date: July 29-31, 1940

AFS No.: 25,842 A
McK: Side A: 7) Announcement by George Folster and performance of Meke ni Vatu Vola with voices and lali.
Location: Ndakunimba, Vanua Levu, Fiji Date: July 29-31, 1940

AFS No.: 25,843 A
FHN: #13 -- Meke ni Vatu Vola Vola, Fiji.
McK: Side A: 1) Meke ni Vatu Vola (Ndakunimba)
Location: Ndakunimba, Vanua Levu, Fiji Date: July 29-31, 1940

AFS No.: 25,845 A-B
FHN: NC 1A & B. Noumea, New Caledonia. Test and dance clapping. 1A: Ose he lesu; 1B: Tahnikeu As. NC 2A, 2B, Dance.
McK: Side A: 1) Short test; 2) "Ose he lesu"; 3) "Tahnikeu As."
Side B: 1) "Huliwa uyipici"; 2) "Ciricon"
Location: Noumea, New Caledonia Date: August 27, 1940

AFS Number: 25,846 A, 25,846 B.
Fahnestock Disc Number: NC 3, NC 4.
Format: One 16" disc, 78 rpm, recorded on both sides.
FHN: No. 3a-3b; 3b--Bova: a pilou pilou-music for dancing w/dance soloist. 3a--Chopei waheotigat. 4A--Nyima Keliweziso Funeral Song (Missionary), 4B (inside of disc) Simona Lona, a song of Tabby and Jouha.
McK: Side A: 1) Announcement, "music for a dance"; 2) "Bova" (Pilou-Pilou); 3) "Chopei wahcotigat."
Side B: 1) Brief announcement; 2) "Simona Lona"; 3) "Nyima Keliweziso."
Location: Noumea, New Caledonia Date: August 27, 1940

AFS No.: 25,848 A-B
FHN: C2-A 1) Tyada, 2) Ayoha, as sung in Yengen dialect; both are feast dances -- the Tyada uses bark clappers and bamboo poles. Men's chorus. C2-B: Wanmido -- dance music sung by men from village of Ouaieme, using bark clappers and bamboo poles. Mixed chorus.
McK: Side A: 1) Tyada dance sung in Yengen (a coastal village northwest of Tao) dialect, accompanied by bark clappers and bamboo stamping tubes (see no. 33). 2) Ayoha, also sung in the Yengen dialect. Both pieces are feast dances, sung by men and women; the tyada uses a men's chorus.
Side B: Wanmido dance music sung by men from the village of Ouaieme (also on the northeastern coast, about 10 km southeast of Tao). Mixed chorus, accompanied by bark clappers and bamboo stamping tubes.
Location: Tao, New Caledonia Date: September 12, 1940

AFS No.: 25,851 A-B
McK: 2A: Kecak. 2B: Kecak.
Location: Bedulu, Gianyar District, South Bali Date: April 22, 1941

AFS No.: 25,868 A-B See also CD cut #5
McK: Side A: Gender wajang, title: "Pemoengkah"
Side B: Gender Wajang, title: "Abimenijoe"
Location: Ubud, Bali Date: 1941

AFS No.: 25,872 A-B
McK: Side A: 1) music by gender wayang; 2) same
Side B: 1) music by gender wayang; 2) same
McK: Both sides are music to accompany wayang wong, the masked-dance drama derived from the famous wayang kulit, or shadow-puppet theatre. The music is provided by the gamelan batel, an ensemble consisting of the percussion instruments used in the gamelan gambuh, plus the gender wayang ensemble, consisting of a quartet of metallophones.
Location: Bali Date: 1941

AFS No.: 25,874 A
McK: Side A: 1) a brief excerpt of the kecak; 2) gamelan semar pegulingan
Location: Unknown Date: 1941

AFS No.: 25,878 A-B
McK: Side A: 1) drumming; 2) gender wayang (I think)
Side B: 1) sounds like gender wayang; 2) gong gede; 3) gong gede
Location: Unknown Date: 1941.

AFS No.: 25,879 A-B See also CD cut #10
McK: Side A: Kecak
Side B: Kecak
Location: Unknown Date: 1941

AFS No.: 25,881
McK: Side A: 1) sounds like gender wayang; 2) sounds like gong kebyar
Location: Bali Date: 1941

AFS No.: 25,882 A-B
FHN: Side III: Kecak, Side IIIB: Kecak.
McK: Side A: Kecak
Side B: Kecak
Location: Bali Date: 1941

AFS No.: 25,895 A
McK:Side A: Pangka: 1) "Laghoe Pangka'"; 2) "Laghoe bhoettong"; 3) "Laghoe totteng."
Location: Ardjasa, W. Kangean Island Date: June 5, 1941

AFS No.: 25,896 A-B
McK: Side A: Gamelan Pentja: used for sword-dances. Recorded on two sides.
Location: Ardjasa, W. Kangean Island Date: June 5, 1941

AFS No.: 25,921 A-B
McK: Side A: Two short pieces by saronen ensemble: 1) in slendro; 2) in pelog.
Side B: One short piece by saronen ensemble in slendro, possibly a test.
Location: Pamekasan, SE Madura Date: June 3, 1941

AFS No.: 25,924 A-B
McK: Side A: Sandoer, title: "Oreng kossong."
Side B: Sandoer, title: "Songkar."
Location: Pamekasan, SE Madura Date: June 3, 1941

AFS Number: 25,928 A-B See also CD cut #7
McK: Side A: Sandoer (cf. no. 113), "Laghoe rennang."
Side B: Sandoer "Laghoe dindang."
Location: Waroe, Madura Date: June 3, 1941


By Howard Kincheloe:
(seem to correlate to the film footage--see below)

Legong. Bali, 1941
(see "Dance 2" listed under film)
AFC 1986/033:PP15-31-p1,n1
AFC 1986/033:PP15-32-p1,n1
AFC 1986/033:PP15-33-p1
AFC 1986/033:PP15-34-p1,n1
AFC 1986/033:PP15-35-p1,n1
AFC 1986/033:PP15-36-p1

Legong Kraton. Bali, 1941
(see "Dance 3" listed under film)
AFC 1986/033:PP14-7-p1
AFC 1986/033:PP14-8-p1
AFC 1986/033:PP14-11-p1
AFC 1986/033:PP14-12-p1
AFC 1986/033:PP14-9
AFC 1986/033:PP14-13


Fahnestock Expedition (1940): AFC 1986/033:F1-F5
(NOTE: video seems speeded up due to transfer procedures)

Timecode Location Duration Description

1:52:00 Tahiti 1:25 minutes Women solo, in pairs, unidentified dancing in grass skirts
1:58:36 Samoa 13 seconds Unidentified dance: group with soloists in front
2:01:18 Samoa 1:57 minutes Unidentified solo male dance (comedian?) and girls performing sasa
6:02:08 New Caledonia 22 seconds Unidentified women group dancing on board Director II

Kincheloe: AFC 1986/033:F6-F7
(NOTE: video seems speeded up due to transfer procedures)

3 dance scenes (seem to correlate with photoprints listed). Bali, 1941:

Dance 1: Oleg tamulilangan (bumblebee dance) OR djoged or gandrong (social dance)
52 seconds (boy and girl dancing in traditional dress; girl with fan)

Dance 2: Legong (pure dance without story)
2:24 minutes (two girls dancing simultaneously)

Dance 3: Legong kraton (dance drama: Lasem)
2:38 minutes (three girls; two dance simultaneously)


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